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Key media concepts/theories


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  • 1. MALE GAZE THEORY Laura Mulvey, a second wave feminist came up with the idea of the male gaze theory. It is a feature of gender asymmetry and shows from the view of a heterosexual man, this gives the power to the male. It may focus on the curves of the female body.
  • 2. AUDIENCE Social class • Advertisers are not persuaded by the ‘classless society’ in the UK. They still categorise people by social class. The classes are categorised by: • ABC1 – The middle class market • C2DE – The working class market • These categories are based on the occupational groupings developed for the Government census every 10 years. • A – higher managerial and professional • B – Middle management • C1 – Office workers • C2 – Skilled manual workers • D – Unskilled workers • E - Unemployed
  • 3. AUDIENCE Preferred, negotiated and oppositional reading • Stuart Hall found that there were 3 ways to read a text: • A preferred reading is the reading which the media producers ant the audience to receive • A negotiated reading is one where the audience accepts the media producers intend for the text but it changes some of the intentions of the text to suit it’s own position. • An oppositional reading is one where the audience reject the preferred reading of the text and interpret the text in a different way.
  • 4. AUDIENCE Hypodermic Needle Model • Mass audience theory – Influenced by media
  • 5. AUDIENCE Uses and Gratifications • Audience decides what to do with the media rather than the audience directly. • Personal identity: We may watch television in order to look for models for our behaviour. So, for example, we may identify with characters that we see in a soap. • Information: Gathering information that we want to find out about society and the world. • Integration and social integration: We use the media in order to find out more about the circumstances of other people, replace real people. • Entertainment: Sometimes we simply use the media for enjoyment.
  • 6. KEY CONCEPTS/THEORIES Media language • Words that mean something within media e.g. genre. Technical terms for things used to describe words in media. • Representation: How certain groups/people are represented within the media e.g. black boys could be represented as taking part in gang culture. • Genre: A certain form of media e.g. music, film, that shows similar conventions to others therefore making it part of a genre.
  • 7. CAROL VERNALIS ‘Codes and conventions in music videos • Vernalis’ theory centres around four key concepts that all relate to the way the music video is constructed. • 1 – narrative • 2 – Editing • 3 – Camera • 4 – Diegesis
  • 8. ANDREW GOODWIN • Thought beats • Narrative and performance (repeatability) • Star image (also Dyer) • Relation of Visuals to a song (illustration, amplification, disjuncture) • Technical aspects (camera, editing, effects etc)