Unit 3 O&ES: The Gold Rushes and Their Impacts


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Unit 3
Outdoor & Environmental Studies
Non Indigenous Relationships
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Unit 3 O&ES: The Gold Rushes and Their Impacts

  1. 1. Outdoor and Environmental StudiesPresentation Revision and Review<br />VCE<br />Unit 3 and 4<br />Study Design 2006-2011<br />Exam Preparation<br />30 September 2010<br />1<br />John Pahlow<br />
  2. 2. Acknowledgements<br />This Presentation draws on a number of sources<br />VCAA website and documentation<br />VOEA documentation, website and resources<br />Andrew Mannion materials<br />Gough et al text<br />Amongst others<br />30 September 2010<br />2<br />John Pahlow<br />
  3. 3. These ARE COVERED IN GENERAL IN PRECEDING PRESENTATIONS <br />There are 4 main keys to unlock your capacity in this area they are<br />Key Knowledge<br />Key Skills<br />Key Concepts<br />Key Terms<br />30 September 2010<br />3<br />John Pahlow<br />
  4. 4. This presentation is part of a sequence to provide support for examination preparation.<br />They should not be seen as a catch all – all encompassing complete sure fire way of revising, but aim to assist. <br />Presentation:Non Indigenous Relationships - Australian Gold RushesWhat was their impact?<br />30 September 2010<br />4<br />John Pahlow<br />
  5. 5. Key Knowledge<br /><ul><li>interactions, perceptions and relationships with the Australian environment as expressed by those from the Gold rush period to Federation; </li></ul>30 September 2010<br />5<br />John Pahlow<br />
  6. 6. Key CONCEPTS~ building a picturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Australian_history<br />1851: Victoria separates from New South Wales. 1851: The Victorian gold rush starts when gold is found at Summerhill Creek and Ballarat. 1851: Forest Creek Monster Meeting of miners at Chewton near Castlemaine1853: Bendigo Petition and Red Ribbon Rebellion at Bendigo1854: The Eureka Stockade1855: The transportation of convicts to Norfolk Island ceases. 1856: Van Diemen's Land name changed to Tasmania. 1857: Victorian Committee reported that a 'federal union' would be in the interests of all the growing colonies. However, there was not enough interest in or enthusiasm for taking positive steps towards bringing the colonies together. 1858: Sydney and Melbourne linked by electric telegraph. 1859: SS Admella wrecked off south-east coast of South Australia with the loss of 89 lives. 1859: Australian rules football codified, Melbourne Football Club founded 1859: Queensland separates from New South Wales with its western border at 141° E. 1860: John McDouall Stuart reaches the centre of the continent. South Australian border changed from 132° E to 129° E. 1861: The ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition occurs. 1862: Stuart reaches Port Darwin, founding a settlement there. Queensland's western border is moved to 139° E. 1863: South Australia takes control of the Northern Territory which was part of the colony of New South Wales. 1867: Gold is discovered at Gympie, Queensland. 1868: The transportation of convicts to Western Australia ceases. 1869: Children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent are removed from their families by Australian and State government agencies.<br />30 September 2010<br />6<br />John Pahlow<br />
  7. 7. Key CONCEPTS~ building a picturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Australian_history<br />1872: Overland Telegraph Line linking Darwin and Adelaide opens. 1873: Uluru is first sighted by Europeans, and named Ayers Rock. 1875: SS Gothenburg strikes Old Reef off North Queensland and sinks with the loss of approximately 102 lives. 1875: Adelaide Steamship Company is formed. 1878: First horse-drawn trams in Australia commenced operations in Adelaide. 1879: The first congress of trade unions is held. 1880: The bushrangerNed Kelly is hanged. 1880: Parliamentarians in Victoria become the first in Australia to be paid for their work. 1882: First water-borne sewerage service in Australia commenced operations in Adelaide. 1883: The opening of the Sydney-Melbourne railway 1883: Silver is discovered at Broken Hill1887: An Australian cricket team is established, defeating England in the first Ashes series. First direct Inter-colonial passenger trains begin running between Adelaide and Melbourne. 1889: The completion of the railway network between Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. 1889: Sir Henry Parkes delivers the Tenterfield Oration.<br />30 September 2010<br />7<br />John Pahlow<br />
