Socioemotional Development

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Socioemotional Development

  1. 1. John W. Santrock Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood Children 13
  2. 2. Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood <ul><li>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood? </li></ul><ul><li>What Are Some Changes in Parenting and Families in Middle and Late Childhood? </li></ul><ul><li>What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood? </li></ul><ul><li>What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Self <ul><li>Development of self-understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children increasingly describe themselves with physiological characteristics and traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-understanding includes social references and comparisons </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  4. 4. The Self <ul><li>Understanding others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective taking increases with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judging others’ intentions, purposes, actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important in social attitudes and behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased skepticism of others’ claims with age </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  5. 5. The Self <ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Global evaluations of the self </li></ul><ul><li>Self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Self-image </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Domain-specific evaluations of the self </li></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  6. 6. The Self <ul><li>Self-esteem and self-concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations related to development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High self-esteem linked to higher initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns : too much or undeserved praises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inflated self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to accept criticism and competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most research is correlational </li></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  7. 7. The Self <ul><li>Increasing Children’s Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify causes of low self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide emotional support and social approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help children to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage coping skills </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  8. 8. The Self <ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased capacity with age, development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s Industry versus Inferiority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement increases child’s sense of industry ; criticism results in inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop sense of competence or incompetence in attempt to master skills </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  9. 9. Emotional Development <ul><li>Increased ability to understand complex emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a situation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings </li></ul><ul><li>More fully take into account events leading to emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Improved ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions </li></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  10. 10. Emotional Development <ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to monitor feelings and emotions of oneself and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four main areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing emotional self-awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing emotions (self-control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading emotions (perspective taking) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handling emotions (resolve problems) </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  11. 11. Emotional Development <ul><li>Coping with Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of alternative cognitive strategies increase with age, maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional thought shifting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing or changing one’s view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context or environment may overwhelm coping </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  12. 12. Emotional Development <ul><li>Helping children cope with stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassure safety and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow retelling of events; be patient listener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage discussion of disturbing feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help make sense of what has happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect child from re-exposure and trauma </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  13. 13. Moral Development <ul><li>Piaget’s morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heteronomous: unchangeable rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous: consider intentions and consequences of people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg’s theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three levels, six stages of moral reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage change based on perspective taking opportunities and experienced conflict </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  14. 14. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg’s theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based primarily on moral reasoning; </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood? Level Stage Description Preconventional Reasoning: external rewards or punishment 1 Heteronomous morality : moral thinking tied to punishment 2 Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange : persons pursue own interests Conventional Reasoning: intermediate internalization 3 Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity : moral standards seen as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ 4 Social systems morality : based on understanding of social order, law, etc. Postconventional Reasoning: morality fully internalized 5 Social contract : individual and human rights 6 Universal ethical principles : conscience
  15. 15. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg’s Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels and stages occurred in sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development does not ensure moral reasoning development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer interaction stimulates moral reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal support found for first four stages </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  16. 16. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg’s Critics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough emphasis on moral behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and Moral Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissed family processes importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-biased: males use justice view, females use caregiver perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social conventional reasoning; rules for social control differ from moral rules </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  17. 17. Moral Development <ul><li>Prosocial moral behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More emphasis on behavior development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy, altruism behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy and adult encouragement fosters obligation to share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions of ‘fairness’ change with age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give-and-take of peer interactions affects most </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  18. 18. Moral Development <ul><li>Moral personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral identity (view of self) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral character (behavior shown to others) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral exemplars (model for others) </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  19. 19. Gender <ul><li>Gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad categories of beliefs, impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally: males dominant, females nurturant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some influence by culture and religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some social inequalities have diminished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As sexual equality increases, gender stereotypes and behaviors may diminish </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  20. 20. Gender <ul><li>Gender difference and similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average differences: not all females or males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even in differences, there is large overlap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences may be biological, sociocultural, or both </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  21. 21. Gender <ul><li>Physical development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men taller, shorter life expectancy, more likely to develop physical/mental disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females have more fat, hormone growth stops at puberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female brains smaller and more folds, larger corpus callosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and area of parietal lobe are larger in men </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  22. 22. Gender <ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early research: females had better verbal skills, males better math and visuospatial skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later research suggests differences slight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences persist on standardized test scores of children; suspect other factors </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  23. 23. Gender <ul><li>Socioemotional Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys more physically aggressive; affected by biology and environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls equally or more verbally aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relational aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication differs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others talk to boys and girls differently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapport and Report Talk </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  24. 24. Gender <ul><li>Report talk </li></ul><ul><li>Favored by males </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information </li></ul><ul><li>Public speaking such as jokes and storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport talk </li></ul><ul><li>Favored by females </li></ul><ul><li>For conversation, establishing connections, and negotiating relationships </li></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  25. 25. Gender <ul><li>Socioemotional Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls use more affiliative speech; boys use more self-assertive speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences affected by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group size </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking with peers or adults </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  26. 26. Gender <ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys hide more negative emotions, girls show less disappointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls experience more intense emotions in adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males show less self-regulation, more likely to have behavior problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls engage in more prosocial behaviors in childhood and adolescence </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  27. 27. Gender <ul><li>Gender role classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgyny: possessing both positive feminine and masculine characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandra Bem: androgynous persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More flexible, competent, mentally healthy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classification affected by context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite societal changes, traditional raising of boys continues </li></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  28. 28. Feminine Masculine High Low Low High What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood? Gender-Role Classification androgynous feminine masculine undifferentiated
