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Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Environmental legislation etc.
 

Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Environmental legislation etc.

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Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision

Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision
Unit 4
Area of Study 2 Key Knowledge 5

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    Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Environmental legislation etc. Outdoor & Environmental Studies Revision Unit 4 Environmental legislation etc. Presentation Transcript

    • VCEOutdoor and Environmental Studies Study Cards – Unit 4 AOS 2.5 Revision and Review Study Design 2012-2016 Utilising materials including data from VCAA Created by John Pahlow 1
    • Key knowledge Environmental legislation includes State and Commonwealth legislation, international agreements and treaties, and local policies and plans. The three listed in the study design are:  Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Vic)  Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth)  Ramsar Convention (international treaty, 1971) These can be supplemented by a study of local policies, or others, including the following:  Environment Protection Act 1970 (Vic)  National Parks Act 1975 (Vic)  Wildlife Act 1975 (Vic)  Natural Heritage Trust of Australia Act 1997 (Cwlth)  Regional Forest Agreements Act 2002 (Cwlth)  Water Act 2007 (Cwlth)  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 1973 (international convention)  Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 (international convention) Created by John Pahlow 2
    • Key knowledge Environmental legislation includes State and Commonwealth legislation, international agreements and treaties, and local policies and plans. Local plans that may be of interest:  Brisbane Ranges National Park Management Plan  Yarra Ranges National Park Management Plan  Brimbank Park and Horseshoe Bend - Future Directions Plan  Great Otway NP and Otway Forest Park Management  Point Addis Marine National Park Management Plan Created by John Pahlow 3
    • Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Vic)The Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (FFG Act) is the key piece of Victorian legislation for the conservation of threatenedspecies and communities and for the management of potentially threatening processes.Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act - ObjectivesThe flora and fauna conservation and management objectives, as outlined under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, are:(a) to guarantee that all taxa of Victorias flora and fauna ….. can survive, flourish and retain their potential for evolutionarydevelopment in the wild(b) to conserve Victorias communities of flora and fauna(c) to manage potentially threatening processes(d) to ensure that any use of flora or fauna by humans is sustainable(e) to ensure that the genetic diversity of flora and fauna is maintained(f) to provide programs: (i) of community education in the conservation of flora and fauna (ii) to encourage co-operative management of flora and fauna through, amongst other things, the entering into of land management co-operative agreements under the Conservation, Forests and Lands Act 1987 (iii) of assisting and giving incentives to people, including landholders, to enable flora and fauna to be conserved (g) to encourage the conserving of flora and fauna through co-operative community endeavours. Created by John Pahlow 4
    • Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation The eight matters of national environmental significance toAct 1999 (the EPBC Act) is the Australian Government’s which the EPBC Act applies are:central piece of environmental legislation. It provides a legal  world heritage sitesframework to protect and manage nationally and  national heritage placesinternationally important flora, fauna, ecological communitiesand heritage places — defined in the EPBC Act as matters of  wetlands of international importance (often callednational environmental significance. Ramsar wetlands after the international treaty under which such wetlands are listed) The objectives of the EPBC Act are to:  nationally threatened species and ecological provide for the protection of the environment, especially communities matters of national environmental significance  migratory species conserve Australian biodiversity  Commonwealth marine areas provide a streamlined national environmental assessment and approvals process  the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park enhance the protection and management of important  nuclear actions. natural and cultural places The EPBC Act affects any group or individual (including control the international movement of plants and companies) whose actions may have a significant impact on animals (wildlife), wildlife specimens and products a matter of national environmental significance. This made or derived from wildlife includes: promote ecologically sustainable development through  landowners the conservation and ecologically sustainable use of  developers natural resources  industry  farmers  councils  state and territory agencies  Commonwealth agencies. Created by John Pahlow 5
