PRIMITIVE EDUCATION L i f e i s s i m p l e c o m p a r e d w i t h l i f e today. Means of livelihood±Hunting ± G a t h e r i n g w i l d f r u i t s a n d vegetables L i v e i n c r u d e h u t s i n a l i m i t e d area with few or nocontact at allwith other people.Education in the Philippines during Spanish ruleDuring the early Spanish period most education was carried out by the religious orders. Thefriars, recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population, built printing presses to producematerial in baybayin.... [continues]During the early years of Spanish colonization, education was mostly religion-oriented and controlled bythe Roman Catholic Church. Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives through religion withthe aim of converting indigenous populations to the Catholic faith.King Philip IIs Leyes de Indias (Laws of the Indies) mandated Spanish authorities in the Philippines toeducate the natives, to teach them how to read and write and to learn Spanish. However, the latter objective was well-nigh impossible given the realities of the time. The early friars learned the locallanguages and the Baybayin script to better communicate with the locals. Although by royal decree thefriars were required to teach the Spanish language to the natives, they reasoned that it would be easierfor them to learn the local languages first than trying to teach Spanish to all the population.The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately on reaching the islands and wherever theypenetrated, church and school went together. There was no Christian village without its school and allyoung people attended.The Augustinians opened a school immediately upon arriving in Cebú in 1565. The Franciscans arrived in1577, and they, too, immediately taught the people how to read and write, besides imparting to themimportant industrial and agricultural techniques. TheJesuits who arrived in 1581 also concentrated onteaching the young. When the Dominicans arrived in 1587, they did the same thing in their first mission in Bataan.Within months of their arrival in Tigbauan which is located in the island of Panay, Pedro Chirino andFrancisco Martín had established a school for Visayan boys in 1593 in which they taught not only thecatechism but reading, writing, Spanish, and liturgical music. TheSpaniards of Arévalo heard of theschool and wanted Chirino to teach their boys too. Chirino at once put up a dormitory and school house(1593–1594) for the Spanish boys near his rectory. It was the first Jesuit boarding school to be established in the Philippines.The Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine) was the first book printed inthe Philippines in about 1590 to 1592. A version in Spanish, and in Tagalog, in both Latin script and the commonly used Baybayin script of the Manila Tagalogs of the time was printed in 1593. The goal of thebook was to propagate the Christian teachings around Manila. Eventually, the Baybayin script wasreplaced by the Latin script, providing in this way the indigenous people with more leverage when dealing with the local Spanish colonial administrators.
In 1610 Tomas Pinpin a Filipino printer, writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarchof Filipino Printing", wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla,that was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. The prologue read:“ "Let us therefore study, my country men, for although the art of learning is somewhat difficult, yet if we are persevering, we shall soon improve our knowledge. Other Tagalogs like us did not take a year to learn the Spanish language when using my book. This good result has given me satisfaction and encouraged me to print my work, so that all may derive some profit from it."  ”There were also Latin schools where that language was taught together with some Spanish, since it wasa mandatory requirement for the study of philosophy, theology and jurisprudence in schools like theUniversity of Santo Tomás, run by the Dominicans. The Philippine priests and lawyers of that time, with [n 1]the exception of the sons and daughters of Spaniards, Principalías and Ladinos, knew Latin perfectlywell because the educational system was wholly religious.The friars also opened many medical and pharmaceutical schools. The study of pharmacy consisted of apreparatory course with subjects in natural history and general chemistry and five years of studies insubjects such as pharmaceutical operations at the school of pharmacy. At the end of this period, thedegree of Bachiller en Farmacia was granted.By the end of the 16th century, several religious orders had established charity hospitals all over thearchipelago and provided the bulk of this public service. These hospitals also became the setting forrudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine, focusing mostly on the problems ofinfections diseases. Several Spanish missionaries cataloged hundreds of Philippine plants with medicinalproperties. The Manual de Medicinas Caseras...., written by Father Fernando de Santa María, first published in 1763, became so sought after that it was reprinted on several editions by 1885.Colegio de Santa Potenciana was the first school and college for girls that opened in the Philippines, in1589. It was followed by another school for women, Colegio de Santa Isabel, that opened in 1632. OtherSchools and Colleges for girls were Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, La Concordia, etc. Several religious congregations