  29. 29. Gender <ul><li>Gender in context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender stereotypes usually expressed as personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender behavior affected by context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender roles prescribed in many cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childrearing and socialization </li></ul></ul></ul>What Is the Nature of Emotional and Personality Development in Middle and Late Childhood?
  30. 30. Developmental Changes in Parenting <ul><li>Parent-child interactions: decrease as children get older </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy and parental regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School-related and out-of-school matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-regulation : gradual process </li></ul></ul>What Are Some Changes in Parenting and Families in Middle and Late Childhood?
  31. 31. Stepfamilies <ul><li>Divorce and remarriage common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher divorce rate in remarriages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarried parents face unique tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen and define new relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renegotiate divorced biological parental roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three common types of stepfamilies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stepfather, stepmother, and blended </li></ul></ul></ul>What Are Some Changes in Parenting and Families in Middle and Late Childhood?
  32. 32. Latchkey Children <ul><li>Both parents work outside home </li></ul><ul><li>Largely unsupervised; experiences vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 4 hours on school days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much more during summer months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks to child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grow up too fast, too many responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to get into trouble, negative behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-of-school care exists, more needed </li></ul></ul>What Are Some Changes in Parenting and Families in Middle and Late Childhood?
  33. 33. Gay Male and Lesbian Parents <ul><li>Families with children created by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexual parent identifies as gay male or lesbian after birth of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor insemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Custody arrangements can vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few, if any, differences between children raised in heterosexual and gay/lesbian families </li></ul></ul>What Are Some Changes in Parenting and Families in Middle and Late Childhood?
  34. 34. Developmental Changes <ul><li>Peers become more important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer interaction increases for recreation, group identification, and friendships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer competence impacts on future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of group increases and adult supervision decreases with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same-sex group preferences until age 12 </li></ul></ul>What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood?
  35. 35. Peer Statuses What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood? Rejected Frequently nominated as someone’s best friend and as being disliked Controversial Average Popular Infrequently nominated as a best friend; actively disliked by peers Receive average number of positive and negative nominations from peers Frequently nominated as a best friend; rarely disliked by peers Neglected Infrequently nominated as a best friend but not disliked by peers
  36. 36. Peer Status <ul><li>Skills of popular children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give out reinforcements, act naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen carefully, keep open communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are happy, control negative emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show enthusiasm, concern for others </li></ul></ul>What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood?
  37. 37. Peer Status <ul><li>Behaviors of rejected children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less classroom participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative attitudes on school attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More often report being lonely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive peer-rejected boys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsive, problems being attentive, disruptive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionally reactive, slow to calm down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have fewer social skills to make friends </li></ul></ul></ul>What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood?
  38. 38. Social Cognition What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood? <ul><li>Thoughts about social matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts about peers is important for understanding peer relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting intentions determines response and appropriateness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social knowledge creates social bonds </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Bullying <ul><li>Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most likely affected are males and younger middle school students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted children unlikely to retaliate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullies more likely to have lower grades, smoke or drink alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims suffer many other effects </li></ul></ul>What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood?
  40. 40. Bullying Behavior Among U.S. Youth Females Fig. 13.6 Subject of sexual comments or gestures Belittled about religion or race Subject of rumors Hit, slapped, or pushed Belittled about looks or speech Males 5 25 0 10 15 20 Percent experiencing bullying
  41. 41. Friends <ul><ul><li>Not all friendships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and not all friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are equal </li></ul></ul>What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood? <ul><li>Friendships serve six functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companionship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affection and intimacy </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Friends What Changes Characterize Peer Relationships in Middle and Late Childhood? <ul><li>Intimacy in friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of private thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not appear until adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Friendless students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed less prosocial behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More emotionally depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had lower grades </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning <ul><li>Controversy over best instructional approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist: learner-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct instruction: teacher-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized as rote memory, teaching irrelevant material, and creates passive learners </li></ul></ul></ul>What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools?
  44. 44. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools? Constructivist Direct instruction Emphasizes the child’s active construction of knowledge/understanding with teacher guidance. Child encouraged to discover, reflect, critically think. Emphasis on collaboration and opportunities. Characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic material, high expectations for students’ progress, and maximum time spent on learning
  45. 45. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning <ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded by public and government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State-mandated tests more powerful role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act critics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single score from single test as indicator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tests don’t measure creativity, other skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching to the test </li></ul></ul></ul>What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools?
  46. 46. Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity <ul><li>Education of students from low-income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More students with low achievement test scores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low graduation rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low numbers attend college </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More inexperienced teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More rote memory encouraged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old and crumbling buildings and classrooms </li></ul></ul></ul>What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools?
  47. 47. Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity <ul><li>Ethnicity in schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large inner city school districts attended by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of all African American and Latino students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22% of all Asian students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5% of all white students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School segregation exists; effects of SES and ethnicity intertwined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools grossly underfunded, lack adequate opportunities for effective learning </li></ul></ul>What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools?
  48. 48. Improving Ethnically Diverse Schools <ul><ul><li>Turn the class into a jigsaw classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use technology to foster cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage positive personal contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage perspective taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help critical thinking, emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View school and community as team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a competent cultural mediator </li></ul></ul>What Are Some Important Aspects of Schools?
  49. 49. The End 13 Children

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