Physical Science Topics


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Physical Science Topics

  1. 1. Physical Science Topics1)Introduction to Physical Science a) A Brief History of Science i) The Development of Science ii) Some Early Scientists (1) Aristotle (2) Pythagoras (3) Galileo iii) Definition of Modern Science iv) Definition of Pseudoscience v) Comparison/Contrast of Science and Philosophy b) The Role of Mathematics in Science i) Mathematics is a Part of Science ii) Beauty in Mathematics iii) Mathematics Can Direct Scientific Discovery iv) Mathematics Can Explain Science v) Mathematics is a Language c) The SI System of Units i) Definition of the SI System of Units ii) The SI System is Used by Scientists and by Our Physical Science Class iii) Many SI Units are the Same as the Corresponding Metric Units iv) SI prefixes v) Introduction to Unit Conversion d) The Scientific Method 1
  2. 2. i) Scientific Fact (1) Definition of Fact (2) Facts Can Change ii) The Scientific Method (1) Definition of the Scientific Method iii) Scientific Observation (1) Definition of Observation (a) Classifying Observations (i) Qualitative Observations (ii) Quantitative Observations (b) Two Characteristics of Good Scientific Observation (i) Good Scientific Observation Uses as Much Detail as Possible (ii) Good Scientific Observation Uses as Many of the Five Senses as Possible iv) Scientific Hypothesis (1) Definition of Hypothesis (2) Definition of Scientific Hypothesis v) Scientific Law (1) Definition of Law (2) Scientific Laws can (and do) Change vi) Scientific Theory (1) Definition of Theory vii) Experiment (1) The Role of Experiment in Science2)Physics 2
  3. 3. a) Position, Distance, and Displacement i) Scalar Quantities (1) Definition of Scalar Quantity (2) List of Some Common Scalar Quantities ii) Vector Quantities (1) Definition of Vector Quantity (2) List of Some Common Vector Quantities iii) Position (1) Definition of Position (2) Abbreviation for Position (3) Position is a Vector Quantity (4) SI Unit for Position (5) Position as Represented in Two Dimensions (6) Position as Represented in One Dimension iv) Distance (1) Definition of Distance (2) Abbreviation for Distance (3) SI Unit for Distance (4) Distance is a Scalar Quantity (5) Finding Distance Traveled v) Displacement (1) Definition of Displacement (2) Finding Net Displacement Given Path (3) Abbreviation for Displacement (4) SI Unit for Displacement (5) Displacement is a Vector Quantity (6) Formula for Displacement (7) Finding Displacement Mathematicallyb) Speed and Velocity 3
  4. 4. i) Speed (1) Definition of Speed (2) Abbreviation for Speed (3) Formula for Average Speed (4) SI Units for Speed (5) Speed is a Scalar Quantity (6) Using Speed, Distance, and Time in Calculations (7) Instantaneous Speed Versus Average Speed ii) Velocity (1) Definition of Velocity (2) Abbreviation for Velocity (3) Formula for Average Velocity (4) SI Units for Velocity (5) Velocity is a Vector Quantity (6) Using Velocity, Displacement, and Time in Calculations (7) Instantaneous Velocity Versus Average Velocityc) Acceleration and Relative Motion i) Constant Acceleration (1) Definition of Acceleration (2) Abbreviation for Acceleration (3) Formula for Average Acceleration (4) SI Units for Acceleration (5) Acceleration is a Vector Quantity (6) Using Acceleration, Change in Velocity, and Time in Calculations (7) Galileo and Acceleration (8) Free-Fall Acceleration (9) Hang Time 4
  5. 5. ii) Relative Motiond) An Introduction to Force i) Systems (1) Definition of a System (2) Identifying Good Systems ii) Net Force (1) Finding Net Force in One Dimension (a) Finding Net Force in One Dimension Mathematically (b) Finding Net Force in One Dimension by Using Vector Addition/Subtraction (2) Finding Net Force in Two Dimensions (a) Finding Net Force in Two Dimensions (in Component Form) Mathematically (b) Finding Net Force in Two Dimensions by Using Vector Addition/Subtraction iii) Mechanical Equilibrium (1) Net Force on an Object in Mechanical Equilibrium is Equal to Zero (for an Non-Rotating System) (2) Two Types of Mechanical Equilibrium (a) Static Equilibrium (b) Dynamic Equilibrium iv) Some Types of Forces (1) Weight (2) Support Force (3) Friction Forcee) Newton’s Three Laws of Motion i) Newton’s First Law of Motion (1) Inertia (2) Mass 5
