Napoleon <ul><li>End of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and Haitian Revolution </li></ul>
<ul><li>Chronology review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What year did the Terror end? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What year did Napoloen come to power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What year did Robespierre take over? </li></ul></ul>
Haitian Revolution / Repression Slave Revolt in St Domingue , 1791
Timothy Floro presenting on the Haitian Constitution CONSTITUTION OF 1801 The representatives of the colony of Saint-Domingue , gathered in Central Assembly, have arrested and established the constitutional bases of the regime of the French colony of Saint-Domingue as follows:
What was interesting about Napoloen’s character? <ul><ul><ul><li>Impressive intellectual ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard worker who could concentrate for 20 hours at a stretch </li></ul><ul><li>Man of action, warrior par excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Also had a romantic side and boundless ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Personal charisma seemed to move people easily </li></ul>“ I live only for posterity!”
Napoloen & France Napoleon’s Coronation (1806)
Napoloenic Catechism Question: What are the duties of Christians toward those who govern them, and what in particular are our duties towards Napoleon I, our emperor? Answer: Christians owe to the princes who govern them, and we in particular owe to Napoleon I, our emperor, love, respect, obedience, fidelity, military service, and the taxes levied for the preservation and defense of the empire and of his throne. We also owe him fervent prayers for his safety and for the spiritual and temporal prosperity of the state.
Catechism, cont. <ul><li>Question: Why are we subject to all these duties toward our emperor? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: First, because God, who has created empires and distributes them according to his will, has, by loading our emperor with gifts both in peace and in war, established him as our sovereign and made him the agent of his power and his image upon earth. To honor and serve our emperor is therefore to honor and serve God himself. Secondly, because our Lord Jesus Christ himself, both by his teaching and his example, has taught us what we owe to our sovereign. Even at his very birth he obeyed the edict of Caesar Augustus; he paid the established tax; and while he commanded us to render to God those things which belong to God, he also commanded us to render unto Caesar those things which are Caesar's. </li></ul>
Code Napoléon <ul><li>Old Regime France had numerous conflicting legal codes, preventing unity </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon wanted unified code of laws incorporating many principles of the Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Equality before the law </li></ul><ul><li>Right to choose one’s profession </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of serfdom </li></ul><ul><li>Secular character of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Yet the Code also denied equal treatment to workers, women, and children </li></ul>
Antoine-Jean Gros, Napoleon at the penthouse of Jaffa (1804)
The Spanish Ulcer <ul><li>An ally since 1796, Spain was disappointing to Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>• In 1808, he deposed the ruler and made his brother Joseph king of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>• But Spanish resisted and fought against the invaders </li></ul><ul><li>• The war waged by Spanish partisans foreshadowed twentieth-century phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>• Inability of great power with trained soldiers and modern weapons to subdue peasant guerillas </li></ul><ul><li>• Intervention of British troops under Wellesley defeated Joseph in 1813 </li></ul><ul><li>• The “Spanish ulcer” drained Napoleon’s treasury and troops, gave Britain a foothold </li></ul>Role of counterrevolution? Role of Revolution?