Looking to make sense of the world (If it was not Demons then what was it?) VOLTAIRE
Were they religious (faith) or was it a belief system?
How many went to church?
NOTE The ‘Church’ as a power play
What would the historian of 200 years in the future make of some of today’s situations and beliefs?
A) Alien Abduction
C) Sitting under Pyramids
D) Extra Sensory Perception
E) ‘Certain’ Alternative Medical Treatments
F) Conspiracy Theories
Clothes Also Suit the Climate of the time
HUGE IMPACT OF DISEASE ON HISTORY
STATISTICS: ALL WE KNOW IS THAT THEY ARE WRONG
IF THE WRITER DOES NOT QUALIFY THE STATISTICS: BEWARE
1691 AND MY CLASS
Government Statistics Must be Accurate eh!
Census every 10 years
‘ In-Between’ years estimated on trends
Estimated to be + or - 5% at best.
Depends on honesty and accuracy of the collector.
Depends on ‘everybody’ taking part.
Almost all historical statistics open to doubt
THEY ARE A TREND AND INDICATION OF CHANGE
Who Would not Answer the Statistical Analysis?
Can’t be bothered
Not home on the date
Those that have anything to hide or just view it as intrusion.
Who is the Householder?
THE FURTHER WE GO BACK IN TIME THE MORE ‘DODGY’ THE STATISTICS
MASLOW’s HIERARCHY OF NEED
TRY NOT TO PUT MODERN DAY CONCEPTS INTO HISTORY
Cruelty (People and Animals)
Sex (Agnes Sorrel: Mistress Charles VII of France) Breasts were for feeding babies.
A Society of child death, no social security and a knowledge of what sex was for.
So allure was very important.
HOW DID THE MASS OF THE POPULATION LIVE? Breugal - Hogarth
We have little idea
Very much a ‘rough and tumble’ life tied to agricultural work and seasons.
Until the Industrial Revolution apart from a few illustrations did not appear on the landscape
“ Individual visibility in historical records depends to a great extent upon wealth, social status and literacy.” The English Family 1450-1700. p2
Administration of the Poor Law
SOMETIMES EVIDENCE ARISES (Not sure about the glamorous image)
GUNNA dress found in a peat bog in Jutland.
Small lengths of material stitched together to form a sack like gown
THE DESERVING POOR AND THE RESIDIUM Frith (Railway) – Gustave Dore 1872 – Filde (Applicants for admission to a casual ward)
MARRIAGE: NOT ‘LOVE’ – A CONTRACT
Children a ‘welfare’ resource: No social security.
1601 Elizabethan Poor Law compelled children to look after destitute parents.
Life long mutual support mechanism
High proportion of marriages were re-marriages
Marriage important to keep skilled business within the family. Run farms. Look after children
AFTER ALL: TODAY MARRIAGE IS VERY DIFFERENT
AVERAGE LENGTH OF MARRIAGE IN WESTERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
YEAR 2000 :
Mid Victorian Europe 1860-1880 (Mainly British Data)
JOHN KOMLOS Anthropometric Measures.
By the study of weights and heights and dietary standards etc, over a time line certain questions can be raised about the mass of a population.
Aristocratic born boys in Europe were on average 4 to 7 cm taller than Middle Class born boys.
In England in the same period Gentry born boys were 20cm taller than London slum boys. (Social Science History, 6, Fall 1982, pp 422-52)
Note: Very difficult to get accurate runs of heights for lower class boys and all girls
Possible Considerations (After Screening out Variant Factors)
Decline in nutrients: Food output did not keep pace with population. Agricultural labour force falling. Urbanization of USA. Lack of railroad system.
Meat output did not keep up with population increase.
Reversed after Civil War and railroads
Minimum height requirements at West Point?
Cadets had a higher socio-economic status than recruits .
Move of USA from an agricultural hierarchy to a Professional hierarchy
Much smaller class difference in USA compared to Europe.
Destruction of livestock in Civil War
173.4 175.6 171 1870’s 171.7 174.4 170.9 1860’s 170.8 172.9 170.9 1850’s 171.9 173.3 171.9 1840’s 174.0 172.5 173.3 1830’s 173.5 N/A 173 1820’s 20yr old West Point Harvard Grads Privates Decade of Birth
DRESS SIZES OF THE POOR UNRELIABLE IN THE EXTREME: (JACK THE RIPPER) 1888 Elizabeth Stride (Long Liz)
4 out of 5 over 40
All had been married (21 children)
Whitechapel an immigrant, dock area hell hole. Yiddish spoken widely.
NOTE Married Women’s Property Act 1882
Also in 1888
To Crin or Not to Crin
EAST END LONDON FASHIONS
DEPENDS ON YOUR PLACE IN SOCIETY
At the top essential to determine true inheritance. Once this is secure then each person can ‘more or less’ go their own way.
No DNA tests.