  6. 6. (3) Description of Newton’s First Law of Motion ii) Newton’s Second Law of Motion (1) Description of Newton’s Second Law of Motion (2) Free-Fall Acceleration (3) Non-Free Fall Motion (a) Terminal Velocity/Speed iii) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (1) Interaction (a) Action/Reaction Pair of Forces (2) Description of Newton’s Third Law of Motion iv) Newton’s Second and Third Law on Different Size Massesf) Momentum and Impulse i) Momentum (1) Momentum is “Inertia in Motion” (2) Abbreviation for Momentum (3) Formula for Momentum (4) SI Units for Momentum (5) Momentum is a Vector Quantity (6) Using Momentum, Mass, and Velocity in Calculations ii) Impulse (1) Impulse is “Change in Momentum” (2) Abbreviation for Impulse (3) Formula for Impulse (4) SI Units for Impulse (5) Impulse is a Vector Quantity (6) Using Impulse (or Change in Momentum), Force, and Time in Calculations (7) Examples of Impulse Changing Momentum (a) Impulse Increases Momentum 6
  7. 7. (b) Impulse Decreases Momentumg) The Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum i) English Statement of the Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum ii) Definition of a Closed System (1) Linear Momentum is Conserved Only for a Closed System iii) Mathematical Statement of the Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum iv) Using the Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum to Find Momentum, Mass, and/or Velocity of Objects in a Closed Systemh) Energy and Work i) Energy (1) Definition of Energy (2) Abbreviation for Energy (3) Some Common Forms of Energy (a) Kinetic Energy (i) Definition of Kinetic Energy (ii) Formula for Kinetic Energy (b) Potential Energy (i) Definition of Potential Energy (ii) Some Common Forms of Potential Energy 1. Elastic Potential Energy 2. Gravitational Potential Energy a. Formula for Gravitational Potential Energy (4) SI Unit for Energy (5) Energy is a Scalar Quantity (6) Using Energy and Other Quantities in Calculations 7
  8. 8. ii) Work (1) Work is “Change in Energy” (2) Abbreviation of Work (3) Formula for Work (4) SI Unit for Work (5) Work is a Scalar Quantity (6) Using Work (Change in Energy), Force, and Distance in Calculationsi) The Law of Conservation of Energy i) English Statement of the Law of Conservation of Energy (1) Energy for a System is Conserved Only when Net Work Done on or by the System is Equal to Zero ii) Using the Law of Conservation of Energy in Calculationsj) Power, Efficiency, and Machines i) Power (1) Definition of Power (2) Abbreviation for Power (3) Formula for Power (4) SI Units for Power (5) Power is a Scalar Quantity (6) Using Power, Work (Change in Energy), and Time in Calculations ii) Efficiency (1) Definition of Efficiency (2) Abbreviation for Efficiency (3) Formula for Efficiency (4) Efficiency is Dimensionless (it has no Unit) (5) Efficiency is a Scalar Quantity 8
  9. 9. (6) Using Efficiency, Work Input (or Energy Input), and Work Output (or Energy Output) in Calculations iii) Machines (1) Definition of Machine (2) Machines Follow the Law of Conservation of Energy (3) Six Examples of Simple Machines (a) Lever (b) Inclined Plane (c) Wheel and Axle (d) Screw (e) Wedge (f) Pulleyk) Gravity, Projectiles, and Satellites i) Gravity (1) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation (a) Mathematical Statement of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation (b) The Inverse Square Law (c) The Effect of Changing Mass and/or Distance on Gravitational Force (2) Tides (3) Weight (a) Definition of Weight (4) Apparent Weight (a) Definition of Apparent Weight (b) Cases in Which Apparent Weight is not Equal to Actual Weight (i) Apparent Weight is Greater than Actual Weight for an Object Which is Accelerating Upward 9
