Chapter 2 Perception, The Self, And


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Chapter 2 Perception, The Self, And

  1. 1. Jessica Tapman, Devin McClellan, & Brandy Sellers
  2. 2. Chapter Topics <ul><li>Perceiving Others </li></ul><ul><li>Perceiving the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Management </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Jessica Tapman </li></ul>Perceiving Others
  4. 4. Narratives & Perception <ul><li>Narratives are stories we create to make sense of our own personal world. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common Perceptual Tendencies <ul><li>Attribution- The process of attaching meaning to behavior </li></ul>
  6. 6. Common Perceptual Tendencies Attribution Errors <ul><li>We often judge ourselves more charitably than we judge others </li></ul><ul><li>Self-serving bias- The tendency to interpret and explain information in a way that casts the perceiver in the most favorable manner. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Common Perceptual Tendencies Attribution Errors <ul><li>We are influenced by what is the most obvious </li></ul><ul><li>There are three factors that cause us to notice some messages and ignore others. Messages that are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrastive </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Intense- Where are your eyes drawn?
  9. 9. Repetitious Which sound are you paying attention to?
  10. 10. Contrastive Is this normal?
  11. 11. Common Perceptual Tendencies Attribution Errors <ul><li>We cling to our first impressions, even if they are wrong </li></ul>
  12. 12. Common Perceptual Tendencies Attribution Errors <ul><li>We tend to assume others are similar to us </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common Perceptual Tendencies Attribution Errors <ul><li>We tend to favor negative impressions over positive ones </li></ul>
  14. 14. Situational Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Additional factors we use to make sense of other’s behavior </li></ul>
  15. 15. Situational Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Relational Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of involvement with the other person </li></ul><ul><li>Past experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Roles </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Roles <ul><li>Who would you be more afraid of? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Situational Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Relational Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of involvement with the other person </li></ul><ul><li>Past experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul>
  18. 18. Perception and Culture <ul><li>Culture provides a perceptual filter than influences the way we interpret even the simplest events. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Perception and Culture <ul><li>“ Victory” or “Peace” </li></ul><ul><li>Australian for “Up yours!” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Perception and Culture <ul><li>Thumbs Up </li></ul><ul><li>In America and European countries, this is considered a sign of something good. </li></ul><ul><li>In Asian and Islamic countries, it is an insult. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Perception and Culture <ul><li>“ Come here” </li></ul><ul><li>In Asian countries this is considered rude. In Singapore it signals death. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Empathy- The ability to re-create another person’s perspective, to experience the world from the other’s point of view. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Dimensions of Empathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective Talking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Empathy vs. Sympathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathy- Compassion for a person’s situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy= Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathy= Caring </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Perception Checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of the behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two possible interpretations of the behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for explanation or clarification </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Perception Checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You haven’t called in the few days (description). I am not sure whether you’re upset with me (1 st interpretation), or you’ve been busy (2 nd interpretation). What’s going on (request for explanation) ?” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Perception Checking
  28. 28. Perception Checking
  29. 29. Perception Checking -Group Activity <ul><li>Write a perception check for the situation you are assigned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note the behavior, two interpretations, and a request for explanation or clarification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example- “You haven’t called in the few days (description). I am not sure whether you’re upset with me (1 st interpretation), or you’ve been busy (2 nd interpretation). What’s going on (request for explanation) ?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Devin McClellan </li></ul>Perceptions of Self
  31. 31. Self-Concept <ul><li>Self-concept is our view of our own characteristics while self-esteem is our judgment or evaluation of our characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reflected appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>3. Personality </li></ul><ul><li>4. Self-fulfilling prophecies </li></ul>
  32. 32. Reflected Appraisal <ul><li>The theory that a person’s self-concept matches the way a person believes others regard him or her </li></ul>
  33. 33. Culture and Self-Concept <ul><li>The power of culture is far more basic and powerful than most people realize </li></ul><ul><li>We seldom recognize the fact, our whole notion of the self is shaped by the culture in which we have been reared </li></ul><ul><li>The most obvious feature of culture is the language it’s members use </li></ul>
  34. 34. Personality <ul><li>A relatively consistent set of traits people exhibit across a variety of situations </li></ul><ul><li>We use the notion of personality to characterize others are friendly or aloof, energetic or lazy, smart or stupid, and literally thousands of other ways </li></ul>
  35. 35. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies <ul><li>When a person’s expectations of an outcome make the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true </li></ul>
  37. 37. Perceived Self <ul><li>Perceived self is a refection of the self-concept, the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Presenting Self <ul><li>Presenting self is a public image, the way we want to appear to others. </li></ul><ul><li>-loving partner </li></ul><ul><li>-conscientious worker </li></ul><ul><li>-loyal friend </li></ul>
  39. 39. Face and Facework <ul><li>Sociologist Erving Goffman used the word face to describe the presenting self and he coined the term facework to describe the verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting image and the images of others. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Identity Management <ul><li>Identity management is collaborative, Identity –related communication is a kind of process theater in which we collaborate with other actors to improvise scenes in which our characters mesh. What happens at one moment is influenced by what each party brings to the interaction and by what happened in their relationship up to that point. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Identity Management <ul><li>The ability to construct multiple identities is one element of communication competence. Throughout the day we play many different roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity management can be conscious or unconscious, we act differently to the same situation when others are present than when we are alone. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Identity Management <ul><li>People differ in their degree of identity management, high self-monitors adjust their communication to create the desired impression, low self-monitors express themselves not paying attention to others impression of them. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Why Manage Impressions? <ul><li>Social rules govern our behaviour in a variety of settings. To accomplish personal goals. Our behaviour leaves an impression and sends some sort of message. </li></ul>
  44. 44. How do we manage impressions? <ul><li>Face-to-Face impressions, communicators can manage their front in the ways: manner, appearance, and setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Manner – consists of a communicators words and nonverbal actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance – the personal items people use to shape an image. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting – Physical items we use to influence how others view us. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Impression Management <ul><li>Impression management in mediated communication, computer-mediated communication limits the potential for identity management. Losing the face-to-face expressions, posture, and gestures are not conveyed. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Impression Management <ul><li>Impression management and honesty, certain situations in impression management are dishonest, a manipulative date pretends to be affectionate in order to get some. Each of us has a repertoire of faces, a cast of characters, and part of being a competent communicator is choosing the best role for the situation. </li></ul>