Philippine anthropology in a post-anthropology age By Michael L. Tan In Tigno, Jorge V. (ed.) 2010. Philippine Social Science Discourse. QC: CSSP. Presented by JESSIE G. VARQUEZ, JR. 06 July 2011. Anthro 292.
First rafaelpalma centennial lecture: 27 Feb 2008 Source: http://www.up.edu.ph/upnewsletter.php?issue=39&i=614 Dr. Tan believes that medical doctors can become more “culturally competent” with the help of anthropology.
outline Teacher’s Summer Camp in Baguio Colonial Gaze Social Engineering and UP’s anthropology Defining Self through the Other Repositioning in a Post-Anthropology Age? Apologies Moving Forward: socially-engaged, public anthropology
Teacher’s summer camp in baguio 20 April–16 May 1908 The Assembly program consisted of a series The assembly program consisted of a series of systematic lectures on “Anthropology,” “Ethnology,” “Present Day Problems in Government,” “The Government of the United States,” “Present Problems in Education,” “Genetic Psychology,” “Shakespeare’s Greater Plays,” “Literature and the Elementary Schools” and “Heredity.” (p. 252 in MacClintock, William D. 2001 (1909). “The Philippine Teachers’ Vacation Assembly” in: Mary Racelis and Judy Celine Ick, Bearers of Benevolence: The Thomasites and Public Educaiton in the Philippines, pp. 248-256.)
Colonial gaze Source: Craig, Austin (ed.) 1916. The Former Philippines Seen Thru Foreign Eyes. Manila: Philippine Education Co.
Colonial gaze SPANISH ERA Ferdinand Blumentritt produced more than 200 articles about the Philippines 50 Filipinos exhibited in the Madrid exposition of 1887 Jesuit Francisco Alcina, in the 17th century, wrote The History of the Visayan Islands
Colonial gaze AMERICAN PERIOD Early articles showed obsessive interest in the racial classification of Filipinos (anthropometrics) 1904 St. Louis Exposition spread over 47 acres with 75,000 catalogued exhibits Vergara (1995:112-114) has an exhaustive listing of what Americans got to see including 21 Juan Luna paintings, kegs of San Miguel Beer, guitars, chicken traps, coffins. There were also 1100 living Filipinos including “18 Tinguians, 30 Bagobos, 70 BontocIgorots, 20 SuyocIgorots, 38 Negritos and Mangyans, 79 Visayans and 80 Moros.”
A bicol of albay province Source: Folkmar, Daniel. 1904. Album Of Philippine Types: Christians and Moros. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
A cagayan of isabela province Source: Folkmar, Daniel. 1904. Album Of Philippine Types: Christians and Moros. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
A Moro of jolo island Source: Folkmar, Daniel. 1904. Album Of Philippine Types: Christians and Moros. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
A tagalog of rizal province Source: Folkmar, Daniel. 1904. Album Of Philippine Types: Christians and Moros. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
A negrito-tagalog of bataan province Source: Folkmar, Daniel. 1904. Album Of Philippine Types: Christians and Moros. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
COLONIAL GAZE Frederick Starr, a well-known anthropologist and mentor of David Barrows, criticized the book in the American Anthropologist, noting that the album was based on inmates at Bilibid Prison. “ Prison cases should everywhere be exceptional and aberrant types, in no true sense representative of their race…” (Starr 1905: 131)
Barrows wanted to fast-track reforms, and so reduced primary education to three years and looked for ways to produce more “insular teachers”. He had textbooks revised to use local characters (Maria, Juan, Manuel and Rosita), pictures of local scenes like walking barefoot to school. Convinced that the main problem in the Philippines was caciquism, Barrows had books referring to the problems of tenancy, saw geography as a way of broadening the peasant’s vision, “beyond the confines of his barrio”, and emphasized “character training”. Social engineering
Anthropology @ up H.O. Beyer taught the first anthropology course in 1914; became chair until 1954 Anthropology 1 being the fist course offered By 1915, seven more courses were added: Ethnography of Eastern Asia and Oceania Philippine Languages Economic Development of Mankind Social Anthropology Social and Economic Life of Pagan Peoples Philippine Ethnography Special Teacher’s Course
Anthropology @ up Other courses include “The Social and Economic Life of the Mountain Peoples of the Philippines” and “The Government of Primitive Peoples” Reflect the 19th century classical evolutionism (ideas of progression) Anthropology’s obsession with race reflected in UP’s anthropology courses (1927-1928 General Catalogue)
Beyer himself was interested in archaeology, and so the anthropology department at UP evolved to reflect this specialization. Beyer was a prolific writer, and his publications went beyond academic journals, influencing public thinking about our prehistory and about culture itself. Most notable here was his version of the wave migration theory, which probably became popularized when it was incorporated into his Philippine Sage, written with Jaime De Veyra and published by the Evening News in 1947. Anthropology @ up
Defining the self through the other Rizal and fellow illustrados adopted European views about the Indio Beyer’s Wave Migration Theory Popular in many documents Philippine Social Life (1954) “The recent murder of two American Fulbright professors in the Mountain Province is a good illustration of the suspicious attitude and lack of respect for human life by those Bontoc tribes which have not had the advantage of social contact with more progressive people.”
Repositioning in a post-anthropology age 1960s “crisis of representation” “I therefore use “post-anthropology” age in a different sense, urging a re-reading of earlier classical work, even if with critical awareness of where we came from, and where Barrows and other anthropologists came from. More importantly, we need to ask ourselves serious questions now, even as we re-read past work, about the relevance of anthropology today.”
apologies Hottentot Venus Australian aborigines UP students TV programs
Moving forward Socially-engaged, Public Anthropology Anthropology as study of the other; crucial to the colonial agenda Engagements Diversified possible sites of inquiry Government and civil society Mass media “National story-telling”
Nader (2001: 610) We are an outrageous science, along with ecology the first of the “new” sciences rather than the last of the “old,” a science with a shapeless quality because it is both soft and hard, both humanities and science, between nature and culture, the past and the present, Us and Them – searching for new ways to understand the human condition writ large, one that includes the nonhuman world. What is standing in the way of further scientific discovery is not our ignorance but the illusion of knowledge.