  10. 10. (ii) Apparent Weight is Less than Actual Weight for an Object Which is Accelerating Downward (iii) An object is Weightless When it has No Support Force (When it is Accelerating Downward at g) (5) Projectile Motion (a) Definition of a Projectile (b) The Velocity of a Projectile has Two Components (i) Vertical Component of Velocity Undergoes an Acceleration of g Downward (for Negligible Air Resistance) (ii) Horizontal Component of Velocity is Constant (for Negligible Air Resistance) (6) Satellite Motion (7) Energy is Conserved for Satellite Motion (8) Escape Speedl) Thermal Energy i) Temperature (1) Definition of Temperature (2) Abbreviation for Temperature (3) SI Unit for Temperature (4) Temperature is a Scalar Quantity (5) Absolute Zero ii) Thermal Energy (1) Definition of Thermal Energy (2) Abbreviation for Thermal Energy (3) Acceptable Units for Thermal Energy (4) Thermal Energy is a Scalar Quantity iii) Heat 10
  11. 11. (1) Definition of Heat (2) Abbreviation for Heat (3) Acceptable Units for Heat (4) Heat is a Scalar Quantity iv) Specific Heat Capacity (1) Definition of Specific Heat Capacity (2) Abbreviation for Specific Heat Capacity (3) SI Units for Specific Heat Capacity (4) Specific Heat Capacity is a Scalar Quantity (5) Using Specific Heat Capacity, Thermal Energy, Mass, and Change in Temperature in Calculations v) Thermal Expansion (1) Definition of Thermal Expansion (2) Typical Behavior of Substances for Changes in Temperature (3) The Thermal Expansion of Water vi) Change of Phase (1) Five Known States of Matter (a) Bose-Einstein Condensate (b) Solid (c) Liquid (d) Gas (e) Plasma (2) Common Types of Phase Changes (a) Melting and Freezing (b) Evaporation and Condensation (c) Sublimation and Deposition vii) Energy and Change of Phasem) Heat Transfer 11
  12. 12. i) The Three Processes of Heat Transfer (1) Conduction (a) Definition of Conduction (b) Conduction can Only Occur in Matter in Certain Phases (c) Good Conductors (d) Poor Conductors (Insulators) (2) Convection (a) Definition of Convection (b) Convection can Only Occur in Matter in Certain Phases (3) Radiation (a) Definition of Radiation (b) Radiation can Occur in Any Phase of Matter (c) Electromagnetic Spectrum (4) The Greenhouse Effect (5) The Characteristics of a Good Thermosn) The Laws of Thermodynamics i) The First Law of Thermodynamics ii) The Second Law of Thermodynamics (1) Entropy iii) The Third Law of Thermodynamicso) Static Electricity (1) Electric Charge (a) Definition of Electric Charge (b) Abbreviation for Electric Charge (c) SI Unit for Electric Charge (d) Electric Charge is a Scalar Quantity (e) The Two Signs of Electric Charge 12
  13. 13. (i) Positive Charge 1. Each Proton has a Charge of +1 (ii) Negative Charge 1. Each Electron has a Charge of -1 (iii) Neutrons are Neutral (have a Charge of Zero) (f) Net Charge (i) Definition of Net Charge (ii) Finding Net Charge of a System of Charged Particles(2) Electric Force Between Two Charged Particles: Coulomb’s Law (i) Mathematical Statement of Coulomb’s Law (ii) Electric Force can be Attractive or Repulsive 1. Charges with Opposite Signs Attract 2. Charges with Like Signs Repel (iii) The Effect of Changing Charge and/or Distance on Electric Force (iv) Comparing and Contrasting Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law(3) Charge Separation (Polarization)(4) Electric Field (a) Definition of Electric Field (b) Abbreviation for Electric Field (c) SI Units for Electric Field (d) Electric Field is a Vector Quantity (e) Electric Field Maps (i) Electric Field Lines 1. Direction of Electric Field Lines is from Positive Charge to Negative Charge 13
