“I rate enthusiasm even above professional
- Sir Edward Appleton
Employees are the strength of an organization.
They are the prime contributors to its success.
Training and mentoring
Recognition and rewards
Feedback and performance appraisal
HYGIENE THEORY :
Its policies and its administration
The kind of supervision which people receive while
on the job
Recognition for achievement
Interest in the task
Responsibility for enlarged task
Growth and advancement to higher level tasks
MANAGEMENT’S ROLE IN ENABLING
Wherewithal for accomplishing the task
Criteria of measurement of the work output
Results in a Win–Win Situation
Win-win situation demands that each employee respects
the views of other employees and regards the self-
esteem of all the colleagues in the team.
To summarize, the team can have the ff. benefits if they
work for a win-win situation:
Achieve dramatic results, which individuals can’t
Make best use of skills of each member of the team
Make right decision
Get more enjoyment and job satisfaction
The problems of win-lose are summarized below:
Stops people listening
Spoils happiness and health of team members
Do Rewards Disrupt Teamwork?
Reward encourage people to practice teamwork.
Awards should be given to motivate the team of
people, who have contributed in a great
in other words, the output of team should be
given more importance than the output of the
individuals. This should not curtail the innovation
In every organization, communication is a
three way process for each employee, as given
to one, employee is working for-
To the persons working for him-
To the persons one works with, the peers,
counterparts, customers and suppliers (both
internal and external)
Necessity for Communicating Upwards
- upward communication means
communicating with seniors.
Communication with Juniors
- every employee should communicate with
juniors. The junior employee will not have the
same education, experience and expertise as
that of the senior. Therefore, the senior has to
communicate with the junior patiently and in
Communication with Peers
- communication with peers is equally
important. This has assumed significance since
the organization have to establish customer-
suppliers relationship to practice TQM.
TRAINING AND MENTORING
Necessity for Orientation Training
- the employees in their formal education learn
many techniques covering wide range of
topics, from basic principles to advance topics.
The orientation training should help the
employees to understand the ff, in particular:
Objectives of the organization
Requirements and expectations from his team
The know-how and know-why of the jobs to
be undertaken on day to day basis
familiarity and skill in operating the tools or
machinery connected with the job in hand.
Experienced Recruits Need More Orientation
- in the service sector, obsolescence settles in fast.
Therefore, there is a continual change in the
business. This means, that the employees have
to acquire the skills needed for designing,
manufacturing, delivering, and servicing the
updated or new products or services.
There is a reluctant on the part of the
management to send employees for training,
due to some ff. reasons:
Excessive workload in the organization, which
does not permit sending them for training
Non-availability of appropriate training
Fear of migration of employees after training
PDCA for Training
Though training contributes to the prosperity
of an organization, it also costs money.
Therefore, PDCA should be used for training of
employees in every organization.
Plan for Training
Measure Training Effectiveness
Improve Training Effectiveness
RECOGNITION AND REWARD
Recognition of Achievement is Important
it is important to recognize achievement of
employees, customers and suppliers. Every
employee or supplier has to meet the
requirements to satisfy his customers.
However, there would be a few teams, and
few suppliers, which will excel in their
contributions. Meeting customer requirements
is not enough for recognition. Exceeding
customer requirements or satisfying customer,
whether internal or external can be considered
to be an achievement.
Select a Few Best Performers
the attribute for selection of best performing
employees in ETDC, Chennai are given below:
Type of Awards
The organization should select the award
appropriately. It could be appreciation in an
annual meeting, certificates, mementos, and
No matter what is the type of award, the
employees will definitely be motivated.
However, the organization should be
consistent in giving the awards.
Enable Happiness All Around
The recognition and award program should
help the organization amongst all the
employees. It should not lead to bitterness
amongst employees and should not demotivate
them. Hence, before venturing into the
recognition program, the management has to
give considerable thought and then only
finalize the strategy for recognition and awards.
Feedback Essential Both for Employees and
it is more humane to be curious to know about
the result of an action. Actions, are taken not only
by management, but also by junior employees in
the organization. therefore, both the
management and the employees should look
forward to getting a feedback on the action
taken, the employees from he management and
vice versa, in the interest of improving quality
Management Should Seek Feedback
One of the responsibility of the management is
to seek feedback. The management should
therefore adopt stable strategies to get the right
feedback from the employees as well as
Management By Walking Around (MBWA) –
concept advocated by Tom Peters to get the
feedback. It should be practiced in the right
manner for getting the desired results.
Feedback to the Employees
Every employee in the organization should receive
a feedback on the quality of his output. Quality
does not only mean the conformance of the
product or service to the requirements, but also
the timeliness, behavioral requirements and all
attributes of TQM.
Giving Appropriate Feedback
When a feedback is given, it should be the most
appropriate. The feedback should never be
exaggerated or under played; it should be correct
Feedback should never be accumulated forever.
The feedback , as and when required, should be
given at the appropriate time . The feedback
session could be short and brief so that it will be
Vatch Effect of Feedback
Each feedback session is a corrective action of the
system, to use the terminology of ISO 9001.
therefore, the effect of feedback has to be
monitored, studied and analyze. If the feedback is
given in an appropriate manner and if it is right
then definitely the employee will be motivated to
Like continuous improvement, feedback should
also be given continuously.
the feedback will be never ending for any of the
supervisory persons, since the system will try to drift
away from the set goals often and the
management will be required to correct the
system through the feedback mechanism.
Performance appraisal used for he development
of the employees.
Reports should be used by the management , for
various purposes as:
Granting of additional increments
Training the employees
Reallocation of duties
Empowerment and ownership are synonymous.
Empowerment of employees is one the latest
management techniques deployed to result in
continuous improvement in the organization.
Empowerment means involvement of all the
employees for improvement of processes on
Empowerment is just the opposite of strict
hierarchical “do what I say” approach in the
Empowerment means transfer of responsibility of
satisfying customer to employees. It means that
the employees own the process of satisfying the
Empowerment is not without bounds
Empowerment of employees is not without bounds
or limitations. It should be structured and planned
to achieve the corporate goals in the TQM way.
the employees are aligned with the business
direction as brought out in the vision and mission
statements of the CEO. They to be made to
understand their performance boundaries and
expected performance results.
Empower teams, not individuals
A team of employees will be empowered not the
individuals. Even when an individual is
empowered, It is done so in his capacity as the
coordinator of the team. It is not personal to
The team has to achieve the objectives set forth by
The team has to identify the best course of action
The team has to take decisions on its own within its
The team function in a democratic manner to
STEPS INVOLVED IN EMPOWERING
The ff. steps are involved in the operation of self-
Agree on what they will produce or carry out
Decide how to organize the team
Decide on the responsibility within the team
Decide on flow of work
Audit the process
Decide on improvement and restart
Fundamental Requirements of Management
for Successful Empowerment
Top management should take the following actions to practice empowerment
1. Accept that teamwork is more beneficial and hierarchical
2. Invest time and money on the team building and training before
3. Formulate a clear-cut, unambiguous vision and mission statement
and the system for quality
4. Be prepared to spend more time at the initial stages and later o n to
listen to the problems of the team members.
5. Prepare to wait patiently for the success of empowered team
6. Prepare to equip the teams with facts and trust them
7. Provide support and tools wherever required for problem solving
8. Reward worthy teams
9. Provide communications infrastructure and Information Technology
infrastructure for the teams to carry on the tasks, without difficulty