  8. 8. Key CONCEPTS~ building a picturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Australian_history<br />1890: The Australian Federation Conference calls a constitutional convention. 1891: A National Australasian Convention meets, agrees on adopting the name "the Commonwealth of Australia" and drafting a constitution. 1891: The first attempt at a federal constitution is drafted. 1891: The Convention adopts the constitution, although it has no legal status 1891: A severe depression hits Australia 1892: Gold is discovered at Coolgardie, Western Australia. 1893: The Corowa Conference (the "people's convention") calls on the colonial parliaments to pass enabling acts, allowing the election of delegates to a new constitutional convention aimed at drafting a proposal and putting it to a referendum in each colony. 1894: South Australia becomes the first Australian colony, and the second place in the world, to grant women's suffrage. 1895: The premiers, except for those of Queensland and Western Australia, agree to implement the Corowa proposals. 1895: Waltzing Matilda is first sung in public, in Winton, Queensland 1895: Banjo Paterson publishes The Man from Snowy River1896: The Bathurst Conference (the second "people's convention") meets to discuss the 1891 draft constitution 1897: In two sessions, the Second National Australasian Convention meets (with representatives from all colonies except Queensland present). They agree to adopt a constitution based on the 1891 draft, and then revise and amend it later that year. 1898: The Convention agrees on a final draft to be put to the people. 1898: After much public debate, the Victorian, South Australian and Tasmanian referendums are successful; the New South Wales referendum narrowly fails. Later New South Wales votes "yes" in a second referendum, and Queensland and Western Australia also vote to join. 1899: The decision is made to site the national capital in New South Wales, but not within 100 miles of Sydney. 1899: The Australian Labor Party holds office for a few days in Queensland, becoming the first trade union party to do so anywhere in the world.<br />30 September 2010<br />8<br />John Pahlow<br />
  9. 9. KEY TERMS: 1~ building a glossary<br /><ul><li> aboriginal
  10. 10. absentee
  11. 11. australia
  12. 12. big smoke
  13. 13. billy
  14. 14. Boomerang
  15. 15. boss cockie
  16. 16. Boundary rider
  17. 17. Bracelets
  18. 18. Brumby
  19. 19. bushranger
  20. 20. setis.library.usyd.edu.au/ozlit/pdf/p00024.pdf
  21. 21. Clobber
  22. 22. Cobber
  23. 23. Coo-ee
  24. 24. Copper
  25. 25. Crib
  26. 26. Crikey
  27. 27. Damper
  28. 28. Digger
  29. 29. Dingo
  30. 30. Dollop
  31. 31. Fair crack of the whip</li></ul>30 September 2010<br />9<br />John Pahlow<br />
  32. 32. KEY TERMS: 2~ building a glossary<br /><ul><li>Fluke
  33. 33. Furphy
  34. 34. Gin
  35. 35. Gunyah
  36. 36. Jackaroo
  37. 37. Jumbuk
  38. 38. Jumper
  39. 39. Lark
  40. 40. Larrikin
  41. 41. Lingo
  42. 42. Matilda
  43. 43. Mob
  44. 44. Nipper
  45. 45. Nosey
  46. 46. Paddywack
  47. 47. Pastoralist
  48. 48. Peter out
  49. 49. Pot
  50. 50. Ringbark
  51. 51. Roll
  52. 52. School
  53. 53. Settler
  54. 54. Shout
  55. 55. Squatter</li></ul>30 September 2010<br />10<br />John Pahlow<br />
  56. 56. KEY TERMS: 3~ building a glossary<br /><ul><li>Swag
  57. 57. Swagman
  58. 58. Swipe
  59. 59. Sydney or the bush
  60. 60. Yacker
  61. 61. Yap
  62. 62. The terms preceding are from “A Dictionary of Australian Words And Terms” setis.library.usyd.edu.au/ozlit/pdf/p00024.pdf</li></ul>They give perhaps a taste of some of the terms and language that have developed from a variety of sources during the period post 1788.<br />30 September 2010<br />11<br />John Pahlow<br />
  63. 63. Essential Questions<br />What change did the gold rushes have to the view of people of Australia?<br />How did this differ from the view of the early settlers & convicts?<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />12<br />
  64. 64. 30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />13<br />
