DR.NTR UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES                   VIJAYAWADA,ANDHRA PRADESHASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF POST GRADUATE STUD...
DR.NTR UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES                    VIJAYAWADA,ANDHRA PRADESH                   PROFORMA FOR THE REGIS...
INTRODUCTION“Pain during labour is tolerable but…emotional pain due to infertility is intolerable-                        ...
previous pregnancy, despite cohabitation and exposure to the risk of pregnancy (in theabsence of contraception, breastfeed...
all couples who desire a pregnancy will achieve one spontaneously and a proportion ofcouples will need medical help to res...
that women’s infertility rate is 10 to 15 percent when they are in their 20s and goes up25% in their 30s.                 ...
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM   ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS REGARDINGINFERTILITY BEFORE AND AFTER STRUCTURED...
♣ Structured teaching programme :A teaching programme related to infertility        which is structured by the investigato...
chance to the reader to appreciate the evidence that has already been collected byprevious research, and thus projects the...
analyzed for married and common law couples with a female partner aged 18–44 byrandomized sampling. The three definitions ...
Kurnool and Jodhpur (38.3 % and 37.4 %, respectively). There was also a regionalvariation in the prevalence of oligozoospe...
A case-control study of     was conducted by Friday Okonofua, Uche Menakaya, SO Onemu, etal., (2006) in Nigeria to evaluat...
common causes of infertility in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed infour hospital centers in South Western p...
group. Results showed that women in the study lost an average of 10.2 kg/m2, with 60 ofthe 67 anovulatory subjects resumin...
study should be organized,when the data should be collected,and when interventions areto be implemented.RESEARCH APPROACHT...
DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES The demographic variables are age, educational qualifications, gender,SETTING OF THE STUDYThe settin...
Part(B):structured questionnaire on types and treatment modalities.METHOD OF DATA COLLECTIONPhase1: After obtaining permis...
The collected data will be analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.Indescriptive statistics frequency, pe...
Sample Registration System (SRS) Estimates of Total Fertility Rate (TFR)   in Andhra Pradesh from 1981-2010.     Name     ...
Andhra       pradesh       4.0         3.0          2.4         1.9           1.8India 4.5 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0...
http://www.nature.com/aja/journal/v7/n4/abs/aja200563a.htmlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237240            ...
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Infertility corrected

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Infertility corrected

  1. 1. DR.NTR UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES VIJAYAWADA,ANDHRA PRADESHASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS REGARDINGINFERTILITY BEFORE AND AFTER STRUCTURED TEACHINGPROGRAMME AT SELECTED POST GRADUATE COLLEGES,HYDERABAD. PROFORMA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF SUBJECT FOR DISSERTATION Ms. VIJAYA JAHSSE 1 YEAR M Sc NURSING, OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL NURSING, 2011-2013 EASHWARI BAI MEMORIALCOLLEGEOFNURSING, WEST MAREDPALLY, SECUNDERABAD-26, ANDHRA PRADESH. 1
  2. 2. DR.NTR UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES VIJAYAWADA,ANDHRA PRADESH PROFORMA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF SUBJECT FOR DISSERTATION NAME OF CANDIDATE Ms. VIJAYA JAHSSE1 AND ADDRESS 1 YEAR M Sc NURSING,EASHWARI BAI MEMORIALCOLLEGEOFNURSING,H.N O.10-1-5/C,ROADNO-4,WEST MAREDPALLY, SECUNDERABAD-26,ANDHRA PRADESH. NAME OF THE EASHWARI BAI MEMORIALCOLLEGE2 INSTITUTION OF NURSING COURSE STUDY AND I YEAR M.SC. NURSING3 SUBJECT OBSTETRICAL&GYNECOLOGICAL NURSING DATE OF ADMISSION 1/10/20114 TO COURSE TITLE OF THE TOPIC ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF POST5 GRADUATE STUDENTS REGARDING INFERTILITY BEFORE AND AFTER STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME AT SELECTED POST GRADUATE COLLEGES,HYDERABAD. 