GENERAL BIOLOGY ANDFUNDAMENTALS OFECOLOGYLecture Review for NORSU LET Takers,Sept 1, 2012Reviewer: Ana Carla Trinidad-Villarmente
I. INTRODUCTION A. Opening Prayer B. Levelling of Expectations C. Objectives of the Review
COURSE OUTLINE I. Nature and Scope of Science II. Life Sciences
I. NATURE AND SCOPE OF SCIENCE What is SCIENCE? Latin, “scientia”- to know Scientia et veritas = Knowledge and truth A body of dynamic, growing knowledge about the principles that govern natural phenomenon
DIFFERENT DIVISIONS OF SCIENCE 1. Natural sciences – study of the natural world 2. Social Sciences – systematic study of human behaviour and society 3. Applied Sciences – scientific knowledge put into practical use
NATURAL SCIENCE 1. Physical Sciences – focus on the nature and behaviour of matter and energy
3. LIFE SCIENCES (Biology) – study of the development, distribution, evolution, function, origin and structure of living things
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist search for answers to problems using the scientific method To explain phenomena, to search for truth, to formulate Thomas Edison experimented with more than 1,000 materials before new concepts and successfully making the electric light bulb work! theories and to solve some problems
THE SCIENTIFIC METHODSTEP1 :IDENTIFYING AND CLEARLYDEFINING THE PROBLEM: The scientific problem to be solved, best expressed as an “open- ended” question, not just a mere yes or no. Example: Which corn variety gives the highest yield? (Bisaya tiniguib, IPB Var-6, Improved Tiniguib) Example: What is the effect of adding organic fertilizer on rice yield?
Example: Which corn variety gives the highest yield? (Bisaya tiniguib, IPB Var-6, Improved Tiniguib)
2. GATHERING OF PRELIMINARY DATAOR PERTINENT PRELIMINARYINFORMATION ABOUT THE PROBLEM
3. FORMULATING A HYPOTHESISON HOW TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM Should be measurable Should answer the original question
4. DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT TOTEST THE HYPOTHESIS ON HOW TOSOLVE THE PROBLEMThe experimental design is used to test the hypothesisWhich corn variety gives the highest yield? (Bisaya tiniguib, IPB Var-6, Improved Tiniguib)Hypothesis: (Variety) IPB Var-6 will give the highest yield in comparison to Bisaya Tiniguib, IPB Var-6 and improved tiniguib in field trials.
5. ANALYZING AND INTERPRETINGTHE EXPERIMENTAL DATA Which corn variety gives the highest yield? (Bisaya tiniguib, IPB Var-6, Improved Tiniguib) Corn Variety Yield, per plot Yield, per (in kilos) hectare (in tons) Bisaya Tiniguib 0.5 0.5 IPB Var 6 2.1 2.1 Improved 1.8 1.8 Tiniguib
6. DRAWING OF GENERALIZATIONOR CONCLUSION Which corn variety gives the highest yield? (Bisaya tiniguib, IPB Var-6, Improved Tiniguib) All conditions being equal (same location, same sunlight availability, same water, same fertilizer:IPB Var 6 gives the highest yield for corn.
7. VERIFYING CONCLUSION BYAPPLYING IT TO SIMILARSITUATIONS Using the same scientific design, the experiment can now be conducted in another location or locality, or another season for verification.
“If science is an unfinished project, the next stage will be about reconnecting and integrating the rigor of scientific method with the richness of direct experience to produce a science that will serve to connect us to one another, ourselves and the world...” Betty Sue Flowers