Borrowed words (Intensive Reading)


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Borrowed words (Intensive Reading)

  1. 1. BORROWED WORDS Prepared by: Katherine Aine Codas
  2. 2. Loan Words• words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language.
  3. 3. Loan Words• words borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language.
  4. 4. Why is there a “borrowing” of words?
  5. 5. They (often consciously) adopt the new word when speaking the borrowing language, because it most exactly fits the idea they are trying to express.
  6. 6. Those who first use the new word might use it at first only with speakers of the source language who know the word, but at some point they come to use the word with those to whom the word was not previously known.
  7. 7. I. Germanic Periodancor anchor‘butere butter (L < Gr. butyros)cealc chalk‘ceas cheese(caseum)cetel kettle‘cycene kitchen‘cirice church (ecclesia < Gr. ecclesia)disc dish (discus)mil mile (milia [passuum] a thousand paces)piper pepper‘pund pound (pondo a weight)sacc sack (saccus)sicol ‘sickle‘straet street ([via] strata straight way or stone-paved road)weall wall (vallum)win wine (vinum < Gr. oinos)
  8. 8. II. Old English Period (600-1100)Latin apostol apostle (apostolus < Gr. apostolos) casere caesar, emperor‘ ceaster city (castra camp) cest chest (cista box) circul circle‘ cometa ‘comet (cometa < Greek) maegester master (magister) martir martyr‘ paper paper (papyrus, from Gr.) tigle tile (tegula)Celtic brocc badger‘ cumb combe, valley
  9. 9. III. Middle English Period (1100-1500)Scandinavian• anger, blight, by- law, cake, call, clumsy, doze, egg, fellow, gear, get, give, hale, hit, husband, kick, kill, kilt, kindle, law, low, lump, rag, raise, root, scathe, scorch, score, s cowl, scrape, scrub, seat, skill, skin, skirt, sky, sly, take, they, them, their, th rall, thrust, ugly, want, window, wing• Place name suffixes: -by, -thorpe, -gate
  10. 10. III. Middle English Period (1100-1500)French• Law and government— attorney, bailiff, chancellor, chattel, country, court, crime, defendent, evide nce, government, jail, judge, jury, larceny, noble, parliament, plaintiff, plea, prison, revenue, state, tax, verdict• Church— abbot, chaplain, chapter, clergy, friar, prayer, preach, priest, religion, sacra ment, saint, sermon• Nobility—baron, baroness; count, countess; duke, duchess; marquis, marquess; prince, princess; viscount, viscountess; noble, royal (contrast native words: king, queen, earl, lord, lady, knight, kingly, queenly)
  11. 11. III. Middle English Period (1100-1500)• Military— army, artillery, battle, captain, company, corporal, defense,enemy,marine, navy , sergeant, soldier, volunteer• Cooking— beef, boil, broil, butcher, dine, fry, mutton, pork, poultry, roast, salmon, stew, v eal• Culture and luxury goods— art, bracelet, claret, clarinet, dance, diamond, fashion, fur, jewel, oboe, paintin g, pendant, satin, ruby, sculpture• Other— adventure, change, charge, chart, courage, devout, dignity, enamor, feign, fruit , letter, literature, magic, male, female, mirror, pilgrimage, proud, question, reg ard, special Also Middle English French loans: a huge number of words in age, -ance/- ence, -ant/-ent, -ity, -ment, -tion, con-, de-, and pre- .
  12. 12. IV. Early Modern English Period (1500-1650)Latin agile, abdomen, anatomy, area, capsule, compensate, dexterity, discus, dis c/disk, excavate, expensive, fictitious, gradual, habitual, insane, janitor, me ditate, notorious, orbit, peninsula, physician, superintendent, ultimate, vin dicate
  13. 13. IV. Early Modern English Period (1500-1650)Greek (many of these via Latin) anonymous, atmosphere, autograph, catastrophe, climax, comedy, critic, d ata, ectasy, history, ostracize, parasite, pneumonia, skeleton, tonic, tragedyGreek bound morphemes: -ism, -ize
  14. 14. IV. Early Modern English Period (1500-1650)Arabic via Spanish— alcove, algebra, zenith, algorithm, almanac, azimuth, alchemy, admiral via other Romance languages— amber, cipher, orange, saffron, sugar, zero, coffee
  15. 15. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesFrench French continues to be the largest single source of new words outside of very specialized vocabulary domains (scientific/technical vocabulary, still dominated by classical borrowings).• High culture—ballet, bouillabaise, cabernet, cachet, chaise longue, champagne, chic, cognac, corsage, faux pas, nom de plume, quiche, rouge, roulet, sachet, salon, saloon, sang froid, savoir faire• War and Military— bastion, brigade, battalion, cavalry, grenade, infantry, pallisade, rebuff, bay onet• Other— bigot, chassis, clique, denim, garage, grotesque, jean(s), niche, shock• French Canadian—chowder• Louisiana French (Cajun)—jambalaya
