ORIGINSORIGINSThe idea was originally derived fromThe idea was originally derived fromChomsky’s distinction betweenChomsky’s distinction betweencompetence and performacecompetence and performace Competence shared knowledge ofCompetence shared knowledge ofideal speaker-listener set in a completelyideal speaker-listener set in a completelyhomogenous speech community.homogenous speech community.““Underlying knowledge enables users to produce and understand”Underlying knowledge enables users to produce and understand”
ORIGINSORIGINS Performance: process of applyingPerformance: process of applyingunderlying knowledge to actual languageunderlying knowledge to actual languageuse.use.““Should be given under ideal circunstances ( the ideal speaker-Should be given under ideal circunstances ( the ideal speaker-listener know and use language perfectly without making anylistener know and use language perfectly without making anymistakes)”mistakes)”
ORIGINSORIGINSHymes Chomsky’view too narrow to describeHymes Chomsky’view too narrow to describelanguage behavior as a whole.language behavior as a whole. Sociocultural factors or differential competence in aSociocultural factors or differential competence in aheterogeneous speech community???heterogeneous speech community??? Social life affects outward performance and innerSocial life affects outward performance and innercompetence itself.competence itself. Social factorsSocial factors interfere with or restrict grammar usebecause the rules of use are dominant over the rules ofgrammar
ORIGINSORIGINS Hymes concludes that a linguistic theory mustbe able to deal with a heterogeneous speechcommunity, differential competence and therole of sociocultural features Performance he defines it as the actual use oflanguage in a concrete situation, not anidealized speaker-listener situation in acompletely homogeneous speech community
ORIGINSORIGINS HymesHymes two kinds of competence: linguisticcompetence, and the communicative competence Linguistic competence that deals with producing andunderstanding grammatically correct sentences Communicative competence that deals with producingand understanding sentences that are appropriate andacceptable to a particular situation.
ORIGINSORIGINS Hymes coins a term “communicativecompetence” and defines it as “aknowledge of the rules for understandingand producing both the referential andsocial meaning of language.”
ORIGINSORIGINSWiddowsonWiddowson knowing a language is more than how tounderstand, speak, read,and write sentences, but howsentences are used to communicate. communicative abilities have to be developed at thesame time as the linguistic skills; otherwise the mereacquisition of the linguistic skills may inhibit thedevelopment of communicative abilities. “ usage and use “
ORIGINSORIGINS “Usage” makes evident the extent to which thelanguage user demonstrates his knowledge oflinguistic rules “Use” makes evident the extent to which thelanguage user demonstrates his ability to usehis knowledge of linguistic rules for effectivecommunication.(Widdowson, 1978)
ORIGINSORIGINSTeachers should provide linguistic andcommunicative contexts. Linguistic context focuses on usage to enablethe students to select which form of sentenceis contextually appropriate Communicative context focuses on use toenable the students to recognize the type ofcommunicative function their sentences fulfill
ORIGINSORIGINS (Canale & Swain, 1980) They strongly believethat the study of grammatical competence is asessential to the study of communicativecompetence as is the study of sociolinguisticcompetence. They propose their own theory ofcommunicative competence that minimallyincludes three main competencies: grammatical,sociolinguistic and strategic competence.
ORIGINSORIGINS Grammatical competence includes knowledgeof lexical items and of rules ofmorphology,syntax,sentence―grammarsemantics, and phonology. Sociolinguistic competence is made up of twosets of rules: sociolinguistic rules of use andrules of discourse. They believe thatknowledge of these rules will be crucial ininterpreting utterances for social meaning
ORIGINSORIGINS Strategic competence is made up ofverbal and non-verbal communicationstrategies that may be called into action tocompensate for breakdowns incommunication due to performancevariables or to insufficient grammaticalcompetence
BACHMAN’S VIEWBACHMAN’S VIEWThe organizational competence is divided intogrammatical competence and textual competence.Bachman’s grammatical competence is consonant withCanale and Swain’s grammatical competence.The textual competence, pertains to the knowledge ofconventions for cohesion and coherenceand rehetoricalorganization. It also includes conventions for languageuse in conversations, involving starting, maintaining,and closing conversations.Bachman’s textual competence have both the part ofCanale and Swain’s discourse competence andthe part of their strategic competence.
BACHMAN’S VIEWBACHMAN’S VIEW Bachman’s pragmatic competence,mainly focuses on the relationshipbetween what one says in his or hercommunicative acts and what functionshe or she intends to perform through hisor her utterances.
COMMUNICATIVECOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE THEN…COMPETENCE THEN… Communicative competence is made up of fourCommunicative competence is made up of fourcompetence areas: linguistic, sociolinguistic,competence areas: linguistic, sociolinguistic,discourse, and strategic.discourse, and strategic. Linguistic competenceLinguistic competence is knowing how to useis knowing how to usethe grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of athe grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of alanguage. Linguistic competence asks: Whatlanguage. Linguistic competence asks: Whatwords do I use? How do I put them intowords do I use? How do I put them intophrases and sentences?phrases and sentences?
COMMUNICATIVECOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE THEN…COMPETENCE THEN… Sociolinguistic competenceSociolinguistic competence is knowing how to useis knowing how to useand respond to language appropriately, given theand respond to language appropriately, given thesetting, the topic, and the relationships among thesetting, the topic, and the relationships among thepeople communicating.people communicating. Sociolinguistic competence asks: Which words andSociolinguistic competence asks: Which words andphrases fit this setting and this topic? How can Iphrases fit this setting and this topic? How can Iexpress a specific attitude (courtesy, authority,express a specific attitude (courtesy, authority,friendliness, respect) when I need to? How do I knowfriendliness, respect) when I need to? How do I knowwhat attitude another person is expressing?what attitude another person is expressing?
COMMUNICATIVECOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE THEN…COMPETENCE THEN… Discourse competenceDiscourse competence is knowing how tois knowing how tointerpret the larger context and how tointerpret the larger context and how toconstruct longer stretches of language so thatconstruct longer stretches of language so thatthe parts make up a coherent whole.the parts make up a coherent whole. Discourse competence asks: How are words,Discourse competence asks: How are words,phrases and sentences put together to createphrases and sentences put together to createconversations, speeches, email messages,conversations, speeches, email messages,newspaper articles?newspaper articles?
COMMUNICATIVECOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE THEN…COMPETENCE THEN… Strategic competenceStrategic competence is knowing how to recognizeis knowing how to recognizeand repair communication breakdowns, how to workand repair communication breakdowns, how to workaround gaps inaround gaps in one’s knowledge of the language, andone’s knowledge of the language, andhow to learn more about the language and in thehow to learn more about the language and in thecontext.context. Strategic competence asks: How do I know when I’veStrategic competence asks: How do I know when I’vemisunderstood or when someone has misunderstoodmisunderstood or when someone has misunderstoodme? What do I say then? How can I express my ideasme? What do I say then? How can I express my ideasif I don’t know the name of something or the right verbif I don’t know the name of something or the right verbform to use?form to use?