Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Management strategies and policies


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Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Management strategies and policies

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Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Management strategies and policies

  1. 1. VCEOutdoor and Environmental Studies Study Cards – Unit 4 AOS 2.4 Management of the environment Revision and Review Study Design 2012-2016 Utilising materials including data from VCAA Created by John Pahlow 1
  2. 2. Key knowledgeManagement strategies and policies for achieving andmaintaining healthy and sustainable outdoor environmentsthat may be adopted by public and private landmanagers, including at least one from the following:  Trust for Nature (Victoria)  Australia‘s Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2020 (Australia)  Victoria‘s Native Vegetation Management: A framework for action (Victoria) Created by John Pahlow 2
  3. 3. Trust for Nature (Victoria)―Trust for Nature is a not-for-profit organisation that works to protect native plants and wildlife incooperation with private landowners.Our native plants and wildlife provide us with not only important services, such as clean water andresources, but they are important in and of themselves. However, as two-thirds of Victoria isprivately owned, many of these species and their habitats are not currently getting the necessaryprotection.The Trust was established under the Victorian Conservation Trust Act 1972 to enable people tocontribute permanently to nature conservation by donating land or money. We have since evolvedinto one of Victoria‘s primary land conservation organisations, with several tools to help peopleprotect biodiversity on private land.In 1978, Trust for Nature developed conservation covenants as a way to protect native plants andwildlife on private land, and we have now protected more than 47,000 hectares through over 1,115perpetual conservation covenants. The Trust has also purchased and preserved more than 55properties across Victoria through its Revolving Fund, as well as currently owning and managing 46properties that cover over 36,000 hectares of Victoria. For more on how we work, click here.‖ http://www.trustfornature.org.au/about-us/ Created by John Pahlow 3
  4. 4. Trust for Nature (Victoria)Our vision:Within two decades, protecting native plants and wildlife on private land will be recognised and valued as a centralpart of mainstream Australian environmental practice.There will be a shared expectation and responsibility among communities, landowners and governments thatsignificant natural areas on privately owned land should be conserved, just as national and state parks are protected.http://www.trustfornature.org.au/about-us/ What is the Stewardship Program? Trust for Natures Conservation Covenant program permanently protects private land of high conservation value and monitors these areas over time. The Stewardship Program works alongside the Conservation Covenant program. Once a covenant is registered on a propertys title, a Trust for Nature representative meets with the landholder on-site to discuss future land management of their covenant. What is a Conservation Covenant? A Conservation Covenant is a permanent, legally-binding agreement placed on a propertys title to ensure bushland on the property is protected forever. The agreement is voluntary, negotiated between Trust for Nature and each individual landholder. Trust for Nature achieved its first Conservation Covenant in 1987. Trust for Nature now has more than 1000 Conservation Covenants, protecting more than 44,000 hectares across Victoria.http://www.trustfornature.org.au/faqs/ Created by John Pahlow 4
  5. 5. Australia‘s Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2030 (Australia)The vision of this Strategy is that Australias biodiversity is healthy and resilient to threats, andvalued both in its own right and for its essential contribution to our existence.Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is the variety of all life forms. There are three levels ofbiodiversity: genetic diversity—the variety of genetic information contained in individual plants, animals and micro-organisms species diversity—the variety of species ecosystem diversity—the variety of habitats, ecological communities and ecological processes.Conserving biodiversity is an essential part of safeguarding the biological life support systems onEarth. All living creatures, including humans, depend on these life support systems for thenecessities of life. For example, we need oxygen to breathe, clean water to drink, fertile soil for foodproduction and physical materials for shelter and fuel. These necessities can be describedcollectively as ecosystem services. They are fundamental to our physical, social, cultural andeconomic well-being. Created by John Pahlow 5
  6. 6. Australia‘s Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2030 (Australia)Ecosystem services can be divided into four groups:1. provisioning services (e.g. food, fibre, fuel, fresh water)2. cultural services (e.g. spiritual values, recreation and aesthetic values, knowledge systems)3. supporting services (e.g. primary production, habitat provision, nutrient cycling, atmospheric oxygen production, soil formation and retention)4. regulating services (e.g. pollination, seed dispersal, climate regulation, pest and disease regulation, water purification).Ecosystem resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to changes and disturbances, yetretain its basic functions and structures. The resilience of ecosystems in Australia is currently beingreduced by a number of threats, including: habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation invasive species unsustainable use and management of natural resources changes to the aquatic environment and water flows changing fire regimes climate change.Australias Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030 (PDF - 3053KB) | (RTF - 844KB) Created by John Pahlow 6