  14. 14. 2. Electric Field Line Direction Gives the Direction of Electric Field at a Given Point 3. Electric Field Line Spacing Gives the Relative Strength of Electric Field in a Given Region (5) Electric Potential Energyp) Current Electricity (1) Electric Potential (a) Definition of Electric Potential (b) Abbreviation for Electric Potential (c) SI Unit for Electric Potential (d) Electric Potential is a Scalar Quantity (2) Electric Potential Difference (a) Definition of Electric Potential Difference (b) Abbreviation for Electric Potential Difference (c) SI Unit for Electric Potential Difference (d) Electric Potential Difference is a Scalar Quantity (e) Electric Potential Difference is also Called Voltage (i) Voltage Sources 1. Batteries 2. Generators (f) Electric Potential Difference is Necessary for Charge to Flow (3) Electric Current (a) Definition of Electric Current (b) Abbreviation for Electric Current (c) SI Unit for Electric Current (d) Electric Current is a Vector Quantity (4) Electrical Resistance (a) Definition of Electrical Resistance 14
  15. 15. (b) Abbreviation for Electrical Resistance (c) SI Unit for Electrical Resistance (d) Electrical Resistance is a Scalar Quantity (e) Electrical Resistance Depends on Certain Factors (i) Electrical Resistance Increases with Increasing Temperature (ii) Electrical Resistance Increases with Increasing Wire Length (iii) Electrical Resistance Decreases with Increasing Wire Diameter (iv) Electrical Resistance Depends on the Kind of Substance(5) Electric Circuits (a) Definition of an Electric Circuit (b) Two Types of Electric Circuits (i) Series Circuit 1. Definition of Series Circuit 2. Resistance Increases with Added Devices in Series (ii) Parallel Circuit 1. Definition of Parallel Circuit 2. Resistance Decreases with Added Legs in Parallel 3. Common Household Circuits are Parallel Circuits a. Household Circuit Overload(6) Ohm’s Law (a) English Statement of Ohm’s Law (b) Mathematical Statement of Ohm’s Law (i) Using Voltage, Current, and Resistance in Calculations 15
  16. 16. (7) Electric Power (a) Definition of Electric Power (b) Abbreviation for Electric Power (c) Formula for Electric Power (d) SI Unit for Electric Power (e) Electric Power is a Scalar Quantity (f) Using Power, Current, and Voltage in Calculations q) Magnetism i) Magnetic Poles (1) The Two Types of Magnetic Poles (a) North Pole (b) South Pole ii) Magnetic Domains iii) Magnetic Fields iv) Electric Current and Magnetic Fields v) Magnetic Forces on Moving Charges vi) Electromagnetic Induction vii) Generators and Alternating Current viii) Power Production ix) Field Induction3)Chemistry a) Atoms i) The Elements ii) The Electron iii) The Atomic Nucleus iv) Protons and Neutrons 16
  17. 17. v) Bohr’s Planetary Model of the Atom vi) Quantum Mechanics vii) Electron Wave-Cloud Model of the Atom viii) The Quantum Model b) The Periodic Table of Elements i) Organizing the Elements ii) Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids iii) Atomic Groups and Periods c) An Introduction to Chemistry i) Submicroscopic, Microscopic, Macroscopic ii) Physical and Chemical Properties iii) Physical and Chemical Changes iv) Elements Versus Compounds v) Naming Compounds (1) Naming Type I Ionic Compounds (2) Naming Covalent Compounds d) Chemical Bonding i) Electron-Dot Structures ii) Ions iii) Ionic Bonds iv) Covalent Bonds v) Polar Covalent Bonds vi) Molecular Polarity vii) Molecular Attractions e) Chemical Reactions i) Chemical Equations ii) Counting Atoms and Molecules by Mass4) Earth Science a) Weather 17
  18. 18. i) Atmospheric Moisture ii) Weather Variables iii) Cloud Development iv) Air Masses, Fronts, and Storms v) Violent Weather5) Astronomy a) The Solar System i) The Formation of the Solar System ii) The Sun iii) The Inner Planets iv) The Earth’s Moon v) The Outer Planets vi) Comets vii) Asteroids viii) Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites b) Stars and Galaxies i) The Birth of Stars ii) Life of Stars iii) Death of Stars iv) Black Holes v) Galaxies vi) Quasars 18