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Time traveller's guide to historical relationships with the Australian environment.

Time traveller's guide to historical relationships with the Australian environment.

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Time traveller's guide to historical relationships with the Australian environment.. Time traveller's guide to historical relationships with the Australian environment.. Presentation Transcript

  • A time traveller’s guideto the south west ofVictoria and parts of South Australia In images, diagrams, words, animations and multimedia… understanding our place in looking after the environment. It does not look directly at the impact of environmental movements, including: • The Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Foundation • Victorian National Parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League.
  • IndexThis multimedia presentation will provide:O A description of the characteristics of the Australian environment before human habitation specifically looking at the locations in Victoria and South Australia. An analysis of the changing relationships with Australian outdoor environments, including those expressed by specific Indigenous communities and those influenced by historical events and issues such as O Early settlement O Increased population O Industrialisation O Nation BuildingO Not included: O An evaluation of the role of two specific environmental movements in changing relationships with outdoor environments
  • A tour guide for a time traveller O Understanding Australia and especially its environment especially through specific areas of western and south- western Victoria and south eastern South Australia
  • Australia and itsenvironmenthave been shapedby 3 majorfactors: Geological stability Climatic variation Biological isolation
  • Australia is a continent characterised by geological stability across much of its geological historyO Geological stability has had an The Western Victorian Volcanic Plains in Victoria, Australia, also known as impact. the Newer Volcanic Province[1], are the thirdO Australia has some of the oldest largest volcanic plains in world.[2] they are a land surface on earth and while good example expressing changing relationships with the environment. rich in biodiversity its soils and The Western Victorian Volcanic Plains cover seas are among the most nutrient an area of 2.3 million hectares, more than poor and unproductive in the 10% of the state.[2] world. The basalt plains were formed by volcanoesO This is due mainly to the country’s over the last 6 million years with the most recent eruption being at Mount Napier 7,200 geological stability, which is a years ago.[2] Therefore they have been major feature of the Australian generally geologically stable. land mass, and is characterised There are only a few rivers which flow by, among other things, a lack of across the plains, these are significant seismic activity. the Barwon, Hopkins, Leigh, Maribyrnong, W annon and Werribee Rivers and the Mount Emu Creek. More than 90% of the plains have been cleared for farming. This indicates the view of the environment as a resource.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by geological stability across much of its geological historyThe Western Victorian Volcanic Plains in Victoria, Australia, also known as the Newer VolcanicProvince[1], are the third largest volcanic plains in world.[2] they are a good example expressingchanging relationships with the environment.The Western Victorian Volcanic Plains cover an area of 2.3 million hectares, more than 10% ofthe state.[2]The basalt plains were formed by volcanoes over the last 6 million years with the most recenteruption being at Mount Napier 7,200 years ago.[2] Therefore they have been generallygeologically stable.There are only a few rivers which flow across the plains, these arethe Barwon, Hopkins, Leigh, Maribyrnong, Wannon and Werribee Rivers and the Mount EmuCreek.More than 90% of the plains have been cleared for farming. This shows the perception of theview of the environment as a resource.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological historyO Victoria and South Australia have experienced a substantial climatic variation throughout its geological history. Prior to the Silurian period the Corryong, the Limestone Coast and Victoria including the Western Victorian Volcanic Plains.O Originally much of this area was under water, it was dry land during the Silurian period, being re-inundated during the Permian period.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological historyO Victoria and South Australia have experienced a substantial climatic variation throughout its geological history. Prior to the Silurian period the eastern coast of Australia was in South Australia and Victoria including the Western Victorian Volcanic Plains were underwater.O These areas then all became dry land during the Silurian period 443–416 million years ago being re-inundated during the Permian period 299–251 million years ago.O The areas under review again became dry land in the Triassic Period 51–199 million years ago.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Permian Era: O Australia lay beneath an ice cap at the start of the Permian and SE Australia was swathed in a slow- moving ice-sheet. As the ice retreated, forests developed with Glossopteris (seed ferns), tree-ferns, club- mosses and horsetails. As the climate became drier, plants such as conifers, cycads and ginkgos evolved. Amphibious tetrapods, reptiles and a great variety of insects inhabited these forests.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Triassic Era: O SE Australia had a mild climate despite being near the south pole. We can imagine the valleys, previously carved by glaciers, were now green with conifer forests and an understorey of ferns. They were probably home to amphibious tetrapods, reptiles and the earliest dinosaurs and mammals.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Jurassic Era: O Although Australia was quite close to the south pole it had a relatively warm climate
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variationacross much of its geological history … its dinosaur fossil record..