MARRIAGE FOR MOST PEOPLE
Late marriage until they had the ability to survive financially
Because of this many would never marry
‘ Nuclear family’
Eliz. England mean age of marriage, women 26,men 28
Sharing of work: Agriculture, proto industry.
FOR THE GENTRY JANE AUSTEN: (Wrote the only real novel in history) Not a historical novel: a Chronicler of her times.
Story of the novel is Mrs. Bennet’s quest to marry off her Five educated daughters.
Today is reads like she was mad but her great concern was what would happen to the girls if they remained unmarried.
Certain Paintings at a certain time are very useful if we know the story. Renoir, Pierre-Auguste: Le Moulin de la Galette
1876 The girl in the striped dress in the middle foreground was said to be Estelle, the sister of Renoir's model, Jeanne. Another of Renoir's models, Margot, is seen to the left dancing with the Cuban painter, Cardenas. At the foreground table at the right are the artist's friends, Frank Lamy, Norbert Goeneutte and Georges Rivière who in the short-lived publication L'Impressionniste extolled the Moulin de la Galette as a page of history, a precious monument of Parisian life depicted with rigorous exactness. Nobody before him had thought of capturing some aspect of daily life in a canvas of such large dimensions.
WHILE ON THAT SUBJECT: STUDY OF CLOTHING CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE (14 years or 30 years?) (Artistic License)
ACCURACY OF CARTOONS IN WHO WORE WHAT AND HOW 1867 & 1909 - Dana Gibson Granddad & Rival Beauties
MERE ‘ILLUSTRATORS’ A VERY IMPORTANT SOURCE
NUANCES OF 1850s PARISIAN SOCIETY (INGRES)
Princess de Broglie 1853
Born an aristocrat
Baronne James de Rothschild 1844-48
‘ Arriviste’ Flounces on skirt hemline too frivolous; jewelry too complicated, ostrich plumes much too ostentatious and like a vulgar hat. (Hats not be worn with evening dress)
Shocks to the System – I am going to rouge my knees and roll my stockings down: All that Jazz .
ALL THAT JAZZ
WOMENS WORK (ALWAYS UNDERSTATED AND UNDER-RECORDED: AGRICULTURE?: HOME WORK)
WHO WRITES THE BOOKS? AND FOR WHOM?
M COLLINS His opinions are shaded by age, gender, place of birth, places lived etc
Globe and Mail April 08 “------------- book shocked a whole generation of men”
Up until the 1960s text books were written by a very very small group of people for a small group of people.
Since then a small group is writing for a reasonably large group.
BUT everybody is biased, everybody is shaped by their own culture.
QUESTION THOSE SOURCES
Use all sources as a guide to making up your own mind.
What is the experience of these writers?
What is their social class?
What is their education?
What are their political beliefs. (Note Irving, Hobsbawm.)
Do they really know very much or are they just regurgitating the same old sources?
SO WHAT IS THIS THING CALLED FASHION?
A way of behaving that is temporarily adopted by a discernable proportion of members of a social group because that chosen behaviour is perceived to be socially appropriate for the time and the situation. (Sproles, quoted in Curran 1991)
Louis XIV “Fashion is the ‘mirror of history’, it reflects political, social and economic changes rather than mere whimsy”
Lord Chesterfield - Dress is a very foolish thing and yet it is a foolish thing for a man not to be well dressed according to his rank and way of life.
WOAD to WESTWOOD
TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE ITSELF SHAPES FASHION Day Dress – Cage - Feragammo
James Laver (V&A) 1937 Laver’s Law
10 years before its time Indecent
5 years before its time Shameless
1 year before its time Daring
1 year after its time Dowdy
10 years after its time Hideous
20 years after its time Ridiculous
30 years after its time Amusing
50 years after its time Quaint
70 years after its time Charming
100 years after its time Romantic
150 years after its time Beautiful
But all fashions can go just a bit too far!
On the face of it there appear to be two obvious reasons behind clothing, let alone fashionable clothing.
a) Warmth . However Tierra del Fuego early European travellers and natives, No clothes but backing away from fire perspiring heavily.
b) Modesty . Well many periods in European history not too modest with breasts falling out or handkerchiefs stuffed into underwear, codpieces and public exercise of bodily functions. It really does appear that modesty in dress goes hand in hand with culture.
But in our society today clothes and fashion play a much larger part in life than is generally recognised.
We dress up for interviews-why? There are norms of dress for various functions. However, even the person who says he has no interest whatsoever is affected by fashion.
Would the accused standing in the dock in his borrowed suit, wear something really out of fashion? Not talking about a three cornered hat here—he would not even wear the suit fashion of ten years ago.
And yet in that very same court he is faced with:
Judge Wig a Queen Ann period
Barristers George Third wig (60 years later)
KC/QC A Tudor gown.
Bring your arguments and opinions to class and in your work.
For heavens sake do not think you have to agree with me.
Talk about your work with me.
Bring your experiences and those of your family to class.
THINGS TO AT LEAST KEEP IN MIND OR: WERE PEOPLE IN THE PAST REALLY STUPID?