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Teaching with Technology Chapter 5 Presentation Teaching with Technology Chapter 5 Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter five
    Designs for Problem Solving
    Teaching with Technology by Norton & Wiburg
    Pages 107 – 118
    Jessica Pettyjohn – EDTC 6341
  • Information-rearranging process
    Deductive Reasoning:
    All men are mortal.
    Socrates was a man.
    Therefore...
  • Try a few more…(just to make you smile!)
    All teachers are educated.
    Dr. Butler is a teacher.
    Therefore…
    Dr. Butler loves cats.
    Bigs is a cat.
    Therefore…
  • Deductive thinking
    Process of thought that leads from one set of principles to another based on principles of logic.
    Allows thinkers to extract implications from what is already known
    Information rearranging process
    The process most dependent on formal learning
  • Inductive reasoning vs. deductive reasoning
    Inductive reasoning is often used more than deductive reasoning
    Inductive thinking is information extending, practical reasoning, seeing what in practice can be accomplished
    Deductive thinking is information rearranging, theoretical reasoning, seeing what in principal must be true
    Ex: What We Need VS What We Want
    VS
  • Information rearranging & deductive thinking skills
    Skills for deductive reasoning:
    Evaluation Skills: Assessing information, determining criteria, prioritizing, recognizing fallacies & verifying
    Analyzing information skills/problem-solving strategies: recognizing, classifying, identifying assumptions, identifying main ideas, & finding sequences
    Problem Solving: compare and contrast, principles of logic, inferential thinking, & identification of causal relationships
    Quick Test...
  • Spreadsheets for fun???
    Well planned spreadsheet activities emphasize reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and communicating mathematical ideas (Holmes, 1997)
    Todd Funkhouser, teacher of Algebra 1
    Rearrange information
    The Fun Factor
    Discussion – real world
  • Thinking about Thinking: Metacognition
    Metacognition is the awareness of our own thinking process
    Awareness – activities that foster awareness?
    Metacognition is the monitoring and guiding of one’s own thought processes; mind observing and correcting itself
    Example: Mr. Foster &
    The Lemmings
  • Learning from Lemmings
    Reflection on problems
    Describing solutions
    Scaffolding
    Teaching/helping peers
    Chance to create problems
    Challenges
    Deductive Reasoning
    Evaluations
    Cross Curricular
    Variety of Programs
  • Review of Heuristics
    General Problem Solving Strategies
    Problem solving process can be taught
    Metacognition can be taught
    Example: War of the Worlds Alien Project
  • Putting the problem at the center
    Student learning views are shifting from transmitting skills and knowledge to helping develop confidence, skills, and knowledge necessary to solve problems and become independent learners and thinkers. (21st Century!)
    Anchored Instruction – offers a framework for merging problem solving with content specific instruction
    Creates environment of sustained exploration
    Help novices adopt skills of experts with tools
  • Micro-contexts vs macro-contexts
    Micro-contexts focus attention on smaller subsets of a larger problem
    If learning about the environment, focus on pollution’s effects on one animal
    Macro-contexts allow exploration of a problem space for extended periods of time and from many perspectives
    Spend a vast amount of time researching and examining several animals
    Emphasis on the importance of creating an anchor or point of focus enables students to identify and define problems, and their perception of the problem
  • Major goal of Anchored Instruction
    Enable students to notice critical features of problem situations and to experience the changes in their understanding of the anchor as they view the situation from new points of view.
  • Greatest Advantages of Anchored instruction
    Use of complex, realistic contexts to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful
    Grasp abstract ideas
    Allows teachers to direct the student’s attention to general problem solving
    Authentic activity: Factual Level, Degree of Reflection, For whom are the tasks authentic
    Focus on the relevant features of the problem they are solving
  • Problem-Based Learning
    Also known as Problem-Centered Learning
    Built around Real-World problem of interest
    Creates situation where students “do” instead of mastery of facts
    Pick problems that are contemporary, nontrivial, and real (not realistic)
    Examples?
  • Problem Based Learning
    Practice Life Skills:
    ability to make decisions
    raise awareness of complexity of real world issues
    acquiring body of knowledge
    developing capacity for self-directed learning
    generating the ability and desire to think deeply and holistically
  • Authenticity!!
    The more authentic the problem – the more closely the problem resembles life – the more learners respond!
  • Greenburg’s (1990) Good Problem Solving Characteristics
    Demands that students make a testable prediction
    Makes use of relatively inexpensive equipment
    Complex enough to elicit multiple problem-solving approaches from students
    Benefits from group efforts
    Problem solvers must view the problem as relevant (Added by Brooks & Brooks, 1999)
  • Ill-defined Problems
    Effective problems at the center of the curriculum are ill-defined
    These problems are ones that need more knowledge than is initially available
    Problems where there is no absolutely right way or fixed formula for conducting an investigation
    New information = change of ill-defined problems
    Element of risk
    Real as if in the adult world
  • Teachers and Problem Based Learning
    Still content experts but expertise is used to facilitate and guide
    Craft problems
    Specify content
    Decide process goals
    Create criteria to measure success
    Embed problem situations at certain points
  • Collaborative learning is best
    Problem-based learning is best suited for group work
    Gives students control over the process of learning new material and representing what they know
  • How to choose problems?
    Inspiration Pieces
    Film
    News story
    Favorite story
    Personal Experience
    Current social events
    Challenges of various occupations
    Student experience
    Example of Daily Warm Up Question
    Daily Warm Up Question:
  • Resources
    Pictures of Lemmings Game, Accessed June 27, 2010: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemmings_(video_game)
    Clip Art from Microsoft Clip Art, Accessed June 27, 2010.
    Alien Picture from Brandon Bowers, 2009
    Norton, P. & Karin Wiburg. Teaching with Technology. 2003.
    Picture of Dr. J. Butler, Accessed July 4, 2010:http://www.utb.edu/vpaa/coe/Pages/JaniceButler.aspx
    Picture of Bigs, Accessed July 4, 2010: http://butleratutb.pbworks.com/Hurricane-Alex