  65. 65. Perceptions of the day1839 NSW<br />“We saw many gentlemen's cots, some<br />of singular beauty, but the land for twenty miles<br />round Sydney is " no great shakes," being a sandy<br />unprofitable soil, not worth the expense of tillage ;<br />consequently persons engaged in agricultural pursuits<br />dive into the regions of Hunter's River, &c. &c.”<br />Leigh 1839<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />14<br />
  66. 66. “I shall not attempt an elaborate description of the town of Melbourne, or its neighbouring villages.... The town is very well laid out; the streets (which are all straight, running parallel with and across one another) are very wide, but are incomplete, not lighted, and many are unpaved. Owing to the want of lamps, few, except when full moon, dare stir out after dark. Some of the shops are very fair; but the goods all partake too largely of the flash order, for the purpose of suiting the tastes of successful diggers,.... The two principal streets are Collins Street and Elizabeth Street.... A great deal of confusion arises from the want of their names being painted on the corners of the streets: to a stranger, this is particularly inconvenient, the more so, as being straight, they appear all alike on first acquaintance.... The country round is very pretty, particularly Richmond and Collingwood; the latter will, I expect, soon become part of Melbourne itself. It is situated at the fashionable--that is, EAST--end of Melbourne, and the buildings of the city and this suburban village are making rapid strides towards each other.”<br />A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852-53 by Mrs Charles (Ellen) Clacy<br />http://freeread.com.au/ebooks/e00017.txt<br />Perceptions of the day.. A taste follow the link to read all....1852-53 Victoria (13 yrs later)<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />15<br />
  67. 67. “Starting is almost always a tedious affair, nor was this particular case an exception. First one had forgotten something--another broke a strap, and a new one had to be procured-.... Most carried on their backs their individual property--blankets, provisions for the road, &c., rolled in a skin, and fastened over the shoulders by leathern straps. This bundle goes by the name of "swag," and is the digger's usual accompaniment--it being too great a luxury to place upon a dray or pack-horse anything not absolutely necessary.... The weight of one of these "swags" is far from light; the provender for the road is itself by no means trifling, though that of course diminishes by the way, and lightens the load a little. Still there are the blankets, fire-arms, drinking and eating apparatus, clothing, chamois-leather for the gold that has yet to be dug, and numberless other cumbersome articles necessary for the digger. In every belt was stuck either a large knife or a tomahawk; two shouldered their guns (by the bye, rather imprudent, as the sight of fire-arms often brings down an attack); some had thick sticks, fit to fell a bullock; altogether, we seemed well prepared to encounter an entire army of bushrangers.......”<br />A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852-53 by Mrs Charles (Ellen) Clacy<br />http://freeread.com.au/ebooks/e00017.txt<br />Perceptions of the day1852-53 Victoria (13 yrs later)<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />16<br />
  68. 68. “WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8.--I awoke rather early this morning, not feeling over-comfortable from having slept in my clothes all night, which it is necessary to do on the journey, so as never to be unprepared for any emergency..... With a hearty laugh, we proceeded on our road, and after passing two or three coffee-tents, we arrived at Gregory's Inn....... Mount Macedon now formed quite a beautiful object on our right: a little below that mountain appeared a smaller one, called the Bald Hill....... This night our beds were composed of the mimosa, which has a perfume like the hawthorn. The softest-looking branches were selected, cut down, and flung upon the ground beneath the tents, and formed a bed...... I must here observe that no DISTINCT road is ever cut out, but the whole country is cut up into innumerable tracks by the carts and drays, and which are awfully bewildering to the new-comer as they run here and there, now crossing a swamp, now a rocky place, here a creek, there a hillock, and yet, in many cases, all leading BONA FIDE to the same place. ........”<br />A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852-53 by Mrs Charles (Ellen) Clacy<br />http://freeread.com.au/ebooks/e00017.txt<br />Perceptions of the day1852-53 Victoria (13 yrs later)<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />17<br />