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION“Pain during labour is tolerable but…emotional pain due to infertility is intolerable- FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE In all societies the obvious biological difference betweenmen and women is used as a justification for forcing them into different social roleswhich limit and shape their attitudes and behavior. That is to say, no society is contentwith the natural difference of sex, but each insists on adding to it a cultural difference ofgender. The simple physical facts therefore always become associated with complexpsychological qualities. Reproduction is a device that has evolved for the survival ofthe living organisms of different species by producing continuous streams of newgeneration of the specific species. Reproduction is an organisms way of creating a newgeneration of its species. Reproduction is essential for preserving a species (carrying onwith the species), and replenishing the number of organisms in it to compensate for deadorganisms. Without reproduction, a species would die out in one generation.Failure to this process results in infertility. Infertility is a tragic condition. Thoughinfertility does not claim an individual life, it inflicts devastating emotional trauma on theindividual for being unable to fulfil the biological role of parenthood for no fault ofhis/her own. Most experts define infertility as not being able to getpregnant after at least one year of trying. Women who are able to get pregnant but thenhave repeat miscarriages are also said to be infertile. It is accepted that the termsinfertility, childlessness or sterility all refer to the incapacity of couples to conceive orbear children when desired. Primary infertility refers the couple had never conceiveddespite cohabitation and exposure to the risk of pregnancy (absence of contraception) fora period of 2 years. Secondary infertility refers the couple failed to conceive following a 3
  4. 4. previous pregnancy, despite cohabitation and exposure to the risk of pregnancy (in theabsence of contraception, breastfeeding or postpartum amenorrhoea) for a period of2 years. The common causes of fertility problems in womeninclude: blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis,physical problems with the uterus, uterine fibroids and many things can affect a womansability to have a baby such as age, stress, poor diet, being over weight or under weight,tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol, sexually transmitted diseases and health problemsthat cause hormonal changes. Infertility is not always a womans problem. In only aboutone-third of cases is infertility due to the woman (female factors). In another one third ofcases, infertility is due to the man (male factors). The remaining cases are caused by amixture of male and female factors or by unknown factors. Infertility may have profoundpsychological effects. Partners may become more anxious to conceive, ironicallyincreasing sexual dysfunction. Marital discord often develops in infertile couples,especially when they are under pressure to make medical decisions. Women trying toconceive often have clinical depression rates similar to women who have heart disease orcancer. Emotional stress and marital difficulties are greater in couples where theinfertility lies with the man. Infertility can be treated with medicine, surgery, artificialinsemination, or assisted reproductive technology. Many times these treatments arecombined. In most cases infertility is treated with drugs or surgery. Adopting a healthier lifestyle through simple lifestylechanges in diet, maintaining body weight or staying up to date with regular health checksand tests, may help to prevent infertility.NEED FOR THE STUDY Parenthood is undeniably one of the most universally desiredgoals in adulthood, and most people have life plans that include children. However, not 4
  5. 5. all couples who desire a pregnancy will achieve one spontaneously and a proportion ofcouples will need medical help to resolve underlying fertility problems. Infertility has been recognized as a public health issueworldwide by the World Health Organization (WHO). “According to the World HealthOrganization (WHO), the worldwide incidence of infertility is about 10 per cent. TheWHO data further concludes that in most developing countries, one of four couples in thereproductive age is infertile because of primary or secondary infertility.” WHO estimates that approximately 8-10% of couplesexperience some form of infertility. On a worldwide scale, this means that 60-80 millionpeople suffer from infertility with men and women in almost identical proportion.Infertility is exclusively a female problem in 30-40% of cases and male in 10-30% ofcases. One of the factors that leads to increasing infertilityamongst women is that most of them do not want to get married before 30 and even ifthey get married in their 20s they don’t usually plan their baby soon enough. Doctors say 5