also established schools for orphaned girls who could not educate themselves.Modern public system of education Modern public school education was introduced in Spain only in 1857. This did not exist in any othercolony of any European powerin Asia. The concept of mass education was relatively new, an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. France was the first country in the world to create a system ofmass, public education in 1833.Free access to modern public education by all Filipinos was made possible through the enactment of theEducation Decree of December 20, 1863 by Queen Isabella II. Primary instruction was made free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. This was ten years before Japan had a compulsory form of freemodern public education and forty years before the American government started an English-based public school system in the Philippines. The royal decree provided for a complete educational system
which would consist of primary, secondary and tertiary levels, finally making officially available to Filipinos valuable training for leadership after three centuries of colonization.The Education Decree of 1863 provided for the establishment of at least two free primary schools, one forboys and another for girls, in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. It alsocommended the creation of a free public normal school to train men as teachers, supervised by theJesuits. One of these schools was the Escuela Normal Elemental, which, in 1896 became theEscuelaNormal Superior de Maestros de Manila (Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses). The Spanishgovernment established a school for midwives in 1879, and Escuela Normal Superior de Maestras (Superior Normal School) for female teachers in 1892. By the 1890s, free public secondary schools were opening outside of Manila, including 10 normal schools for women.The range of subjects being taught were very advanced, as can be seen from the Syllabus of Educationin the Municipal Atheneum of Manila, that included Algebra, Agriculture, Arithmetic, Chemistry,Commerce, English, French, Geography, Geometry, Greek, History, Latin, Mechanics, Natural History,Painting, Philosophy, Physics, Rhetoric and Poetry, Spanish Classics, Spanish Composition,Topography, and Trigonometry. Among the subjects being taught to girls, as reflected in the curriculum ofthe Colegio de Santa Isabel, were Arithmetic, Drawing, Dress-cutting, French, Geology, Geography,Geometry, History of Spain, Music, Needlework, Philippine History, Physics, Reading, Sacred History and Spanish Grammar.Contrary to what the Propaganda of the Spanish–American War tried to depict, the Spanish public systemof education was open to all the natives, regardless of race, gender or financial resources. The BlackLegend propagation, black propaganda and yellow journalismwere rampant in the last two decades  [n 3][n 4]of Spanish Colonial Period and throughout the American Colonial Period. Manuel L. Quezon, [n 5]on his speech for the Philippine Assembly at the US Congress on October 1914 stated that“ ...there were public schools in the Philippines long before the American occupation, and, in fact, I have been educated in one of these schools, even though my hometown is such a small town,  isolated in the mountains of the Northeastern part of the island of Luzon. ...as long ago as 1866 when the total population of the Philippine Islands was only 4,411,261 souls, and when the total number of municipalities in the archipelago was 900, the total public schools was 841 for boys and 833 for girls and the total number of children attending these schools was 135,098 for boys and 95,260 for girls. And these schools were really edifices and the students were lively, intelligent, alert. In 1892, the number of schools had increased to 2,137, 1,087 of which were for boys and 1,050 for girls. I have seen with my own eyes many of these schools and thousands of those students. They were not religious schools, but schools established, supported and  maintained by the Government (Spanish).Education and Filipino nationalism
Ilustrados in Madrid (ca.1890)As a result of increasing the number of educated Filipinos a new social class raised, that came to beknown as the Ilustrados. Furthermore, with the opening of Suez Canalin 1869 travel to Spain becomequicker, easier and more affordable, and many Filipinos took advantage of it to continue higher educationin Spain and Europe, mostly in Madrid and Barcelona. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would laterlead the Philippine independence movement, using the Spanish language as their main communicationmethod. The most prominent of the Ilustrados was José Rizal, who inspired the desire for independencewith his novels written in Spanish. Other Filipino intellectuals, such asGraciano López Jaena, Marcelo H.del Pilar, Mariano Ponce or Antonio Luna, who had also studied in Spain, began contributing to the cause for Filipino self-government and independence.Describing this new generation of highly educated Filipinos, Fr. John N. Schumacher pointed out that,“ Philippine higher education was not far behind, or, under certain aspects, was even superior to the general level of higher education in Spain, at least outside Madrid. Perhaps the best testimony for this is the fact that such larger numbers of Filipino students were able to move without apparent difficulty from educational institutions at home to those in the Peninsula and establish honorable records for themselves there.  ”The Philippines was also ahead of some European countries in offering education for women. Ironically, it was during the time of American occupation of the Philippines that the results of Spanish education were more visible, especially in the literature, printed press and cinema.CriticismsOn 30 November 1900, the Philippine Commission reported to the US War Department about the state ofeducation throughout the archipelago as follows:“ ...Under Spanish rule there were established in these islands a system of primary schools. The Spanish regulations provided that there should be one male and one female primary school-teacher for each 5,000 inhabitants. It is clearly shown in the report of the first ” Philippine Commission that even this inadequate provision was never carried out. They say: “Taking the entire population at 8,000,000, we find that there is but one teacher to each
4,179 inhabitants.” There were no schoolhouses, no modern furniture, and, until theAmericans came, there were no good text-books. The schools were and are now held in theresidences of the teachers, or in buildings hired by the municipalities and used by theprincipals as dwellings. In some of the schools there were wooden benches and tables, but itwas not at all unusual to find a school without any seats for the pupils. In these primaryschools, reading, writing, sacred history, and the catechism were taught. Except in a veryfew towns, the four elementary arithmetical processes were attempted, and in a few towns abook on geography was used as a reading book. Girls were taught embroidery andneedlework. From the beginning the schools were entirely under the supervision of thereligious orders, who were disposed to emphasize secondary and higher education for a fewpupils rathe than to further and promote the primary education of the masses. The result ofthis policy is that a few persons have stood out prominently as educated Filipinos, while thegreat mass of people have either not been educated at all or furnished only the rudiments ofknowledge, acquiring merely the mechanical processes of reading and writing. The littleschool instruction the average Filipino has had has not tended to broaden his intelligence orto give him power of independent thought. One observes in the schools a tendency on thepart of the pupils to give back, like phonographs, what they have heard or read ormemorized, without seeming to have thought for themselves. As a rule, they possessmechanical skill, and they excel in writing and drawing. The Spaniards made very little use ofthis peculiar capacity....It is stated on good authority that when the Spaniards came here several of the tribes ofthe Philippine Islands could read and write their own language. At the present time, afterthree hundred years of Spanish domination, the bulk of the people cannot do his. TheSpanish minister for the colonies, in a report made December 5, 1870, points out that, by theprocess of absorption, matters of education had become concentrated in the hands of thereligious orders. He says: “While every acknowledgement should be made of their servicesin earlier times, their narrow, exclusively religious system of education, and theirimperviousness to modern or external ideas and influences, which every day become moreand more evident, rendered secularization of instruction necessary."...It has been stated that in 1897 here were in these islands 2,167 public schools. Theineffectiveness of these schools will be seen when it is remembered that a school under theSpanish regime was a strictly sectarian, ungraded school, with no prescribed course of studyand no definite standards for each year, and that they were in charge of duly certificated buthardly professionally trained or progressive teachers, housed in unsuitable and unsanitary
 buildings.Those numbers led some people to conclude that less than 6% of the population were attending schools.However that assumption was completely misleading, because it takes into account all of the population,including babies and old people, when in reality public school systems are meant primarily for childrenand teenagers. To calculate the percentage of children on scholar age, it must be taken into account thenumber of children in Elementary School age (ages 5 through 13) and teenagers in High School age(ages 14 through 17). That would yield a total percentage of around 20% of the total population. Since the 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727, 20% would be approximately 1,4 million. Also, by 1892 thenumber of schools had more than doubled to 2,137, 1,087 of which were for boys and 1,050 for girls,which means that the number of children attending school also did increase, to at least 500,000, byconservative estimates. Thats about 35% of the population in School age.Another claim commonly heard was that based on the official figures there couldnt be a school in everyvillage in the Islands, as Manuel L. Quezon declared years later before the Philippine Assembly.However, since those official figures branded by the Philippine Commission itself put the total number ofmunicipalities in the archipelago at 900, and the number of public schools at 2,167, those numbers revealthat there was not only one school in every municipality in the Islands, but in most cases two or more.Neither was taken into account that the schools maintained by Spain were closed and in many caseslooted and badly damaged during the Spanish–American War and the Philippine Revolution. Although thefree and