Bottled and Tap Water ESA 324 - Robert Drew, Zack Fealk & Sruthi Naraharisetti
History of Bottled Water• The Start: Europe during late 1700s• 1767: Jacksons spa in Boston• Reason for early interest in "mineral water" and "spring water"
Where your water comes from and how it gets to you Bottled WaterTap Water •• Public system: Public system: o Estimated 25% o Groundwater and (consumed in US) Surface water from Municipal Water• Private system: • Supply Private system: o Wells o Wells, Springs, o No Federal Artesian wells, etc Regulations• Transportation o No Federal Regulations o Pressure pumping • Plastic Processing • Transportation
Regulations•• Tap Water: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) o Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974 o Consumer Confidence Reports (CCR)• Bottled Water: Food and Drug Administration (FDA) o Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) o Quality Standards o Standards of Identity (Labeling Regulations)• All bottled water sold in the US (whether imported or domestic) must meet all of the same regulations.
Manufacturing Plastic Bottles• “Typically, 90 percent or more of the cost paid by bottled water consumers goes to things other than the water itself-such as bottling, packaging, shipping,• marketing, retailing, other expenses” (NRDC).• Water that goes into the manufacturing• PET (polyethylene terephthalate) Plastic
Impacts From Materials andProduction • Americans drink more bottled water than any other nation, purchasing an impressive 29 billion bottles every year. • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the plastic used in the the bottles, is derived from crude oil. • Making bottles to meet Americans’ demand for bottled water requires more than 17 million barrels of oil annually, enough to fuel more than 1 million U.S. cars for a year.
Concentrated WaterExtraction•• Heavy extraction leads to a lowering of the water table, and in some extreme cases a near complete draining of the water body being harvested.• Impacts the hydrology of the water system• These effects are often permanent as the water being extracted is shipped away from the source and are returned as wastewater to an altogether different water system, and as such these aquifers and water bodies being harvested are never replenished as they naturally would.
Transportation of Bottled Water• Fiji shipped 18 million gallons of bottled water to California, releasing about 2,500 tons of transportation-related pollution.• Western Europes shipment of bottled water to New York City that year released 3,800 tons of pollution. • Interview with Ice Mountain revealed: o Their water is commuted by truck or pipeline from natural springs in the states of Michigan, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Maine, and Tennessee o source of their distilled water products to be that of city or well water, which is then shipped or piped to their distributors around the nation.
Disposal of Spent Bottles• About 75% of water bottles are thrown in the trash, rather than recycled.• only about 13 percent end up in the recycling stream where they are turned into products like fleece clothing, carpeting, decking, playground equipment and new containers and bottles.• In 2005, approximately 2 million tons of water bottles ended up in U.S. landfills, according to the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC)• Buried water bottles can take up to 1,000 years to biodegrade.• Incinerating these PET plastics releases toxic byproducts, such as ash containing heavy metals into the atmosphere
Shifting ValuesPublic Good Private Good• use of water for all • developed, used, traded people and sold for economic• unnecessary productivity and boundaries financial gain• over regulated • $$ gained from finite• heavy government resource influence • shipped away from• Heavily mandated by watershed EPA • Manufacturers• Uniform guidelines of responsibility from FFDCA [Federal Food, Drug, and testing Cosmetic Act]
Bottled Water Consumption
Bottled Water Suppliers
Marketing & Packaging• Consumers are very faithful to a brand• Paying for artistic appeal of logo and shape• Municipalities still struggle to advertise• A better or healthier alternative to tap o advertising invisible attributes• High use of plastics
Plastics PET Polyethylene > PVC Polyvinyl Terephthalate Chloride• Lighter / More malleable and transparent• Re-manufactured in many other products• If burnt doesnt release chlorine into atmosphere• Company awareness of social and environmental• 1.5 million tons of plastic annually• Still a waste / goes to tap
Time to Educate• Perceived idea of availability• Infrastructure established / still need upkeep• BW consumption increased 7% each year• Facilities established in econ. deprived areas• Community led campaigns for both halting the use of BW and educating the public of TW