MALE GAZE THEORY
Laura Mulvey, a second wave feminist came up with the idea of the male
It is a feature of gender asymmetry and shows from the view of a
heterosexual man, this gives the power to the male. It may focus on the
curves of the female body.
• Advertisers are not persuaded by the ‘classless society’ in the UK. They still
categorise people by social class. The classes are categorised by:
• ABC1 – The middle class market
• C2DE – The working class market
• These categories are based on the occupational groupings developed for the
Government census every 10 years.
• A – higher managerial and professional
• B – Middle management
• C1 – Office workers
• C2 – Skilled manual workers
• D – Unskilled workers
• E - Unemployed
Preferred, negotiated and oppositional reading
Stuart Hall found that there were 3 ways to read a text:
A preferred reading is the reading which the media producers ant the
audience to receive
A negotiated reading is one where the audience accepts the media
producers intend for the text but it changes some of the intentions of
the text to suit it’s own position.
An oppositional reading is one where the audience reject the preferred
reading of the text and interpret the text in a different way.
Hypodermic Needle Model
Mass audience theory – Influenced by media
Uses and Gratifications
Audience decides what to do with the media rather than the audience
Personal identity: We may watch television in order to look for models
for our behaviour. So, for example, we may identify with characters that
we see in a soap.
Information: Gathering information that we want to find out about
society and the world.
Integration and social integration: We use the media in order to find out
more about the circumstances of other people, replace real people.
Entertainment: Sometimes we simply use the media for enjoyment.
Words that mean something within media e.g. genre. Technical terms
for things used to describe words in media.
Representation: How certain groups/people are represented within the
media e.g. black boys could be represented as taking part in gang
Genre: A certain form of media e.g. music, film, that shows similar
conventions to others therefore making it part of a genre.
‘Codes and conventions in music videos
Vernalis’ theory centres around four key concepts that all relate to the
way the music video is constructed.
1 – narrative
2 – Editing
3 – Camera
4 – Diegesis
Narrative and performance (repeatability)
Star image (also Dyer)
Relation of Visuals to a song (illustration, amplification, disjuncture)
Technical aspects (camera, editing, effects etc)