compulsory elementary education system was temporarily reestablished by the MalolosConstitution, it was finally dismantled after the Philippine–American War, that also took a heavy toll uponthe remaining educational infrastructures.Finally, the Philippine Commission made no reference to the fact that the pioneering public schooleducation introduced by Spain in the Philippines was the first of its kind in all of Asia, and the first to beestablished in any European colony in the world. Such system was even ahead of most of United Statesat the time, where by 1900 only 34 states had any kind of compulsory schooling laws requiring attendance until age 14. As a result, the average American at the time was less educated than theaverage Filipino, something that was specially true among the troops that fought in the Philippine– American War, since most of the soldiers generally were of humble social origins.The system of education in the Philippines was patterned both from the educational systemsof Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, the system havechanged radically.The Department of Education (or DepEd) administers the whole educational system, which also includesthe allocation of funds utilized for school services and equipment (such as books, school chairs, etc.),recruitment of teachers for allpublic schools in the Philippines, and the supervision and organization ofthe school curricula.The former education system of the Philippines is composed of 6 years ofelementary education starting atthe age of 6 or 7, and 4 years of high school education starting at the age of 12 or 13. In this system,education is not compulsory. However, since June 4, 2012, DepEd started to implement the new K-12 educational system, whichincludes the new curricula for all schools (see the section). In this system, education is now compulsory.
All public and private schools in the Philippines must start classes from a date mandated by theDepartment of Education (usually every first Monday of June for public schools only), and must end aftereach school completes the mandated 200-day school calendar of DepEd (usually around the third weekof March to the second week of April).American periodMain article: Education in the Philippines during the American ruleFurther information: ThomasitesBuilding on the education system created in 1863, an improved public school system was establishedduring the first decade of American rule upon the recommendation of theSchurman Commission. Freeprimary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced bythe Taft Commission per instructions of PresidentWilliam McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissionedofficers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtueof Act No. 74. The implementation of this act created a heavy shortage of teachers. As a result, PhilippineCommission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines more than 1,000teachers from the United States called the Thomasites from 1901 to 1902. These teachers were scattered throughout the islands to establish barangay schools. The same law established the Philippine NormalSchool (now the Philippine Normal University) to train aspiring Filipino teachers.The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school ofarts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 bythe Philippine Commission.In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870, which created the University of thePhilippines. The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction.The emergence of high school education in the Philippines islands, however, did not happen until 1910,caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories and the emergence ofelectrification that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools werecreated and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students forprofessional white-collar or skilled blue-collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both the employer andthe employee, because this improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient,which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employeeswith just primary educational attainment.Two decades later, enrollment in elementary schools was about 1 million from about 150,000 in 1901, and about 100,000 in high school from less than 20,000 in 1901.After World War IIIn 1947, by the virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed tothe Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and privateschools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
Marcos eraIn 1972, the Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture by the virtueof Proclamation 1081 which was signed by President Ferdinand Marcos.Following a referendum of all barangays in the Philippines from January 10–15, 1973, on January 17,1973, President Marcos ratified the1973 Constitution by Proclamation 1102. The 1973 Constitution setout the three fundamental aims of education in the Philippines, to: Foster love of country; teach the duties of citizenship; and  develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency.On September 24, 1972, by Presidential Decree No. 1, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports was decentralized with decision-making shared among thirteen regional offices.In 1978, by the Presidential Decree No. 1397, the Department of Education and Culture became theMinistry of Education and Culture.The Education Act of 1982 provided for an integrated system of education covering both formal andnonformal education at all levels.Section 29 of the act sought to upgrade education institutions standardsto achieve "quality education", through voluntary accreditation for schools, colleges, anduniversities; Section 16 and Section 17 upgraded the obligations and qualifications required for teachersand administrators; while Section 41 provided for government financial assistance to private schools. This act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.Fifth RepublicOn February 2, 1987, a new Constitution for the Philippines was ratified. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains the ten fundamental aims of education in the Philippines.In 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, becamethe Department of Education, Culture and Sports. The structure of DECS as embodied in the orderremained practically unchanged until 1994.On May 26, 1988, the Congress of the Philippines enacted the Republic Act 6655, the Free PublicSecondary Education Act of 1988, which mandated free public secondary education commencing in the school year 1988–1989. On May 26, 1988, the Congress enacted the act which made free public secondary education to become a reality.On February 3, 1992, the Congress enacted Republic Act 7323, which provided that students aged 15 to25 may be employed duringChristmas and summer vacation with a salary not lower than the minimum wage. 60% of the wage is to be paid by the employer and 40% is by the government.The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1991 recommended the division ofDECS into three parts. On May 18, 1994, the Congress passed Republic Act 7722, the Higher EducationAct of 1994, creating the Commission on Higher Education(CHED), which assumed the functions of the Bureau of Higher Education, and supervises tertiary degree programs. On August 25, 1994, theCongress passed Republic Act 7796, the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994,creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which absorbed the Bureauof Technical-Vocational Education plus the National Manpower and Youth Council, and supervises non-
degree technical-vocational programs. DECS retained responsibility for all elementary and secondary education. This threefold division became known as the "trifocal system of education in thePhilippines".During the 21st centuryIn August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passedtransforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department ofEducation (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district officesand schools). The act provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengtheningtheir leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and localaccountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.In 2005, the Philippines spent about US$138 per pupil compared to US$3,728 in Japan, US$1,582 in Singapore and US$852 inThailand.In January 2009, DepEd signed a memorandum of agreement with the United States Agency forInternational Development to seal $86 million assistance to Philippine education, particularly the accessto quality education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), and the Western and Central Mindanao regions.Implementation of the K-12 program The implementation of the K-12 program is "phased". The first phase of the implementation will starton SY 2012-2013. During this school year, universal kindergarten will be finally offered, and will now be apart of the compulsory education system; and a new curriculum for Grade 1 and Grade 7 students wouldbe introduced. By SY 2016-2017, Grade 11/Year 5 will be introduced, and Grade 12/Year 6 by SY 2017- 2018; with the phased implementation of the new curriculum finished by the SY 2017-2018. Students in2nd year to 4th year high school this SY 2012-2013 are not included in the program. It is only applicableto students from Kinder to 1st year high school which is now called Grade 7.However, during the new educational cycle, from 2016 to 2018, college enrollment could slow downbecause of the entrance of the lower-year students to the new educational system.Education systemIn the elementary and secondary levels, there are three modes on delivery of instructions; the normaleducation system and thealternative system which is a non-formal education system. In the formalclassroom, a new mode is introduced which is the Alternative Delivery Mode.High school education is a prerequisite in vocational technical and college education. Table Level/Grade Typical agePreschool
Pre-school playgroup 3-4Kindergarten 4-6Primary SchoolGrade 1 6–7Grade 2 7–8Grade 3 8–9Grade 4 9–10Grade 5 10–11Grade 6 11–12Junior High SchoolGrade 7 12-13Grade 8 13-14Grade 9 14-15Grade 10 15–16Senior High SchoolGrade 11 16–17Grade 12 17–18Post-secondary education Ages vary (usually four years,Tertiary education (College or University) referred to as Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and
Senior years)Graduate educationAdult educationCompulsory educationCompulsory educationElementary schoolA photograph of a tarpaulin showing the different shifts for students in H. Bautista Elementary School in Marikina, Metro Manila.Starting in the 2010–11 school year, different year levels are given different class hours and are scheduled to go to school in differentshifts to compensate the lack of school buildings, teachers, and materials.Upper Uma Elementary School, Pasil Valley, Upper Kalinga, viewed from Ag-gama track, July 2008. Note distance from road (centreleft).
