- Gram positive, obligate anaerobe
- Bacillus shaped with endospore present
- Found in environment, such as in soil,
- sediment or fecal contaminated foods
- Pathogenic- causes necrotic enteritis and gastroenteritis
- Usually self limiting in course of illness
- Symptoms occur 8-22 hrs after ingestion of large amounts of bacteria
- Diagnosed with stool sample and characteristic delayed onset.
- Most likely found in institutionalized settings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes and prisons due to mass preparation of food and improper heating/chilling and storage.
- Located in marine environments such as estuaries , brackish ponds, or coastal areas
- Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and a blistering dermatitis that is sometimes mistaken for the autoimmune disease pemphigus.
- usually enters the bloodstream, where it may cause fever and chills, septic shock (with sharply decreased blood pressure), and blistering skin lesion
- health officials clearly identified strains of V. vulnificus infections among evacuees from New Orleans due to the flooding there caused by Hurricane Katrina.
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
- Single-stranded RNA core, outer lipid envelope, spherical protein coat/capsid
- Causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
- Four stages: incubation period, acute infection, latency stage and AIDS
- 1 st - upon infection asymptomatic last 2-4 wks
- 2 nd -last average 28 days include fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, malaise, rash, muscle pain, mouth and esophageal sores
- 3 rd - shows little to no symptoms can last from 2wks-20yrs+
- 4 th - symptoms of various opportunistic infections
- No cure but can have antiviral treatment and or therapy