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# Teaching with Technology Chapter 5 Presentation

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pages 107-118

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### Teaching with Technology Chapter 5 Presentation

1. 1. Chapter five<br />Designs for Problem Solving <br />Teaching with Technology by Norton & Wiburg<br />Pages 107 – 118<br />Jessica Pettyjohn – EDTC 6341<br />
2. 2. Information-rearranging process<br />Deductive Reasoning:<br />All men are mortal.<br />Socrates was a man.<br />Therefore...<br />
3. 3. Try a few more…(just to make you smile!)<br />All teachers are educated.<br />Dr. Butler is a teacher.<br />Therefore…<br />Dr. Butler loves cats.<br />Bigs is a cat. <br />Therefore…<br />
4. 4. Deductive thinking<br />Process of thought that leads from one set of principles to another based on principles of logic. <br />Allows thinkers to extract implications from what is already known<br />Information rearranging process<br />The process most dependent on formal learning<br />
5. 5. Inductive reasoning vs. deductive reasoning<br />Inductive reasoning is often used more than deductive reasoning <br />Inductive thinking is information extending, practical reasoning, seeing what in practice can be accomplished<br />Deductive thinking is information rearranging, theoretical reasoning, seeing what in principal must be true<br />Ex: What We Need VS What We Want<br />VS<br />
6. 6. Information rearranging & deductive thinking skills<br />Skills for deductive reasoning:<br />Evaluation Skills: Assessing information, determining criteria, prioritizing, recognizing fallacies & verifying<br />Analyzing information skills/problem-solving strategies: recognizing, classifying, identifying assumptions, identifying main ideas, & finding sequences<br />Problem Solving: compare and contrast, principles of logic, inferential thinking, & identification of causal relationships<br />Quick Test... <br />
7. 7. Spreadsheets for fun???<br />Well planned spreadsheet activities emphasize reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and communicating mathematical ideas (Holmes, 1997)<br />Todd Funkhouser, teacher of Algebra 1<br />Rearrange information<br />The Fun Factor<br />Discussion – real world<br />
8. 8. Thinking about Thinking: Metacognition<br />Metacognition is the awareness of our own thinking process<br />Awareness – activities that foster awareness?<br />Metacognition is the monitoring and guiding of one’s own thought processes; mind observing and correcting itself<br />Example: Mr. Foster & <br />The Lemmings<br />
9. 9. Learning from Lemmings<br />Reflection on problems<br />Describing solutions<br />Scaffolding<br />Teaching/helping peers<br />Chance to create problems<br />Challenges<br />Deductive Reasoning<br />Evaluations<br />Cross Curricular<br />Variety of Programs<br />
10. 10. Review of Heuristics<br />General Problem Solving Strategies<br />Problem solving process can be taught<br />Metacognition can be taught<br />Example: War of the Worlds Alien Project<br />
11. 11. Putting the problem at the center<br />Student learning views are shifting from transmitting skills and knowledge to helping develop confidence, skills, and knowledge necessary to solve problems and become independent learners and thinkers. (21st Century!)<br />Anchored Instruction – offers a framework for merging problem solving with content specific instruction<br />Creates environment of sustained exploration<br />Help novices adopt skills of experts with tools<br />
12. 12. Micro-contexts vs macro-contexts<br />Micro-contexts focus attention on smaller subsets of a larger problem<br />If learning about the environment, focus on pollution’s effects on one animal<br />Macro-contexts allow exploration of a problem space for extended periods of time and from many perspectives<br />Spend a vast amount of time researching and examining several animals<br />Emphasis on the importance of creating an anchor or point of focus enables students to identify and define problems, and their perception of the problem<br />
13. 13. Major goal of Anchored Instruction<br />Enable students to notice critical features of problem situations and to experience the changes in their understanding of the anchor as they view the situation from new points of view. <br />
14. 14. Greatest Advantages of Anchored instruction<br />Use of complex, realistic contexts to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful<br />Grasp abstract ideas<br />Allows teachers to direct the student’s attention to general problem solving<br />Authentic activity: Factual Level, Degree of Reflection, For whom are the tasks authentic<br />Focus on the relevant features of the problem they are solving<br />
15. 15. Problem-Based Learning<br />Also known as Problem-Centered Learning<br />Built around Real-World problem of interest<br />Creates situation where students “do” instead of mastery of facts<br />Pick problems that are contemporary, nontrivial, and real (not realistic)<br />Examples? <br />
16. 16. Problem Based Learning<br />Practice Life Skills: <br />ability to make decisions <br />raise awareness of complexity of real world issues<br />acquiring body of knowledge<br />developing capacity for self-directed learning<br />generating the ability and desire to think deeply and holistically <br />
17. 17. Authenticity!!<br />The more authentic the problem – the more closely the problem resembles life – the more learners respond!<br />
18. 18. Greenburg’s (1990) Good Problem Solving Characteristics<br />Demands that students make a testable prediction<br />Makes use of relatively inexpensive equipment<br />Complex enough to elicit multiple problem-solving approaches from students<br />Benefits from group efforts<br />Problem solvers must view the problem as relevant (Added by Brooks & Brooks, 1999) <br />
19. 19. Ill-defined Problems<br />Effective problems at the center of the curriculum are ill-defined<br />These problems are ones that need more knowledge than is initially available <br />Problems where there is no absolutely right way or fixed formula for conducting an investigation<br />New information = change of ill-defined problems<br />Element of risk<br />Real as if in the adult world<br />
20. 20. Teachers and Problem Based Learning<br />Still content experts but expertise is used to facilitate and guide<br />Craft problems<br />Specify content<br />Decide process goals<br />Create criteria to measure success<br />Embed problem situations at certain points<br />
21. 21. Collaborative learning is best<br />Problem-based learning is best suited for group work<br />Gives students control over the process of learning new material and representing what they know<br />
22. 22. How to choose problems?<br />Inspiration Pieces<br />Film<br />News story<br />Favorite story<br />Personal Experience<br />Current social events<br />Challenges of various occupations<br />Student experience<br />Example of Daily Warm Up Question<br />Daily Warm Up Question:<br />
23. 23. Resources<br />Pictures of Lemmings Game, Accessed June 27, 2010: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemmings_(video_game)<br />Clip Art from Microsoft Clip Art, Accessed June 27, 2010.<br />Alien Picture from Brandon Bowers, 2009<br />Norton, P. & Karin Wiburg. Teaching with Technology. 2003. <br />Picture of Dr. J. Butler, Accessed July 4, 2010:http://www.utb.edu/vpaa/coe/Pages/JaniceButler.aspx<br />Picture of Bigs, Accessed July 4, 2010: http://butleratutb.pbworks.com/Hurricane-Alex<br />