Only access from roadside (mid centre) to Upper Uma Elementary SchoolKalinga (behind) is via this one hour mud climb. ViewedDecember 2008.Elementary school, sometimes called primary school or grade school (Filipino:paaralangelementarya, sometimes mababang paaralan), is the first part of the educational system, and itincludes the first six years of compulsory education (grades 1-6). These grades are furthergrouped (informally) accordingly into: primary level, which includes the first three grades(grades 1-3), and intermediate level, which includes the last three grades (grades 4-6).The elementary school education covers a smaller but wider than the junior and senior highschool because of the spiral approach educational technique.In public schools, the core/major subjects that is introduced starting grade 1includemathematics, Filipino, and Makabayan (until grade 3, this subject is synonymous tosocialstudies, but also incorporate values education and the fundamentals of politicalscience). English is only introduced after the 2nd semester of grade 1. Science is only introducedstarting grade 3. Heograpiya (geography), kasaysayan (history), and sibika(civics) (abbreviatedas HEKASI), is only introduced starting grade 4 (similar also tosocial studies but focuses more onthe subjects earlier stated). Minor subjects then include music, arts, physical education,and health (abbreviated as MAPEH). In private schools, subjects in public schools also includethose of the public schools, with the additional subjects including: computer education andHELE (stands for homeeconomics and livelihood education; while in Christian schools or inCatholic schools, religious education. International schools also have their own subjects in theirown language and culture.
From grades 1-3, students will be taught using their mother tongue, meaning theregionallanguages of the Philippines (also called as dialects) will be used in some subjects(except Filipino and English) as a medium of instruction. It may be incorporated as a separatesubject. But from grade 4, Filipino and English as a medium of instruction will then be used.On December 2007, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that Spanish is tomake a return as a mandatory subject in all Filipino schools starting in 2008 but it didnt comeinto effect.DECS Bilingual Policy is for the medium of instruction to be Filipino for: Filipino, AralingPanlipunan, Edukasyong Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika; and English for: English, Scienceand Technology, Home Economics and Livelihood Education. Article XIV, Section 7 of the1987 Philippine constitution mandates that regional languages are the auxiliary officiallanguages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. As a result,the language actually used in teaching is often a polyglot of Filipino and English with theregional language as the foundation, or rarely the local language. Filipino is based on Tagalog, soin Tagalog areas (including Manila), Filipino is the foundational language used. Philippineregional languages are used in the provinces in the teaching of Makabayan. International Englishlanguage schools use English as the foundational language. Chinese schools add two languagesubjects, such as Min Nan Chinese and Mandarin Chinese and may use English or Chinese as thefoundational language. The constitution mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted ona voluntary and optional basis. Following on this, a few private schools mainly catering to theelite include Spanish in their curriculum. Arabic is taught in Islamic schools.Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary Achievement Test(NEAT) administered by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS). It wasintended as a measure of a schools competence, and not as a predictor of student aptitude orsuccess in Secondary school. Hence, the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not usedas a basis for their admission into Secondary school. During 2004, when DECS was officiallyconverted into the Department of Education (DepEd), and also, as a result of somereorganization, the NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Departmentof Education (DepEd). Both the public and private elementary schools take this exam to measurea schools competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance examinations forSecondary school.The DepEd expects over 13.1 million elementary students to be enrolled in public elementaryschools for school year 2009–2010.
