EARLY MODERN EUROPE<br />15th CENTURY<br /><ul><li>1450 – Johannes Gutenberg invened of the first European movable type printing process.
1453 – The capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, was sieged by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire.
1492 – Italian born Christopher Columbus set out on his first voyage.
1493 - the end of the Reconquista, with the final expulsion of the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula.
1494 - French king Charles VIII invaded Italy, drastically altering the status quo and beginning a series of wars which would punctuate the Italian Renaissance.</li></li></ul><li>EARLY MODERN EUROPE<br />16th CENTURY<br /><ul><li>1513 – First formulation of modern politics with the publication of Machiavelli's The Prince.
1517 - The Reformation begins with Martin Luther nailing his ninety-five theses to the door of the church in Wittenberg, Germany.
1526 - Archduke Ferdinand of Austria gains the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary.
1545 - The Council of Trent marks the end of the medieval Roman Catholic Church.</li></li></ul><li>ITALIAN GLASS<br /><ul><li>When the Ottomans took Constantinople in 1453, some fleeing glassworkers went to Venice. By the sixteenth century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques.
One of the most renowned types of Venetian glasses are made in Murano, known as Murano glass, which has been a famous product of the Venetian island of Murano for centuries. Located off the shore of Venice, Italy, Murano was a commercial port.
Murano’s reputation as a center for glassmaking was born when the Venetian Republic, fearing fire and destruction to the city’s mostly wood buildings, ordered glassmakers to move their foundries to Murano in 1291. Murano glass is still interwoven with Venetian glass.
By the end of the 16th century, three thousand of Murano island's seven thousand inhabitants were involved in some way in the glassmaking industry.
Murano’s glassmakers held a monopoly on quality glassmaking for centuries, developing or refining many technologies including crystalline glass, enameled glass (smalto), glass with threads of gold (aventurine), multicolored glass (millefiori), milk glass (lattimo), and imitation gemstones made of glass. Today, the artisans of Murano are still employing these centuries-old techniques, crafting everything from contemporary art glass and glass jewelry to Murano glass chandeliers and wine stoppers.</li></li></ul><li>Cuisine<br />Cookbooks<br /><ul><li>Maestro Martino, the Patriarch of Aquileia at the Vatican, wrote Libro de arte coquinariain the 15th Century
In 1570, BartolomeoScappi, personal chef to Pope Pius V, wrote his Opera in five volumes, giving a comprehensive view of Italian cooking of that period and contained over 1,000 recipes.</li></ul>Ingredients<br /><ul><li>Italy is known for its diverse variety of pasta. Pasta includes noodles in various lengths, widths and shapes, and varieties that are filled with other ingredients like ravioli and tortellini.
Genoan born Christopher Columbus intoduced tomatoes, peppers, chiles, corn and potatoes to Italian cuisine during his voyages.</li></ul>Italian cooking has been influenced by the Greek, Roman, Norman and Arab civilizations. The Romans introduced spices such as pepper and ginger. The Moors influence is the use of couscous, citrus fruits and almonds. The Greeks introduced wonderful seafood cooking. The Spaniards brought the Grenache grape.<br />
BILBLIOGRAPHY<br />WIKIPEDIA<br /><ul><li>EARLY MODERN EUROPE