    • Ramsar Convention The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands  Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar- Population and Communities home/main/ramsar/1_4000_0__  http://www.environment.gov.au/water/topics/wetlands/r The Convention on Wetlands of International amsar-convention/index.html Importance, called the Ramsar Convention, is an  The Convention on Wetlands of International intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework Importance holds the unique distinction of being the for national action and international cooperation for the first modern treaty between nations aimed at conservation and wise use of wetlands and their conserving natural resources. The signing of the resources. Convention on Wetlands took place in 1971 at the small Iranian town of Ramsar. Since then, the The Ramsar Convention is the only global Convention on Wetlands has been known as the environmental treaty that deals with a particular Ramsar Convention. ecosystem. The treaty was adopted in the Iranian city  The Ramsar Conventions broad aims are to halt the of Ramsar in 1971 and the Conventions member worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve, through countries cover all geographic regions of the planet. wise use and management, those that remain. This The Wise Use concept requires international cooperation, policy making, At the centre of the Ramsar philosophy is the ―wise capacity building and technology transfer. use‖ concept. The wise use of wetlands is defined as "the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development". "Wise use" therefore has at its heart the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands and their resources, for the benefit of humankind. Created by John Pahlow 6
    • Ramsar Convention Victorian Wetlands The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 35º55’S The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance,Victoria the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treatyBarmah Forest 15/12/1982 called 28,515 ha 145º08’E that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of 38º45’S Corner Inlet wetlands and their resources. 15/12/1982 Victoria 67,186 ha 146º32’E 38°04’SEdithvale-Seaford Wetlands 29/08/2001 Victoria 261 ha 145°07’E The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem. The treaty was 38º00’SGippsland Lakesin the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and the Conventions member countries cover all geographic regions of the adopted 15/12/1982 Victoria 60,015 ha 147º36’E planet. 35º49’SGunbower Forest 15/12/1982 Victoria 19,931 ha 144º19’E 34º41’SHattah-Kulkyne Lakes 15/12/1982 Victoria 955 ha 142º26’E 35º40’SKerang Wetlands 15/12/1982 Victoria 9,419 ha 143º56’E 38º04’SPort Phillip Bay & Bellarine Peninsula 15/12/1982 Victoria 22,897 ha 144º36’E 38º10’SWestern District Lakes 15/12/1982 Victoria 32,898 ha 143º31’E 38º22’SWestern Port 15/12/1982 Victoria 59,297 ha 145º17’E 35º46’SLake Albacutya 15/12/1982 Victoria 5,731 ha 141º58’E Created by John Pahlow 7
    • Ramsar Convention Wetlands in Victoria Ramsar Wetlands Ramsar wetlands are wetlands of international  http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/conservation-and- importance listed under the Convention on Wetlands environment/biodiversity/wetlands/ramsar-wetlands also known as the Ramsar Convention. The  http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0004/9 Convention was signed in 1971 at a meeting in the 9958/Vic_Ramsar_Wetlands.DSE_logo.jpg town of Ramsar, in Iran. The aim of the convention is to halt the worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve those that remain. Victoria has 11 Ramsar sites, these are listed below.  Barmah Forest  Corner Inlet  Edithvale-Seaford Wetlands  Gippsland Lakes  Gunbower Forest  Hattah-Kulkyne Lakes  Kerang Wetlands  Lake Albacutya  Port Phillip Bay (Western Shoreline) and Bellarine Peninsula  Western District Lakes  Western Port Created by John Pahlow 8
    • Environment Protection Act 1970 Environment Protection Act 1970The Environment Protection Act 1970 was at its inception To help achieve these aims, the following Principles ofonly the second Act in the world to deal with the whole of the Environment Protection were added to the Act in 2001:environment in a systematic and integrated way. The Act is  integration of economic, social andoutcome oriented, with a basic philosophy of preventingpollution and environmental damage by setting environmental considerationsenvironmental quality objectives and establishing programs  the precautionary principleto meet them. Over the years the Act has evolved to keep  intergenerational equitypace with the worlds best practice in environment protection  conservation of biological diversity andregulation and to meet the needs of the community. ecological integrityKey aims of the Act include sustainable use and holisticmanagement of the environment, ensuring consultative  improved valuation, pricing and incentiveprocesses are adopted so that community input is a key mechanismsdriver of environment protection goals and programs and  shared responsibilityencouraging a co-operative approach to environment  product stewardshipprotection.  wastes hierarchy  integrated environmental management  enforcement  accountability. http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/en/about- us/legislation-and-policy/acts- administered-by-epa Created by John Pahlow 9