Though elementary schooling is compulsory, latest official figures show 27.82% of Filipinoelementary-aged children either never attend or never complete elementary schooling, usuallydue to the absence of any school in their area, education being offered in a language that isforeign to them, or financial distress. In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreignlanguage problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mother-tongue basedlearning initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on thebridging plan adopted, the Filipino and English languages are to be phased in as the language ofinstruction for other subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades.Secondary educationPSHS Main Campus. Note the disparity between rural and urban education facilities in the Philippines.Secondary school in the Philippines, more commonly known as "high school"(Filipino:paaralang sekundarya, sometimes mataas na paaralan), consists of four levels largelybased on the American schooling system as it was until the advent of the comprehensive highschools in the US in the middle of last century. The Philippine high school system has not movedmuch from where it was when the Philippines achieved independence from the US in 1946. Itstill consists of only four levels with each level partially compartmentalized, focusing on aparticular theme or content.DepEd specifies a compulsory curriculum for all high schooling, public and private. The firstyearof high school has five core subjects, Algebra I, Integrated Science, English I, Filipino I, andPhilippine History I. Second year has Algebra II, Biology, English II, Filipino II, and AsianHistory. Third year has Geometry, Trigonometry, Chemistry, Filipino III, and World History andGeography. Fourth year has Calculus, Advanced Algebra, Physics, Filipino IV, Literature, andEconomics. Minor subjects may include Health, Music, Arts, Technology and Home Economics,and Physical Education.In selective schools, various languages may be offered as electives, as well as other subjects suchas computer programming and literary writing. Chinese schools have language and cultural
electives. Preparatory schools usually add some business and accountancy courses, while sciencehigh schools have biology, chemistry, and physics at every level.Secondary students used to sit for the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT), which wasbased on the American SAT, and was administered by DepEd. Like its primary schoolcounterpart, NSAT was phased-out after major reorganizations in the education department.Now the National Achievement Test is administered to second year students. Higher educationinstitutions, both public and private, administer their own College Entrance Examinations(CEE). Vocational colleges usually do not have entrance examinations, simply accepting theForm 138 record of studies from high school, and enrolment payment.Technical and vocational educationTechnical and vocational education is offered to enhance students practical skills at institutionsusually accredited and approved byTESDA. Institutions may be government operated, often byprovincial government, or private. The vast majority are privately operated and most callthemselves colleges. They may offer programs ranging in duration from a couple of weeks totwo year diploma courses. Programs can be technology courses like automotive technology,computer technology, and electronic technology; service courses such as caregiver, nursing aide,hotel and restaurant management; and trades courses such as electrician, plumber, welder,automotive mechanic, diesel mechanic, heavy vehicle operator & practical nursing. Upongraduating from most of these courses, students may take an examination from TESDA to obtainthe relevant certificate or diploma.Tertiary educationMain article: Higher education in the PhilippinesTertiary education in the Philippines is increasingly less cosmopolitan. From a height of 5,284foreign of students in 1995–1996 the number steadily declined to 2,323 in 2000–2001, the lastyear CHED published numbers on its website.Other schoolsThere are other types of schools such as private schools, preparatory schools, internationalschools, laboratory high schools andscience high schools. Several foreign ethnic groups,including Chinese, British, Americans, Koreans, and Japanese operate their own schools.Chinese schoolsMain article: List of Chinese schools in the Philippines
Chinese schools add two additional subjects to the core curriculum, Chinese communication artsand literature. Some also add Chinese history, philosophy and culture, and Chinese mathematics.Still, other Chinese schools called cultural schools, offer Confucian classics and Chinese art aspart of their curriculum. Religion also plays an important part in the curriculum. Some Chineseschools were founded by American evangelists. Some Chinese schools have Catholic roots.Pre-HispaniceducationinthePhilippineswasnotformal•Educationwasoral,practical,andhands-on•Theobjectivewasbasicallytopromotereverencefor,andadorationofBathala,respectforlaws,customs,andauthoritiesrepresentedbyparentsandelders•WhentheSpaniardsarrivedinthePhilippinestheyencounteredislanderswhoknewhowtoreadandwrite.EducationduringtheSpanishRegime•TheFriarsestablishedparochialschoolslinkedwithchurchestoteachcatechismtothenatives•Instructionwasinthedialect•Educationwasmanaged,supervised,andcontrolledandthefriars•Educationinthecountrywasnotuniform•Thesystemofschoolingwasnothierarchicalnorstructured,thustherewerenogradelevels