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Cretaceous Era: O Despite a warmer world, SE Australia was still close to the south pole and it was one of the coolest places on the planet at the time. SE Australia and Antarctica were covered in temperate forests of conifers and ferns. Many dinosaurs, some only the size of a chicken, adapted to life in these cooler forests, as did other reptiles, mammals and birds. O Life inside the polar forests of SE Australia presented challenges to the dinosaurs that lived there, such as long periods with little sunlight.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Tertiary era: O Tropical and temperate forests covered large areas of Australia. The area we know as Bass Strait was largely dry land with floodplains, lakes and peaty swamps bordered by forest, and seams of brown coal began to form. During several periods of significant volcanic eruptions in Victoria, lava flows covered parts of western and central Victoria. Australia’s marsupial mammals began to diversify in isolation, evolving into carnivores, herbivores and scavengers. High sea levels frequently covered parts of the continent and the skeletons of bryozoans, echinoderms, molluscs and other animals that thrived here created the large volume of limestone deposits that now form most of the coast along southern Australia.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Quaternary era: Naracoorte.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation across much of its geological history O Quaternary era: O The bedrock of modern SE Australia including Victoria was in place, but the landscape continued to change. Volcanoes were active again. The climate became drier, rainforests shrank, and plants and animals suited to dry conditions spread. Hard-leaved plants such as eucalypts, spinifex, banksias and wattles were food for animals ranging from termites to marsupials. O Megafauna shared the landscape with more familiar animals such as kangaroos and emus. Humans probably arrived in Australia 60 000–50 000 years ago. These Aboriginal people adapted to the landscape they found and developed an intimate knowledge of its life and the resources it offered.
  • Australia is a continent characterised by climatic variation and geological stability across much of its geological history and biological isolation. That isolation was completed afterGondwana started to break up some 165 mya while Antarctica and Australia plate separated some 45 mya.
  • Australia is a continent characterised biological isolation. Australia’s isolation has meant that much of its flora and fauna is very different from species in other parts of the world.O Key facts O Australia is a land like no other, with about one million different native species. More than 80 per cent of the O Australia has around 10 per country’s flowering plants, mammals, reptiles and frogs are cent of the world’s unique to Australia, along with most of its freshwater fish biodiversity. and almost half of its birds. O Of the estimated 20 000 O Australia’s marine environment is home to 4000 fish species of vascular plants species, 1700 coral species, 50 types of marine mammal found in Australia, 16 000 and a wide range of seabirds. Most marine species found are found nowhere else in in southern Australian waters occur nowhere else. the world. O Most flora and fauna are found nowhere else. However, some closely related species are found on the continents O Of the 378 species of which once made up the ancient southern supercontinent mammals in Australia, more Gondwana. than 80 per cent are unique O Covered in rainforest and ferns 300 million years ago, to Australia. Gondwana included South America, Africa, India and O Of the 869 types of Antarctica. Most of Australia’s flora and fauna have their Australian reptile, 773 are origins in Gondwana, which broke up about 140 million found nowhere else years ago. O Australia separated from Antarctica 50 million years ago. As it drifted away from the southern polar region, its climate became warmer and drier and new species of plants and animals evolved and came to dominate the landscape.
  • Changing relationships with the Australian environment through timeO We are going to O These changes can be seen in the relationships look at the changing by relationships with O Indigenous peoples the environment O Before European settlement through time. O After EuropeanO Humans have Settlement inhabited Australia O Early settlers O As population for some 50,000 increased years. O With industrialisation O With nation building
  • Changing relationships with the Australian environment through time O spirituallyO Nature can be seen O adversary in a range of ways O museum O cathedral O gymnasium O a ‘chain of being’ – This represents a hierarchy of things in nature – plants for animals for humans O machine O storehouse O mother O web O measure – that is, something to measure up against O source of delight and imagination O a resource
  • Indigenous relationshipsO Australia was a continent with a diverse and rich range of languages and cultures prior to European settlement.
  • Indigenous relationshipsO This richness is evident in what is now known as South Australia and Victoria.
  • Indigenous relationshipsO This richness is evident in what is now known as South Australia and Victoria.