  6. 6. that women’s infertility rate is 10 to 15 percent when they are in their 20s and goes up25% in their 30s. A global review of infertility from the World Fertility Surveyand others estimated similar rates of infertility in other settings in South Asia, such as 4%in Bangladesh, 6% in Nepal, 5% in Pakistan and 4% in SriLanka. One estimate of overallprimary and secondary infertility in South Asia, on the basis of women at the end of theirreproductive lives in the age group 45-49 years, suggests an infertility rate ofapproximately 10%: 8% in India, 10% in Pakistan, 11% in Sri Lanka, 12% in Nepal and15% in Bangladesh. Supporting the statement, Dr P Rama Devi, founder& medical director, Dr Rama’s Institute for Fertility, says, “Today, infertility hasbecome a global health issue and in 40 percent of the cases, problem lies exclusively withthe male, 40 per cent with the female, 10 percent with both partners and in another 10 percent of the cases, the cause is idiopathic in nature.” In India, the incidence and prevalenceof infertility also seems to be increasing steadily. The report said that in India, 13 percent of ever-married women aged 15-49 years were childless in 1981 (rural 13.4 percent and urban11.3 percent) which increased to 16 percent in 2001 (rural 15.6 percent and urban 16.1percent). Over half of married women aged 15-19 years were childless in 1981, whichincreased to 70 percent in 2001. "Out of 250 million individuals conservatively estimatedto be attempting parenthood at any given time...13 to 19 million couples are likely to beinfertile," the Union minister of health had sounded the alarm in 2010. It is estimated thatglobally 60-80 million couples suffer from infertility every year, of which probablybetween 15-20 millions (25%) are in India alone according to the statistics of 2011 inwhich both male and female are affecting in equal proportions. 6
  7. 7. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS REGARDINGINFERTILITY BEFORE AND AFTER STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMMEAT SELECTED POST GRADUATE COLLEGES,HYDERABAD.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ♦ To assess the knowledge of post graduate students regarding infertility . ♦ To assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme among post graduate students regarding infertility . ♦ To find out the significant association between the knowledge scores with their selected demographic variables regarding infertility.OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS ♣ Assess :the process of finding out the effectiveness of structured teaching programme among post graduates . ♣ Knowledge: In this study, knowledge refers to correct responses given by the postgraduate students regarding infertility using a structured questionnaire. ♣ Post graduates: students who are doing a two year post graduate course at a selected college in Hyderabad. ♣ Infertility : Failure to conceive after one year of regular intercourse without contraception. 7
  8. 8. ♣ Structured teaching programme :A teaching programme related to infertility which is structured by the investigator,which includes definition, types,risk factors& causes, management..LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ♦ The study is limited to the post graduate students at selected colleges in Hyderabad.. ♦ Post graduate students who are willing to participate in the study. ♦ Post graduate students who are available at the time of data collection.CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION: Inclusion Criteria:  Post graduate students who are willing to participate in study.  Post graduate students who are available at the time of study.  Post graduate students who are able to speak /read English. Exclusion Criteria:  Post graduate students who are not willing to participate in the study.  Post graduate students who are not available at the time of study.  Post graduate students who are not able to speak/read English.RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS H1: There will be significant difference between the pre and post test knowledge of post graduate students regarding infertility. H2: There will be significant association between the knowledge scores of postgraduate students with their selected demographic variables.REVIEW OF LITERATUREEvery piece of ongoing research needs to be connected with the work already done, toattain an overall relevance and purpose. The review of literature thus becomes a linkbetween the research proposed and the studies already done. It tells the reader aboutaspects that have been already established or concluded by other authors, and also gives a 8
  9. 9. chance to the reader to appreciate the evidence that has already been collected byprevious research, and thus projects the current research work in the proper perspective.Review of literature extensive,exhaustive and systematic examination of publicationsrelevant to the research project.(Basavanthappa,B.T,2003).REVIEW OF LITERATUREThe review of literature is divided into the following sections.  Section-I :Literature related to knowledge assessment of infertility  Section-II : Literature related to risk factors and etiology of infertility.  Section-III : Literature related to prevalence of infertility.  Section-IV : Literature related to treatment modalities of infetility.  