    • National Parks Act 1975 Victoria The objects of this Act are- (include) a) to make provision, in respect of national parks, State parks, marine national parks and marine sanctuaries- (aa) to make further provision in respect of designated water supply catchment areas in national parks- to make provision in respect of wilderness parks-  (i) for the protection, enhancement and management of those parks as wilderness so as to maximise the extent to which those parks are undisturbed by the influences of the European settlement of Australia; and  (ii) for the protection, preservation and evolution of the natural environment including indigenous flora and fauna and of features of ecological, geological, scenic, archaeological and other scientific significance; and  (iii) for the use and enjoyment of those parks by the public for inspiration, solitude and appropriate self- reliant recreation; and  (iv) for the study of ecology, geology, botany, zoology archaeology and other sciences relating to the environment in those parks;http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/npa1975159/s4.html Created by John Pahlow 10
    • Wildlife Act 1975 Victoria Purposes 1A. Purposes The purposes of this Act are- (a) to establish procedures in order to promote- (i) the protection and conservation of wildlife; and (ii) the prevention of taxa of wildlife from becoming extinct; and (iii) the sustainable use of and access to wildlife; and (b) to prohibit and regulate the conduct of persons engaged in activities concerning or related to wildlife. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/wa197593/ Created by John Pahlow 11
    • Natural Heritage Trust of Australia Act 1997 CommonwealthPreamble (extract) The Parliament of Australia recognises the need for urgent action to redress the current decline, and to prevent further decline, in the quality ofAustralia’s natural environment.There is a national crisis in land and water degradation and in the loss of biodiversity.There is a need to conserve Australia’s environmental infrastructure, to reverse the decline in Australia’s natural environment and to improve themanagement of Australia’s natural resources.There is a need for the Commonwealth to provide national leadership and work in partnership with all levels of government and the whole community,recognising, among other things, that many environmental issues and problems are not limited by State and Territory borders.……….The Commonwealth Government should work cooperatively with State governments to achieve effective outcomes in matters relating toenvironmental protection, natural resources management and sustainable agriculture. Those cooperative working relationships should involve entering intointer-governmental agreements which reflect the support of the States for the purposes of the Natural Heritage Trust of Australia Account and promote thedevelopment of complementary policies and programs.Australia’s rural community should have a key role in the ecologically sustainable management of Australia’s natural resources.Australia’s natural environment is central to Australia’s and Australians’ health and non-material well-being and to Australia’s present and futureeconomic prosperity. Accordingly, present and future generations of Australians will benefit from the ecologically sustainable management of the naturalenvironment.A comprehensive, integrated response to these matters is necessary. ……..The following is a simplified outline of this Act:• This Act establishes the Natural Heritage Trust of Australia Account.• The main source of money for the Account is $1.35 billion from the partial sale of Telstra.• The main objective of the establishment of the Account is to conserve, repair and replenish Australia’s natural capital infrastructure.• Amounts standing to the credit of the Account will be spent on the environment, sustainable agriculture and natural resources management.• The Natural Heritage Trust Advisory Committee is established.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/wa197593/ Created by John Pahlow 12
    • Regional Forest Agreements Act 2002 CommonwealthObjects The main objects of this Act are as follows: (a) to give effect to certain obligations of the Commonwealth under Regional Forest Agreements; (b) to give effect to certain aspects of the Forest and Wood Products Action Agenda and the National Forest Policy Statement; (c) to provide for the existence of the Forest and Wood Products Council.RFA or Regional Forest Agreement means an agreement that is in force between the Commonwealth and a State in respect of a region or regions, beingan agreement that satisfies all the following conditions: (a) the agreement was entered into having regard to assessments of the following matters that are relevant to the region or regions: (i) environmental values, including old growth, wilderness, endangered species, national estate values and world heritage values; (ii) indigenous heritage values; (iii) economic values of forested areas and forest industries; (iv) social values (including community needs); (v) principles of ecologically sustainable management; (b) the agreement provides for a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system; (c) the agreement provides for the ecologically sustainable management and use of forested areas in the region or regions; (d) the agreement is expressed to be for the purpose of providing long-term stability of forests and forest industries; (e) the agreement is expressed to be a Regional Forest Agreement.http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2004A00965 Created by John Pahlow 13
