Mo W 07
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  • 1. Clostridium perfringens
    • Gram positive, obligate anaerobe
    • Bacillus shaped with endospore present
    • Found in environment, such as in soil,
    • sediment or fecal contaminated foods
    • Pathogenic- causes necrotic enteritis and gastroenteritis
      • Usually self limiting in course of illness
      • Abdominal pain
    • Symptoms occur 8-22 hrs after ingestion of large amounts of bacteria
    • Diagnosed with stool sample and characteristic delayed onset.
    • Most likely found in institutionalized settings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes and prisons due to mass preparation of food and improper heating/chilling and storage.
  • 2. Vibrio vulnificus
    • Gram -, rod
    • Located in marine environments such as estuaries , brackish ponds, or coastal areas
    • Pathogenic
      • Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and a blistering dermatitis that is sometimes mistaken for the autoimmune disease pemphigus.
    • usually enters the bloodstream, where it may cause fever and chills, septic shock (with sharply decreased blood pressure), and blistering skin lesion
    • health officials clearly identified strains of V. vulnificus infections among evacuees from New Orleans due to the flooding there caused by Hurricane Katrina.
  • 3. HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
    • Retroviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA core, outer lipid envelope, spherical protein coat/capsid
    • Causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    • Four stages: incubation period, acute infection, latency stage and AIDS
      • 1 st - upon infection asymptomatic last 2-4 wks
      • 2 nd -last average 28 days include fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, malaise, rash, muscle pain, mouth and esophageal sores
      • 3 rd - shows little to no symptoms can last from 2wks-20yrs+
      • 4 th - symptoms of various opportunistic infections
    • No cure but can have antiviral treatment and or therapy