Today’s Agenda (9/13)<br />1/  Go over shifts in scientific worldview, and place in the political context of Absolutism<br...
ScalaNatura<br />(1579)<br />
Scientific Worldview (16th and 17th Centuries)<br />Galileo Galilei (1608) built a telescope and supported heliocentrism w...
Chart of Heavens engraved by Andreas Cellarius in 1660. Portrays heliocentric universe described by Copernicus & Gallileo....
Hand out galileo’s forgiveness<br />
Changes in the 18th Century:Enlightenment and Beyond<br />September 13 & 15, 2011<br />
Changes in the 17th and 18th Century<br />Scientific Worldview<br />New questions about authority in religion<br />Emergen...
Shifts in Values<br />Population Boom (from 1740)First time population growth was un-checked by a demographic crisis<br />...
Population Increase<br />Long been a population increase, but this one (circa 1740) was left unchecked by a demographic cr...
Thomas Malthus (1766–1834)<br />An Essay on the Principles of Population<br />Observed that population grew (and then shru...
Increased fertility / decreased mortality<br />Trained doctors and midwives<br />Children surviving birth and first ten ye...
Popular Culture<br />Growth of cities– public sphere and high population<br />
Transformation in Family Life<br />
Greuze, the Father’s Curse / The Ungrateful Son (1777)<br />
Reading Culture<br />Salons made reading communal<br />Reading was *fun*<br />Circulation of new ideas about democracy and...
Montesquieu, Persian Letters (1721)<br />Letters #8, 9, 24, 26, 51, 60, 62<br />http://rbsche.people.wm.edu/teaching/plp/<...
Enlightened Despotism<br />
Enlightenment thought<br />Philosophes<br />Locke<br />Rousseau<br />Diderot<br />Montesquieu<br />Kant<br />
Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Émile, or an Éducation (1762) put forth new ways to bring up children <br />
Encyclopédie, Diderot (1763)<br />
<ul><li>Agricultural techniques are illustrated in this plate from Diderot's Encylopedia. In the foreground, a man steers ...
Emmanuel Kant<br />Enlightenment is….<br />
Religious Changes<br />Skepticism (David Hume: We cannot be certain of anything)<br />Deism: God as the “Great Clock-winde...
Jean-Jacques Rousseau<br />The social contract is…<br />
Enlightenment Works<br />
Lecture sept13
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Lecture sept13

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A review of some of the concepts discussed in Hist 220 on the Enlightenment.

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  • How did this question the Great Chain of Being? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/history/MHL/WW/documents/Galileo_Galilei_Third_Letter_on_Sunspots.html
  • Galileo’s first telescopic drawings of the Moon (1610). Because he showed the Moon to be a solid body with irregular surface features, he would later argue that the Earth was not unique. Using simple geometry, he used the shadows cast by the lunar mountains to calculate correctly their height. This led to his disagreement with Artistotle&apos;s theory of an immutable universe and to his controversial defense of the Copernican system in 1632.
  • Talk about invisible hand theories of population growth
  • http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/history/MHL/WW/documents/Diderot_Prelim_Discourse_Encyclo.html
  • Transcript of "Lecture sept13"

    1. 1. Today’s Agenda (9/13)<br />1/ Go over shifts in scientific worldview, and place in the political context of Absolutism<br />2/ 18th-Century life and thought (lecture)<br />3/ Montesquieu Persian Letters (discussion)<br />4/ Kant “What is Enlightenment?” (Alexandra)<br />5/ Paper assignment handout<br />
    2. 2. ScalaNatura<br />(1579)<br />
    3. 3. Scientific Worldview (16th and 17th Centuries)<br />Galileo Galilei (1608) built a telescope and supported heliocentrism with his observations<br />
    4. 4. Chart of Heavens engraved by Andreas Cellarius in 1660. Portrays heliocentric universe described by Copernicus & Gallileo.<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6. Hand out galileo’s forgiveness<br />
    7. 7. Changes in the 18th Century:Enlightenment and Beyond<br />September 13 & 15, 2011<br />
    8. 8. Changes in the 17th and 18th Century<br />Scientific Worldview<br />New questions about authority in religion<br />Emergence of a new secular public sphere<br />Wealth shifted and became more accessible<br />Transformation in relationships between men and women, and between couples and children<br />Extreme population spike<br />
    9. 9. Shifts in Values<br />Population Boom (from 1740)First time population growth was un-checked by a demographic crisis<br />Political Doubt<br />De-authorize religion<br />
    10. 10. Population Increase<br />Long been a population increase, but this one (circa 1740) was left unchecked by a demographic crisis<br />1700 = European Population estimate at 120 million<br />1800 = >180 million <br />
    11. 11. Thomas Malthus (1766–1834)<br />An Essay on the Principles of Population<br />Observed that population grew (and then shrunk) in a cyclical pattern<br />A trauma (famine, war, disease) would diminish a population to keep it from growing too much<br />Approved of celibacy, late marriage; but equally prominent were abortion, infanticide, contraception<br />
    12. 12. Increased fertility / decreased mortality<br />Trained doctors and midwives<br />Children surviving birth and first ten years<br />Sexual activity outside marriage (prostitution, etc.)<br />
    13. 13. Popular Culture<br />Growth of cities– public sphere and high population<br />
    14. 14. Transformation in Family Life<br />
    15. 15. Greuze, the Father’s Curse / The Ungrateful Son (1777)<br />
    16. 16. Reading Culture<br />Salons made reading communal<br />Reading was *fun*<br />Circulation of new ideas about democracy and freedom <br />
    17. 17. Montesquieu, Persian Letters (1721)<br />Letters #8, 9, 24, 26, 51, 60, 62<br />http://rbsche.people.wm.edu/teaching/plp/<br />Letter 8, the deference to a king<br />Letter 9, sexuality as a metaphor, but more than a metaphor too. <br />
    18. 18. Enlightened Despotism<br />
    19. 19. Enlightenment thought<br />Philosophes<br />Locke<br />Rousseau<br />Diderot<br />Montesquieu<br />Kant<br />
    20. 20. Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Émile, or an Éducation (1762) put forth new ways to bring up children <br />
    21. 21. Encyclopédie, Diderot (1763)<br />
    22. 22. <ul><li>Agricultural techniques are illustrated in this plate from Diderot's Encylopedia. In the foreground, a man steers a high-wheeled horse-drawn plow while a woman operates a hopper device to sow seeds.</li></li></ul><li>Voltaire, On Universal Toleration<br />It does not require any great art or studied elocution to prove that Christians ought to tolerate one another. Nay, I shall go still farther and say that we ought to look upon all men as our brethren. How! Call a Turk, a Jew, and a Siamese, my brother? Yes, doubtless; for are we not all children of the same parent, and the creatures of the same Creator?<br />
    23. 23. Emmanuel Kant<br />Enlightenment is….<br />
    24. 24. Religious Changes<br />Skepticism (David Hume: We cannot be certain of anything)<br />Deism: God as the “Great Clock-winder”<br />
    25. 25. Jean-Jacques Rousseau<br />The social contract is…<br />
    26. 26. Enlightenment Works<br />

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