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16.1 General Concepts in Immunity
Explain the basic aspects of innate (nonspeciﬁc)
and adap?ve (speciﬁc or acquired) immunity.
• What are the ﬁrst lines of defense against
• What are the second lines of defense?
• What is the third line of defense in the body?
Three Lines of Defense in the Human
• Innate immunity
1st: Barriers at body surfaces – 2nd: Nonspeciﬁc responses –
• Integument & mucous • Phagocy?c cells
• Inﬂamma?on & fever
• Chemical secre?ons
• microﬂora • An?microbial proteins
• 3rd: Adap?ve immunity: speciﬁc immune responses
Innate vs Adap?ve
• Innate – Nonspeciﬁc
– ATributes we have at birth
– Defend us from all pathogens
• Adap?ve – Acquired – Speciﬁc
– Not present at birth
– Immune responses that develop aWer exposure
• Vaccine, subclinical infec?on, clinical infec?on
– Unique cells for each speciﬁc pathogen