Warm Up Looking back on writing your first paper for English 8, what did you appreciate about the process? What do you need to be more successful as a writer? What do you wish you had done differently? What were you most proud of? Respond in at least 5 sentences in your journal.
9/20/10 Agenda What makes literature literature? Due: :) To Do: Warm up Literary Elements/ Short Story Notes HW: No HW. I will be out of the building at a training this week on Tues, Wed, and Thurs. Mrs. Mann will be in for me.
Character There are 4 ways to describe a character: Round: These are characters that we know a lot about and are developed through detail. Flat: Readers do not know a lot about these characters. Static: Characters that do not change or grow throughout the story. Dynamic: Characters that change, grow, and learn throughout the story .
Protagonist Is the hero or the good guy in the story. This character is the central person in a story.
Antagonist Is the person or force that opposes the protagonist. It can be a person, but it can also be some other force. It can also be the protagonist him/herself.
Setting Time When a story takes place Place Where a story takes place Mood or Atmosphere What is the feeling of the story?
Conflict A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. There are two main kinds of conflict in stories: External : A conflict between two things or forces. Internal : A conflict within one’s self
5 Types of External Conflict Person vs Person: A conflict between two or more people. Person vs Nature: A conflict between a person and a force of nature. Person vs Society: A conflict between a person and a group of people.
5 Types of External Conflict Person vs Machine: A conflict between a machine and a person. Person vs. Fate: A conflict between an uncontrollable force and a person 1 type of internal conflict Person vs. Self: A conflict between a person and him/her self.
Plot Plot is the series of events that take place in the story. All stories, no matter how long or short, follow the same plot line. PLOT IS NOT “WHAT THE STORY IS ABOUT”
The Plot Line All stories follow this plot line. Exposition Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution
Exposition The exposition is the beginning of the story where the reader learns the setting of the story and any background information that may be important. It is where the story begins
Rising Action The rising action is where the conflict(s) are introduced and the story starts to get interesting. The action begins.
Climax The climax is the most exciting part of the story. It is what has been building up throughout the story.
Falling Action The falling action is where the conflicts begin to be resolved and the story begins to end. The falling action and the resolution can be 1 or 2 sentences at the end of a story.
Resolution The resolution is the end of the story. Conflicts and questions are answered and the story ends.
Irony Irony: the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. In other words, it is when the opposite of what you think is going to happen happens.
Types of Irony Verbal Irony- Verbal irony occurs when an author or character says one thing but means something else. Example : When it is a dark, gloomy, rainy, day and someone says, &quot;Wow, what a gorgeous day!” Situational Irony -Situational irony is an inconsistency between what the audience or reader expects, and what actually happens. Example : When you have stayed up all night cramming for a test the next day, and the test is actually not until the next week. Dramatic Irony- Dramatic irony occurs when an audience or reader knows something that a character does not know. Example : On a TV talk show, a guest thinks she is there to have a makeover, but the audience knows that she will soon be confronted by her cheating husband and his girlfriend .
Theme Theme is what the author is trying to teach you or the message in the story.
Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what is to come in literature.
Allusion Allusion is a literary device in which the writer or speaker refers either directly or indirectly to a person, event, or thing in history or to a work of art or literature. &quot;Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities&quot;.
Pun The humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. I was against the construction of tennis courts in the park as I thought they would cause too much racket.
Allegory The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form. Fables are often examples of allegory
Prejudice and Bias in Literature A judgement is made or conclusion reached before you know the facts, unfair. This can be a reader’s prejudice or it can be an author’s prejudice A slanted opinion[unfair for or against someone]
Satire Sarcasm, wit or irony used to poke fun at or ridicule something [not a pleasant form of humor] type of genre The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Onion News are examples http://www.theonion.com/content/index
Methods of Characterization Direct Characterization Writer tells the reader what kind of person the character is Indirect Characterization Writer gives clues to the reader about what kind of person the character is Uses four methods Through the character’ s appearance Through the character’s words Through the character s actions Through the reaction of the other characters to the character
How did the short story genre develop? Developed in the United States after the American Revolution as a way to relax and be entertained when there was not a lot of time. Edgar Allen Poe is regarded as the “Father of the Short Story” because he established the criteria Fiction Brevity (being short) Unity of Impression (ties everything into one main idea)
Short Story vs. Novel Short stories contain fewer characters Writers choose to limit larger conflicts between and among characters through a compressed time span Intensifies the characters’ emotions Maintains reader interest
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