  16. 16. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesSpanish armada, adobe, alligator, alpaca, armadillo, barricade, bravado, cannibal, c anyon, coyote, desperado, embargo, enchilada, guitar, marijuana, mesa, m osquito, mustang, ranch, taco, tornado, tortilla, vigilante
  17. 17. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesItalian alto, arsenal, balcony, broccoli, cameo, casino, cupola, duo, fresco, fugue, g azette (via French), ghetto, gondola, grotto, macaroni, madrigal, motto, piano, opera, pantaloons, prima donna, regatta, sequin, soprano, opera, stanza, stucco, studio, tempo, tors o, umbrella, viola, violin from Italian American immigrants— cappuccino, espresso, linguini, mafioso, pasta, pizza, ravioli, spaghetti, spu mante, zabaglione, zucchini
  18. 18. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesDutch, Flemish• Shipping, naval terms— avast, boom, bow, bowsprit, buoy, commodore, cruise, dock, freight, keel, keelhaul, leak, pump, reef, scoop, scour, skipper, sloop, smuggle, splice, tac kle, yawl, yacht• Cloth industry—bale, cambric, duck (fabric), fullers earth, mart, nap (of cloth), selvage, spool, stripe• Art—easel, etching, landscape, sketch• War—beleaguer, holster, freebooter, furlough, onslaught• Food and drink— booze, brandy(wine), coleslaw, cookie, cranberry, crullers, gin, hops, stockf ish, waffle• Other—bugger (orig. French), crap, curl, dollar, scum, split (orig. nautical term), uproar
  19. 19. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesGerman• bum, dunk, feldspar, quartz, hex, lager, knackwurst, liverwurst, loafer, noo dle, poodle, dachshund, pretzel, pinochle, pumpernickel, sauerkraut, schni tzel, zwieback, (beer)stein, lederhosen, dirndl• 20th century German loanwords—blitzkrieg, zeppelin, strafe, U- boat, delicatessen, hamburger, frankfurter, wiener, hausfrau, kindergarten, Oktoberfest, schuss, wunderkind, bundt (cake), spritz (cookies), (apple) strudel
  20. 20. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesYiddish (most are 20th century borrowings) bagel, Chanukkah (Hanukkah), chutzpah, dreidel, kibbitzer, kosher, lox, pastrami (orig. from Romanian), schlep, spiel, schlepp, schlemiel, schlimazel, gefilte fish, goy, klutz, knish, matzoh, oy vey, schmuck, schnook,
  21. 21. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from European languagesScandinavian fjord, maelstrom, ombudsman, ski, slalom, smorgasbordRussian apparatchik, borscht, czar/tsar, glasnost, icon, perestroika, vodka
  22. 22. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from other parts of the worldSanskrit avatar, karma, mahatma, swastika, yogaHindi bandanna, bangle, bungalow, chintz, cot, cummerbund, dungaree, juggern aut, jungle, loot, maharaja, nabob, pajamas, punch (the drink), shampoo, thug, kedgeree, jamboree
  23. 23. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from other parts of the worldDravidian curry, mango, teak, pariahPersian (Farsi) check, checkmate, chess
  24. 24. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from other parts of the worldArabic bedouin, emir, jakir, gazelle, giraffe, harem, hashish, lute, minaret, mosque , myrrh, salaam, sirocco, sultan, vizier, bazaar, caravanAfrican languages banana (via Portuguese), banjo, boogie- woogie, chigger, goober, gorilla, gumbo, jazz, jitterbug, jitters, juke(box), v oodoo, yam, zebra, zombie
  25. 25. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from other parts of the worldAmerican Indian languages avocado, cacao, cannibal, canoe, chipmunk, chocolate, chili, hammock, ho miny, hurricane, maize, moccasin, moose, papoose, pecan, possum, potato , skunk, squaw, succotash, squash, tamale (via Spanish), teepee, terrapin, tobacco, toboggan, tomahawk, tomato, wigwa m, woodchuck (plus thousands of place names, including Ottawa, Toronto, Saskatchewan and the names of more than half the states of the U.S., including Michigan, Texas, Nebraska, Illinois)
  26. 26. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from other parts of the worldChinese chop suey, chow mein, dim sum, ketchup, tea, ginseng, kowtow, litcheeJapanese geisha, hara kiri, judo, jujitsu, kamikaze, karaoke, kimono, samurai, soy, sumo, sushi, ts unami
  27. 27. V. Modern English (1650-present)Words from other parts of the worldPacific Islands bamboo, gingham, rattan, taboo, tattoo, ukulele, boondocksAustralia boomerang, budgerigar, didgeridoo, kangaroo (and many more in Australian English)
  28. 28. References e=hp&q=middle+english+period&oq=middle+english+period&gs_l=h p.3..0l10.901.4774.0.4920. B..0.0...1c.1.WpMJtjKdHFI