  • Indigenous relationships O Their relationship can be characterised as O IntimateO In the west of O Spiritual Victoria in what is O Sustainable O There are many different ways of Grampians and understanding this ancient landscape. O surrounding areas Six distinct weather periods are recognised in the indigenous seasonal cycle. These are the Jardwadjali and genuine seasons that relate to climactic features as well as referencing Djab Wurrung lived. environmental events such as plant flowering, fruiting and animal behavioural What was their patterns. relationship with the O For thousands of years, the lives of the Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung have been land? intimately linked to this seasonal cycle.
  • the Gariwerd seasonal cycle
  • the Gariwerd seasonal cycle
  • the Gariwerd seasonal cycle
  • Indigenous relationships O Their first explicit contact was with Major Thomas Mitchell exploring western Victoria in September 1836 when he surprised two women of the Utoul balug and their children near Mount Cole. Two years later, in 1838, the squatters withO In the west of Victoria in their sheep started settling in Djab wurrung country.[7] what is Grampians and O European Settlement from 1836 was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which then surrounding areas the resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. From 1840 to 1859 there were reports of 35 Jardwadjali and Djab massacres and killings of Djab wurrung people, most occurring Wurrung lived. What was before the end of 1842. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court.[9] their relationship with the O Resistance also took the form of maintaining connections to country and culture through whatever means were available. land post European O In 1841 Kolorer (Mount Rouse) and Burrumbeep were settlement? gazetted as aboriginal reserves, although only the Kolorer reserve was used by Djab wurrung. O By 1845 the Djab Wurrung population had dropped from a conservative pre-contact estimate of 2050 to 615. Three quarters are estimated to have been killed by introduced diseases, poisoned flour, diseased blankets and starvation due to shortage of traditional foods, and a quarter killed by rifle attack.[12] O In the 1870s the Djab wurrung were largely dispersed to the reservations: the Hamilton mob to Lake Condah, the Wickcliffe people to Framlingham mission, and the Mount Cole people to Framlingham and Coranderrk station.[11]
  • Indigenous relationships O Djab Wurrung today O In 1989 there was a proposal by Victorian Minister for Tourism, Steve Crabb to rename many geographical place names associated with aboriginal heritage in the Gariwerd - Grampians National Park area. There was much community opposition to this proposal. The Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities with historical links to the area, advocated a dual name for the main area: Gariwerd/Grampians.[13] O Some of the changes included:[14] O Grampians to Gariwerd (mountain range) O Mount Zero to Mura Mura (little hill) O Halls Gap to Budja Budja O The Brambuk National Park and Cultural Centre in Halls Gap is owned and managed by Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung people from five Aboriginal communities with historic links to the Gariwerd-Grampians ranges and the surrounding plains.[15]
  • Indigenous relationshipsO In the west of Victoria in O Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung Today…. what is Grampians and O Brambuk is about bringing life to the history and culture of the Jardwadjali and Djab surrounding areas the Wurrung and aboriginal communities of south- Jardwadjali and Djab western Victoria. Wurrung lived. What was O Ownership of Brambuk is shared between five their relationship with the Aboriginal communities with historic links to the Gariwerd-Grampians ranges and the land post European surrounding plains. Since their dispossession. settlement? Aboriginal people have moved trough two phases - resistance and persistence - and have now entered a third phase, renewal. Brambuk stands as a symbol and affirmation of that process of renewal. O We intend to provide visitors with the very best of park and cultural information, to make your stay in the Grampians a satisfying and memorable experience.
  • Indigenous connection to the land today Aboriginal Traditional OwnersParks Victoria acknowledges the Aboriginal Traditional Owners of Victoria - including its parks and reserves. Through their cultural traditions, Aboriginal people maintain their connection to their ancestral lands and waters. Further information is available from Aboriginal Affairs Victoria AAV and Native Title Services Victoria
  • REFERENCES includeO Trove: Home O Wikipedia, the freeO State Library of encyclopedia Victoria O http://www.sahistoriO Museum Victoria ans.org.au/175/bm.O Naracoorte doc/kingston-se-- Caves National an-overview- Park history.docO Murray O Google Maps River Locks, Weirs, Dams & Barrages O Google Images
  • Postcripts..How did these organisations come about, what was and istheir attitude to the environment and how have theychanged relationships with the environment. • The Wilderness O South Australia - The Society Wilderness Society O Victoria - • Australian The Wilderness Conservation Society Foundation O Australian • Victorian National Conservation Foundation: ACF Parks Association O Victorian National • Greenpeace Parks Association • Gould League. O Greenpeace Australia Pacific O Gould League