  7. 7. Australia‘s Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2030 (Australia)The Priorities for action section identifies three national priorities for action to help stopthe decline in Australias biodiversity. These priorities for action are:Engaging all Australians in biodiversity conservation through:  mainstreaming biodiversity  increasing Indigenous engagement  enhancing strategic investments and partnerships.Building ecosystem resilience in a changing climate by: protecting diversity maintaining and re-establishing ecosystem functions reducing threats to biodiversity.Getting measurable results through: improving and sharing knowledge delivering conservation initiatives efficiently implementing robust national monitoring, reporting and evaluation. Created by John Pahlow 7
  8. 8. Australia‘s Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2030 (Australia)The Strategy functions as a policy The 10 national targets are as follows:umbrella over other more specific  By 2015, achieve a 25% increase in the number of Australians and public and private organisations who participate in biodiversity conservation activities.national frameworks. These  By 2015, achieve a 25% increase in employment and participation ofinclude: Indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation. National Framework for the  By 2015, achieve a doubling of the value of complementary markets for Management and Monitoring ecosystem services. of Australias Native  By 2015, achieve a national increase of 600,000 km2 of native habitat managed primarily for biodiversity conservation across terrestrial, aquatic and Vegetation (NRMMC 1999) marine environments. The Australian Weeds  By 2015, 1,000 km2 of fragmented landscapes and aquatic systems are being Strategy (NRMMC 2007a) restored to improve ecological connectivity.  By 2015, four collaborative continental-scale linkages are established and Australian Pest Animal managed to improve ecological connectivity. Strategy (NRMMC 2007b)  By 2015, reduce by at least 10% the impacts of invasive species on Australias Strategy for the threatened species and ecological communities in terrestrial, aquatic and National Reserve System marine environments.  By 2015, nationally agreed science and knowledge priorities for biodiversity 2009-2030 (National Reserve conservation are guiding research activities. System Task Group 2009).  By 2015, all jurisdictions will review relevant legislation, policies and programs to maximise alignment with Australias Biodiversity Conservation Strategy.  By 2015, establish a national long-term biodiversity monitoring and reporting system. Created by John Pahlow 8
  9. 9. Victorias Native Vegetation Management: A Framework for Action http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/land-management/victorias-native-vegetation- management-a-framework-for-action ‗The framework‘ is the State Government‘s strategy to protect, enhance and revegetate Victoria‘s native vegetation. It:  focuses on catchments as a whole;  addresses critical issues on private land where native vegetation has been cleared or fragmented;  provides a strong focus on protection and improvement of higher conservation significance vegetation; and  provides a flexible but accountable approach for lower conservation significance vegetation, enabling landholders to move towards more sustainable land use options. Created by John Pahlow 9
  10. 10. Victorias Native Vegetation Management: A Framework for Action http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/land-management/victorias-native-vegetation- management-a-framework-for-actionThe Main Goal: Net Gain The Framework‘s main goal is to achieve a reversal, across the entire landscape of the long-term decline in the extent and quality of native vegetation, leading to a net gain. Net gain is where overall gains in native vegetation are greater than overall losses and where individual losses are avoided where possible. This recognises that although it‘s better to retain existing native vegetation, it is possible to partially recover both amount and quality by active work and therefore improve the result as a whole. Net gain will be achieved as a result of landholder and government-assisted efforts to protect and improve native vegetation. In addition, permitted clearing must be offset in a way that adequately addresses the future impacts of such clearing. Created by John Pahlow 10
  11. 11. Victorias Native Vegetation Management: A Framework for Action http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/land-management/victorias-native-vegetation- management-a-framework-for-actionGuiding PrinciplesThe framework has four guiding principles:1. Retention and management of remnant native vegetation is the bestway to conserve biodiversity2. Conservation of native vegetation and habitat depends on themaintenance of catchment processes.3. Costs should be equitably shared according to benefits that thelandholder, community and region get4. A landscape approach to planning native vegetation management isrequired and priorities should be based on bioregions within CatchmentManagement Authority regions. Created by John Pahlow 11
  12. 12. Victorias Native Vegetation Management: A Framework for Action http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/land-management/victorias-native-vegetation- management-a-framework-for-actionThe Three Step Approach - Avoid, minimise and offsetIn applying the policy, there are three key steps for land managers andowners to address when considering vegetation clearing:1. Avoid adverse impacts, particularly through vegetation clearance;2. If impacts cannot be avoided, minimise impacts by carefulplanning, design and management; and3. If clearing must occur, the clearing must be offset*A planning permit is required to remove native vegetation and the three-stepapproach is an integral part of the decision making process relating to suchpermits. Created by John Pahlow 12
  13. 13. Questions …. in review1. Define the terms 1. Strategy 2. Objective 3. Principle 4. Policy2. Name 3 management strategies or policies for looking after the environment 1. What is the purpose in each case? 2. What is the date of release? 3. What is the jurisdiction?3. ―Strategies and policies are important for the future of sustainably healthy outdoor environment‖. Do you agree with this statement? Explain why? Explain what is/would be the impact if there weren‘t strategies and policies. Created by John Pahlow 13