  69. 69. Melbourne to the Diggings? How long then and now?<br />How might this difference have impacted upon a persons : attitudes, perceptions, interactions and relationships with the land?<br />Departed sometime before 8th September and “SATURDAY, 18.--Fine day; we now approached Bendigo.” So a total of over 10 days for something Google Maps quotes as 154 kilometres (some 95.5 miles) 2hrs 2 minutes by car; 1 day 7 hrs walking.<br />A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852-53 by Mrs Charles (Ellen) Clacy<br />http://freeread.com.au/ebooks/e00017.txt<br />Perceptions of the day1852-53 Victoria (13 yrs later)<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />18<br />
  70. 70. Images<br />Walhalla: look at where Walhalla is; find out when the gold rush occurred, look at the quality of buildings and infrastructure developed... How did people see the land? What relationship?<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />19<br />
  71. 71. Images<br />Walhalla<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />20<br />
  72. 72. Images<br />Walhalla<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />21<br />
  73. 73. Images<br />Walhalla<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />22<br />
  74. 74. Images<br />Walhalla<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />23<br />
  75. 75. Images<br />Walhalla<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />24<br />
  76. 76. Images<br />Steiglitz: Where is it?<br />What is its history? What was its maximum population? Its population today?<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />25<br />
  77. 77. Images<br />Steiglitz<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />26<br />
  78. 78. Images<br />Steiglitz:: an interesting reference for the environmental movements and changing views since the 1970’s......<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />27<br />
  79. 79. Images<br />Steiglitz<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />28<br />
  80. 80. Images<br />Melbourne Museum<br />On the roads to the gold fields: people came from around the globe.<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />29<br />
  81. 81. Images<br />Melbourne Museum<br />Tent City: Melbourne.<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />30<br />
  82. 82. Imaginings<br />“Naturally the news which flew round the globe emphasized the richness of the discoveries and created the impression that inexhaustible wealth lay scattered over these Australian gold-fields waiting to be picked up. The stories which the newspapers in all languages had to tell were not exaggerations, and could hardly have been so, because the things which occurred were far more wonderful than any that could be imagined. From the fiords of Norway to the villages of China ran the golden tidings. Ibsen, writing his poetical play, LOVE'S COMEDY, in Christiania, figured 'a Ballarat beyond the desert sands' as an end worth leaping for. From Canton and Belgravia alike came the seekers. Thousands of Chinese poured in, packed in ships like cattle, so that already men began to say that the proximity of empty Australia to crowded Asia presented a grave problem which would have to be guarded against. Bathurst, Bendigo, and Ballarat homed the most mixed assembly of humanity on earth. In the first year there were more foreigners than people of British blood among the procession of immigrants who thronged the roads from the wharves, where the ships dropped them, to the diggings where they all hoped to become immensely rich within an extremely short period. Before 1855 there were as many residents in Victoria alone as there were in all Australia previously to the gold discoveries.”<br />A Short History of Australia Author: Ernest Scott (1868-1939)<br />PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE <br />http://www.gutenberg.net.au/ebooks02/0200471h.html#ch19<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />31<br />
  83. 83. Essential Questions<br />How was Australia seen before the Gold Rushes?<br />How did the Gold Rushes change the colonies?<br />How did the Gold Rushes change the view of Australia overseas?<br />Why did people come to Australia?<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />32<br />
  84. 84. Contact<br />pahlowj@gmail.com<br />30 September 2010<br />John Pahlow<br />33<br />