PERSONAL PROTECTIONEYE PROTECTION –• You must wear splash resistant (indirect ventilation) goggles when working with chemicals.• The goggles must also be impact resistant and will have the ANSI code Z-87 stamped on them. Splash-resistant due to NOT splash-resistant due to capped ventilation holes open ventilation holes
PERSONAL PROTECTIONCOSMETIC USE• Limit your cosmetic application before arriving at the lab. Certain cosmetics may react with the chemicals or the chemical vapors in lab.• Applying cosmetics during lab is prohibited.
APPAREL FOR CHEMICAL LABSYou must wear clothing that will cover yourskin: • Your shoulders, mid-sections, and legs must be covered; • No clogs, sandals, slaps, flip-flops, etc… (all of your foot must be covered).
CATEGORIES OF CHEMICAL HAZARDS CATEGORY DESCRIPTION TOXICS Poisons; usually cause damage throughout the body REACTIVE Reacts with everyday substances CORROSIVE Corrodes substances including flesh FLAMMABLE Burns easily COMPRESSED High pressures and possible toxic and GASES flammable gases IRRITANTS Irritate mucus membrane and skin CHRONIC Carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens – cause HAZARDS long-term harm
ROUTES OF CHEMICAL ENTRYRoute of entry describes the way the chemical enters thebody. Chemicals may have serious effects by one route,and minimal effects by another. Hazardous chemicals mayenter the body by: INHALATION • A chemical can enter your body through the lungs while breathing ABSORPTION • A chemical can enter your body by being splashed on the skin or in the eyes
ROUTES OF CHEMICAL ENTRY (cont.) INGESTION • A chemical can enter your body through intentional ingestion or unintentional ingestion. • Chewing on the end of a pen or pencil • Hand to mouth contact INJECTION • A chemical can enter your body by being injected under the skin • Hypodermic Needle • Broken Glass
ROUTES OF CHEMICAL ENTRY (cont.) In the laboratory the primary Routes of Entry are through inhalation and absorption. • Working in a laboratory with good general ventilation and using a chemical fume hood can prevent inhalation exposures. • Wearing appropriate chemical protective clothing and equipment prevents absorption contact. • Good hygiene habits, such as regular washing your hands, and using tongs or other tools to pick up sharp objects, will prevent exposure through ingestion or injection.
YOUR RIGHT TO KNOWHazard information about the chemical you usemay be presented in the form of: 1. MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheets 2. Container Labels • Manufacturer’s Labels • Secondary Labels • Labels for “Unknowns” 3. Precautionary Labels • NFPA Diamond • HMIS
MSDS INFORMATIONMaterial Data Safety Data Sheets Note: This is an example of an MSDS. Not all MSDSs will have the same formatprovides information such as:• Chemical identification• Physical data (flash point, boiling point…)• Health & fire hazards• first aid• Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)• Toxicity• Waste disposal MSDSs are available in the laboratories
CONTAINER LABELSPrimary container labels are labels that the manufacturerplaces on the container. These labels provide the following:• The Chemical Name (Identity)• The Hazards associated with the Chemical• The Manufacturer of the chemical and the contact information
CONTAINER LABELSSecondary containers – the containers that the LaboratorySupervisor prepares will be labeled with the followinginformation: Name of Chemical Not just the FormulaHazard of Chemical In this example, the chemical is a flammable liquid; poisonous liquid and; an irritant
CONTAINER LABELSContainers of Unknowns ● Occasionally you will work with chemicals whose identity is unknown. ● The safety information for these chemicals will be provided. ● Treat your unknown chemical as if it is in the most hazardous category.
PRECAUTIONARY LABELSChemical hazards are communicated immediately throughPrecautionary Labels. The most common types of theselabels are the NFPA Label and the HMIS Label.● The NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) Label is a diamond-shaped label with colors, numbers and symbols to communicate chemical hazard information.● Each color represents a hazard category: • Blue – Health Hazard • Yellow – Reactivity Hazard • Red – Flammability Hazard • White – Specific Hazard● Use the numbers 0-4 • The higher the number, the higher the hazard.
UNDERSTANDING NFPA DIAMOND LABEL Fire HazardHealth Hazard (Flash Point) 4 - Deadly 4 – Below 73° F 3 - Extreme Danger 3 – Below 100° F 2 - Hazardous 2 – Below 200° F 1 – Slightly Hazardous 1 – Above 200° F 0 – Normal Material 0 – Will not burnSpecific Hazard Reactivity Oxidizer - OXY 4 – May detonate Acid - ACID 3 – Shock and heat Alkali - ALK may detonate Corrosive - COR 2 – Violent chemical change Use NO WATER - W 1 – Unstable if heated Radioactive - 0 – Stable
UNDERSTANDING NFPA DIAMOND LABEL In this example, you do not know what chemical is in the bottle but you do know: ● It is an Extreme Health Hazard because of the BLUE 3 ● The Flash Point is above 200 and does not present a serious fire hazard because of the RED 1 ● The chemical is stable and will not React because of the YELLOW 0 ● The chemical is an Acid
UNDERSTANDING HMIS LABELHazardous Material Information System (HMIS) issimilar to the NFPA label, however:● HMIS label is rectangular in shape● Uses symbols indicating the PPE to be worn while working with the chemical.
DEFINITIONS FLASHPOINT: • The lowest temperature at which the vapor of a combustible liquid will ignite. OXIDIZER: • A chemical that provides oxygen and accelerates a reaction so that it may become explosive. ALKALI: • A chemical with a very high pH thus making it a strong base.
CHEMICAL SAFETY GUIDELINES● Always add Acid to the water or aqueous solution, never add water to acid!● Always use two hands on glass containers over 2 liters in size. Keep one hand on the bottom.● Transport large chemical bottles in a transfer container bucket.
CHEMICAL SAFETY GUIDELINES● Read the label on all containers BEFORE and AFTER you remove the contents.● Use volatile chemicals (readily become a vapor at relatively low temperatures) in a chemical hood. ● Handle ALL unknown chemicals as if they were hazardous!
CHEMICAL SAFETY GUIDELINES● Avoid cross contamination by: o Never putting reagents back in the stock bottle. o Paying close attention to what you are doing.● Clean balances and scales after each use.● Always replace the lid after obtaining chemicals (liquid or solid).● Dispose of waste products in appropriate containers. ● If you do not know… ASK!
CHEMICAL DISPOSAL Non-Hazardous waste Hazardous Waste Lab Supervisor will provide Dispose of hazardous chemicals in disposal instructions. labeled waste containers.Dispose of chemicals in the sink Replace bottle covers afteronly after being instructed to do using the funnel.so.
CHEMICAL DISPOSAL GUIDELINES● Listen to the instructions provided by your Instructor on disposal of chemicals for each laboratory procedure.● Different liquid wastes should NOT be mixed (ask the Instructor)● Fill waste container to just below neck of the bottle (no higher)● Dispose of all chemicals in properly labeled containers as instructed by the Instructor.
REMINDER Please complete the quiz for Module 2 before continuing.