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  1. 1. Chapter 9 Sculpture
  2. 2. Introduction• What is sculpture?• Why is sculpture important to us?• Why does sculpture create an emotion in humans?• Why have we felt the need to create sculptures and monumental sculptures throughout our history?
  3. 3. SculptureSculpture - The art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms
  4. 4. Subtractive and Additive Types of SculptureSubtractive Process - Carving, unwanted materials are removed.Additive Process - Modeling, Casting, Construction
  5. 5. Carving• Carving - removing portions of a block of material to create a form.• Can use stone, wood, ivory, chocolate…
  6. 6. Bernini: The Blessed Ludovica Albertoni 1674
  7. 7. Giuseppe Penone: Propagation 1970
  8. 8. ModelingModeling - using a pliable material, such as clay or wax, the artist shapes the material into a 3D form.• Can be done by hand or tools.
  9. 9. CastingCasting - liquid metal material is poured into a mold to create a form.Mold - the form into which the material is poured and imparts its shape.• Any material that hardens can be used for casting.• One of the oldest and most common is Bronze.
  10. 10. George Segal: The Holocaust 1982
  11. 11. Joseph Havel: Drape 1999
  12. 12. Rachel Whiteread: Stairs 1991
  13. 13. ConstructionConstructed sculpture - forms are built from materials such as wood, paper, string, sheet metal, and wire.
  14. 14. Types of Materials• Stone• Wood• Clay• Metal
  15. 15. Stone• Stone is extremely hard• It is also very durable• Appropriate for monuments and statues• Stone tools include the chisel and mallet• Artists also use contemporary power tools
  16. 16. Reena Spauldings: Marble Surfboards 2000
  17. 17. Wood• Wood can be carved, scraped, drilled, polished, molded and bent.• Different types of woods vary in how hard they are.• Wood appeals to sculpture artists, because of its grain, color, and workability.• Wood is easier to carve than stone.• Tensile strength - the inherent strength of a material.
  18. 18. Isaac Resnikoff : Jersey Barrier 1999
  19. 19. Clay• Clay is more pliable than stone or wood – Clay is not very strong. – Nor is is permanent.• Armature - an inner skeleton normally made of metal, used to help give clay additional strength.
  20. 20. David Zink Yi : Architeuthis 2010
  21. 21. Metal• Metals can be cast, extruded, forged, stamped, drilled, filed, and burnished.• Cast bronze sculptures• Direct-metal sculptures - Assembling sculpture by welding, riveting, and soldering.• Patinas - the colors created on bronze due to oxidation.
  22. 22. Figure 9.12, p.185: RICHARD SERRA. Installation view, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain.
  23. 23. Modern and Contemporary Materials and MethodsThroughout history sculptors have searched for new forms of expression.• Constructed sculpture• Assemblage• Readymades• Mixed media• Kinetic sculpture• Light sculpture• Land art
  24. 24. Figure 9.14, p.186: CLAES OLDENBURG. Soft Toilet (1966). Vinyl filled with kapok painted with Liquitex,and wood. 57 1⁄16” x 27 5⁄8” x 28 1⁄16”.
  25. 25. Assemblage• A form of constructed sculpture• Pre-existing or found objects take on a new form as artwork• Novel combinations that take on a new life and meaning• One of the best-known examples is Picasso’s Bull’s Head
  26. 26. Pablo Picasso: Bull’s Head 1942
  27. 27. Readymades• Found objects can be elevated to works of art on pedestals, such as Duchamp’s urinal, turned upside down.• This is a 20th-century artistic trend• No assembly is needed for this artform
  28. 28. Marcel Duchamp: Fountain 1917
  29. 29. Mixed MediaMixed Media - Use materials and found objects that are not normally elements of a work of art.• Artists, such as Rauschenberg (see Ch. 20), may attach other materials to their canvases.• What might be some the materials you could use in a Mixed Media sculpture?
  30. 30. Robert Rauschenberg: Monogram 1955
  31. 31. Kinetic SculptureKinetic sculpture - Sculptures that move, art + action. Example: the mobile.Forms of movement might include:• Wind• Magnetic fields• Jets of water• Electric motors• The intensity of light• Human manipulations
  32. 32. Jonathon Schipper: The Slow Inevitable Death of American Muscle 1999
  33. 33. Light Sculpture• Light and its reflections have always been an important elements in sculpture (and art!)• However, “light sculpture” is a 20th- century artform• What are the physical and psychological effects of color and the creation of illusion?
  34. 34. Alfredo Jaar: The Geometry of Consciousness 1999
  35. 35. Other MaterialsSculpture today uses not only traditional materials, but also materials that have never been used before.Example: beeswax, microcrystalline wax, chocolate, styrofoam, etc…
  36. 36. Figure 9.22, p.191: JANINE ANTONI. Chocolate Gnaw (1992). Chocolate (600 lb before biting), gnawed by theartist. 24” x 24” x 24” (61 cm x 61 cm x 61 cm).
  37. 37. Urs Fischer: Untitled 2011
  38. 38. Matthew Barney: Untitled 2001