Section-I :Literature related to knowledge assessment of infertilityA prospective study was conducted by Chhabra S., Srujana D. and Annapurna M.A(2012) Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences,Sewagram, Wardha, Maharashtra, India, over two years to findout the advice-seekingscenario of women with infertility. A total of 1000 infertile women from culturallydiverse, urban and rural communities, attending outpatient care were the study subjectswere interviewed with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire in the womens firstlanguage, about their awareness of conception events, and advice seeking practices; andthe information collected were analysed. Results showed that 76.8% of women had littleknowledge about conception events, possible treatment options for infertility .  Section-II: Literature related to prevalence of infertilityA descriptive study was conducted by Tracey Bushnik, Jocelynn L. Cook, A. AlbertYuzpe (2011) to estimate the the prevalence of infertility in Canada. Data from theinfertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were 9
  10. 10. analyzed for married and common law couples with a female partner aged 18–44 byrandomized sampling. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derivedsequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reportedsexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and oddsratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. The results showedthat the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7%(95% CI 14.2, 17.4). The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertilityhas increased in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity.Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencingcurrent infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years.A descriptive study was conducted by Sule J.O., P. Erigbali, L. Eruom (2008) to assessthe prevalence of infertility in Women in a Southwestern Nigerian Community . Thestudy was conducted in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed in fourhospital centers in Osun State, located in the SouthWestern part of Nigeria. A survey of aconsecutive sample of 200 cases of infertility were carried out in four hospital centerswith a total of 50 cases of infertility evaluated in each of the centers between 2001 –2003. The incidence of high infertility in women was established in all the centers;(Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife), 59.4%, (Obafemi AwolowoUniversity Teaching Hospital, Ilesa), 47.7%, (Ladoke Akintola University TeachingHospital, Oshogbo), 54.8% and (General Hospital, Ikire), 44.2%. 77.5% was recorded fora high rate of secondaryInfertility, while Primary Infertility was 22.5%.A retrospective study was conducted by Rajvi H Mehta, Sanjay MakwanaGeethaM Ranga, R J Srinivasan,etal., (2006) to determine whether there was any regionalvariation in the prevalence of azoospermia, oligozoospermia and mean sperm counts inmale partners of infertile couples from different parts of India. 16 714 semen sampleswere collected an analyzed over the past five years from six different laboratories locatedin five cities of India. Results revealed that there was a regional variation in theprevalence of azoospermia. The prevalence of azoospermia was extremely high in 10
  11. 11. Kurnool and Jodhpur (38.3 % and 37.4 %, respectively). There was also a regionalvariation in the prevalence of oligozoospermia (51 %) in Kurnool.  Section-III: Literature related to risk factors and etiology of infertility.A descriptive study was conducted by Kristi L. Lenz, Amy W. Valley(2011) conductedto know the incidence of infertility after chemotherapy. A Medlines search of articlesfrom 1998 conducted using the terms infertility, antineoplastics, amenorrhea, azospermia,oogenesis, and spermatogenesis. Additional references were identified using reviewarticles and pharmacology textbooks. All human studies reported in English languagewere included. The incidence and severity of antifertility effects are dependent on thetotal dosage delivered, duration of therapy, and age at exposure were taken as criteria forthe study. The results found that infertility is a common late complication of cancerchemotherapy that is receiving increasing attention as the number of cancer survivorsincreases. A descriptive study was conducted by Laura Bunting and Jacky Boivin(2008) toassess the fertility knowledge more broadly in young people and investigated three areasof knowledge, namely risk factors associated with female infertility (e.g. smoking),beliefs in false fertility myths (e.g. benefits of rural living) and beliefs in the illusorybenefits of healthy habits (e.g. exercising regularly) on female fertility.149 samplesconsisted of 110 female and 39 male postgraduate and undergraduate university students(average age 24.01, SD = 7.81) were selected by nonrandomized method. Knowledgescores were based on a simple task requiring the participants to estimate the effect afactor would have on a group of 100 women trying to get pregnant. Items (n = 21) weregrouped according to three categories: risk factors (e.g. smoking; 7 items), myths (e.g.living in countryside; 7 items) and healthy habits (e.g. being normal weight; 7items).Results revealed that young people were significantly better at correctlyidentifying the effects of risks compared with null effects of healthy habits (P < 0.001) orfertility myths (P < 0.001). Young people are aware that the negative lifestyle factorsreduce fertility but falsely believe in fertility myths and the benefits of healthy habits. 11