    • Water Act 2007 CommonwealthAn Act to make provision for the management of the water resources of the Murray-Darling Basin, and to make provision for other matters of nationalinterest in relation to water and water information, and for related purposesThe objects of this Act are:(a) to enable the Commonwealth, in conjunction with the Basin States, to manage the Basin water resources in the national interest; and(b) to give effect to relevant international agreements (to the extent to which those agreements are relevant to the use and management of the Basinwater resources) and, in particular, to provide for special measures, in accordance with those agreements, to address the threats to the Basin waterresources; and(c) in giving effect to those agreements, to promote the use and management of the Basin water resources in a way that optimises economic, socialand environmental outcomes; and(d) without limiting paragraph (b) or (c): (i) to ensure the return to environmentally sustainable levels of extraction for water resources that are overallocated or overused; and (ii) to protect, restore and provide for the ecological values and ecosystem services of the Murray-Darling Basin (taking intoaccount, in particular, the impact that the taking of water has on the watercourses, lakes, wetlands, ground water and water-dependent ecosystems that arepart of the Basin water resources and on associated biodiversity); and (iii) subject to subparagraphs (i) and (ii)—to maximise the net economic returns to the Australian community from the use andmanagement of the Basin water resources; and(e) to improve water security for all uses of Basin water resources; and(f) to ensure that the management of the Basin water resources takes into account the broader management of natural resources in theMurray-Darling Basin; and(g) to achieve efficient and cost effective water management and administrative practices in relation to Basin water resources; and(h) to provide for the collection, collation, analysis and dissemination of information about: (i) Australia’s water resources; and (ii) the use and management of water in Australia.http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2012C00229 Created by John Pahlow 14
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 1973The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was drafted in 1973 in response to the decline in wildpopulations of many animal and plant species as a result of unregulated international trade. CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975 and becameenforceable under Australian law on 27 October 1976Every signatory to CITES is required to designate a management authority responsible for administering CITES in that nation. The management authorityhas particular responsibility for issuing permits, compliance, enforcement and reporting matters.In Australia, both the management and scientific authorities are located within the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population andCommunities. CITES is administered under Part 13A of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act).Like many signatories, Australia relies on its customs service to implement CITES at national borders.The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (PDF - 261 KB)http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-trade/publications/factsheets/cites.html Created by John Pahlow 15
    • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 (international convention)Article 1The objectives of this Convention, to be pursued in accordance with its relevant provisions, are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable useof its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access togenetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and byappropriate funding.Article 6. General Measures for Conservation and Sustainable UseEach Contracting Party shall, in accordance with its particular conditions and capabilities:(a) Develop national strategies, plans or programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity or adapt for this purpose existingstrategies, plans or programmes which shall reflect, inter alia, the measures set out in this Convention relevant to the Contracting Party concerned; and(b) Integrate, as far as possible and as appropriate, the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans,programmes and policies.http://www.cbd.int/ Created by John Pahlow 16
    • Questions …. in review1. Name 3 pieces of environmental legislation.2. What are their relevant 1. Dates 2. Jurisdictions3. In each example state (in summary) their goal, purpose or objective.4. Why is environmental legislation important?5. What can or does limit the success of environmental legislation? Created by John Pahlow 17