Acids,bases and salts by jeswant gembali

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Acids,bases and salts by jeswant gembali

  1. 1.  Acids:- 1. Introduction. 2. Properties. 3. Some Common Acids.  Bases:- 1. Introduction. 2. Properties. 3. Some Common bases.  Salts:- 1. Introduction. 2. Properties. 3. Some Common salts.
  2. 2.  An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour[1]) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts. Aqueous solutions of acids have a pH of less than 7. A lower pH means a higher acidity, and thus a higher concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.  Aqueous solutions of acids have a pH of less than 7. A lower pH means a higher acidity, and thus a higher concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.  An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour[1]) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts. Aqueous solutions of acids have a pH of less than 7. A lower pH means a higher acidity, and thus a higher concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.  Aqueous solutions of acids have a pH of less than 7. A lower pH means a higher acidity, and thus a higher concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.
  3. 3.  Acids have sour taste. For example, Unripe Citrus,fruits or lemon juice.  They turn blue litmus red.  They are corrosive in Concentrated form.  Their aqueous solutions conduct Electricity.
  4. 4.  Hydrochloric Acid {found in our stomach}.  Acetic Acid {found in Vinegar}.  Formic Acid {found in Ant’s sting}.  Citric Acid {found in Citric foods such as Lemons,etc}.  Lactic Acid {found in Curd}.
  5. 5.  Bases are those substances which are bitter in taste, are soapy to touch and which turn red litmus to blue.  The nature of such substances is said to be basic.  Bases are those substances which are bitter in taste, are soapy to touch and which turn red litmus to blue.  The nature of such substances is said to be basic.
  6. 6.  Taste bitter.  Feel slippery or soapy.  Don’t change the color of Litmus ; they can turn red (acidified) litmus back to blue.  Their aqueous solutions conduct electric current {Electrolytes}.  react with acids to form Salts and Water.
  7. 7.  Calcium Hydroxide {found in Lime Water}.  Ammonium Hydroxide {Window Cleaner}.  Sodium Hydroxide {found in Soap}.  Potassium Hydroxide {found in Soap}.  Magnesium Hydroxide {found in Milk of Magnesia}.
  8. 8.  When H+ ion of an Acid is replaced by a metal ion, a Salt is produced.  For Example; H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2So4(aq) + 2H2O(I).  Here Sodium Sulphate is the salt formed. Salts are Ionic compounds.  The chemical symbol for table salt is NaCl.  When H+ ion of an Acid is replaced by a metal ion, a Salt is produced.  For Example; H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2So4(aq) + 2H2O(I).  Here Sodium Sulphate is the salt formed. Salts are Ionic compounds.  The chemical symbol for table salt is NaCl.
  9. 9.  Most of the solids are crystalline solid.  Salts may be transparent or Opaque.  Most of the Salts are soluble in water.  Solution of salts conduct Electricity. Salts conduct electricity in their molten state also.  They may taste Salty, Sour, Sweet, Bitter and Savoury.  Neutral salts are Odourless.  Salts can be colourless or of coloured.
  10. 10.  Sodium Chloride.  Sodium Carbonate (Soda ash).  Sodium Sulphate.  Sodium Silicate.  Sodium Chlorate.  Calcium Chloride.  Potassium nitrate.
  11. 11. By:- Jeswant Gembali.

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