  12. 12. A case-control study of was conducted by Friday Okonofua, Uche Menakaya, SO Onemu, etal., (2006) in Nigeria to evaluate the association between selected potentialsocio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and infertility in Nigerian men. Therewere two groups in this study. One group consisted of 150 men with proven maleinfertility, and the other consisted of 150 fertile men with normal semen parameters. Bothwere matched for age, place of residence and key socio-demographic variables. Theywere compared for sexual history, past medical and surgical history, past exposures tosexually transmitted infections and treatment, past and current use of drugs as well assmoking and alcohol intake history. Results of the study found that infertile men weresignificantly more likely than fertile men to report having experienced penile discharge,painful micturition and genital ulcers, less likely to seek treatment for these symptomsand more likely to seek treatment with informal sector providers.A prospective study was conducted by Chhabra S., Srujana D. and Annapurna M.A(2012) over two years to find out the advice-seeking scenario of women with infertility.A total of 1000 infertile women from culturally diverse, urban and rural communities,attending outpatient care were the study subjects.They were interviewed with the help ofa semi-structured questionnaire about the causes of infertility. Results found that in10.79% couples, male factor was the obvious cause; in 32.21% female factors, and in20% couples, both male and female had obvious reasons responsible for infertility. In37% cases, infertility appeared unexplained. Out of female factors, around 40% womenhad tubal factors, 30% had anovulation, endocrine disorders (thyroid disorders,hyperprolactinemia, polycystic ovarian disorders, luteal phase defect, diabetes etc.) werein 13%, and uterine causes (hypoplasia, malformed uterus, tuberculous endometritis,fibroid uterus, synechiae etc.,) in 10% cases. There were other pelvic causes (pelvicinflammatory disease, endometriosis) and cervical mucous problems in 5% of the casesand 2% had coital problems. Male factors (10.79%) included aspermia, azoospermia,oligospermia, teratospermia, erectile dysfuction, premature ejaculation, hypoactive sexualdesire, etc.A descriptive study was conducted by Sule J.O., P. Erigbali, L. Eruom (2008)Department of Physiology, Niger Delta University., Bayelsa State, Nigeria regarding 12
  13. 13. common causes of infertility in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed infour hospital centers in South Western part of Nigeria. A survey of a consecutive sampleof 200 cases of infertility were carried out in four hospital centers with a total of 50 casesof infertility evaluated in each of the centers between 2004 –2006. The commonestcauses of infertility in this environment were, the tubal factor, uterine factor, and ovarianfactor representing 39.5%, 30% and 13% respectively. The least common cause werecervical factor, Pelvic Infection Disease (PID), and endometriosis which was seen in 3%,5.5% and 2.5% of the subjects respectively.  Section-IV: Literature related to treatment modalities of infertility.An experimental study was conducted by Sinikka Nuojua-Huttunen, LeenaTuomivaara(2004) to evaluate the effectiveness of intrafollicular insemination (IFI) forthe treatment of non-tubal infertility was investigated in a pilot study. A total of 50infertility patients with normal tubal function verified by laparoscopy orhysterosalpingography were stimulated with clomiphene citrate/human menopausalgonadotrophin. Washed spermatozoa were injected into one to three pre-ovulatoryfollicles via vaginal puncture 12 or 30 hrs after human chorionic gonadotrophinadministration. Natural progesterone was given for luteal support. One normal intra-uterine pregnancy resulted. The results indicate that by comparison with other assistedreproductive technologies IFI is very inefficacious for treating non-tubal infertility. Ourdata suggest that the intrafollicular environment in the pre-ovulatory period is notfavourable for fertilization.A prospective study was conducted by A M Clark, B Thornley, L Tomlinson,etal.,(2004) to assess the Weight loss in obese infertile women results in improvement inreproductive outcome for all forms of fertility treatment. A weight loss programme wasassessed to determine whether it could help obese infertile women, irrespective of theirinfertility diagnosis, to achieve a viable pregnancy, ideally without further medicalintervention. 150 subjects were taken as samples by convenient sampling method whounderwent a weekly programme aimed at lifestyle changes in relation to exercise and dietfor 6 months those that did not complete the 6 months were treated as a comparison 13
  14. 14. group. Results showed that women in the study lost an average of 10.2 kg/m2, with 60 ofthe 67 anovulatory subjects resuming spontaneous ovulation, 52 achieving a pregnancy(18 spontaneously) and 45 a live birth. Thus weight loss should be considered as a firstoption for women who are infertile and overweight.A prospective randomized study was conducted by Jan Gerris1, Diane De Neubourg,Kathelijne Mangelschots,(2003) comparing single embryo transfer with double embryotransfer after in-vitro fertilization or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) wascarried out. First, top quality embryo characteristics were delineated by retrospectivelyanalysing embryos resulting in ongoing twins after double embryo transfer. A top qualityembryo was characterized by the presence of 4 or 5 blastomeres at day 2 and at least 7blastomeres on day 3 after insemination, the absence of multinucleated blastomeres and<20% cellular fragments on day 2 and day 3 after fertilization. Using these criteria, aprospective study was conducted in women <34 years of age, who started their firstIVF/ICSI cycle. Of 194 eligible patients, 110 agreed to participate of whom 53 producedat least two top quality embryos and were prospectively randomized. In all, 26 singleembryo transfers resulted in 17 conceptions, 14 clinical and 10 ongoing pregnancies[implantation rate (IR) = 42.3%; ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) = 38.5%] with onemonozygotic twin; 27 double embryo transfers resulted in 20 ongoing conceptions withsix (30%) twins (IR = 48.1%; OPR = 74%). We conclude that by using single embryotransfer and strict embryo criteria, an OPR similar to that in normal fertile couples can beachieved after IVF/ICSI, while limiting the dizygotic twin pregnancy rate to its naturalincidence of <1% of all ongoing pregnancies.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem.It is a blue print of howthe research activities should be carried out.It is a set of methods and principles used toperform a particular activity.The researcher must carefully select the research design as ithas an important role in conducting the study.The research design determines how the 14
  15. 15. study should be organized,when the data should be collected,and when interventions areto be implemented.RESEARCH APPROACHThe research approach is a broad based procedure for stydying the selected problem anddrawing conclusions.The research approach refers to a general set of ordinary disciplinedprocedure used to acquire dependable and useful information.RESEARCH DESIGNResearch design is the conceptual structure with in which the research should beconducted. It provides the back bone of the study. The research design is a platform fromwhich the researcher explores new knowledge in an effort to better describe andunderstand phenomena, clarify plausible explanations and identify potential factors. Inthis study, pre experimental design i.e.,one group pretest-post test design will be used. O1 X O2 Pre-test planned teaching post-testRESEARCH VARIABLESVariable is a measurable factor, characteristic, or attribute of an individual or a systemthat varies and which takes on different values. 1) INDEPENDENT VARIABLE In this study, planned teaching programme on infertility is the independent variable. The planned teaching programme contains prevalence, risk factors& etiology, management. Planned teaching programme will be prepared after referring text books and other references. 2) DEPENDENT VARIABLE The knowledge of the post graduate students in the selected post graduate colleges regarding infertility. 15
  16. 16. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES The demographic variables are age, educational qualifications, gender,SETTING OF THE STUDYThe setting refers to the area /place where the study will be conducting. The researcherselects a post graduate colleges in Hyderabad.POPULATIONIn this study, the population consist of postgraduate students at selected post graduatecolleges at Hyderabad.SAMPLE AND SAMPLE SIZEA sample is a selected proportion of the defined population.The samples will be thepostgraduate students in selected postgraduate college at Hyderabad and the sample sizeis 40.CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTIONInclusion criteria a) Postgraduate students in selected postgraduate colleges at Hyderabad. b) Postgraduate students who are willing to participate in the study. c) Postgraduate students who are able to understand and read English.Exclusion criteria a) Postgraduate students who are absent at the time of data collection. b) Postgraduate students who donot know to read and speak English.SAMPLING TECHNIQUEThe sampling technique is the non-probability convenient sampling .TOOL FOR DATA COLLECTIONSectionA; structured questionnaire regarding demographic data.SectionB: It is divided into subparts like.Part(A): structured questionnaire on definition, prevalence, etiology&risk factors ofinfertility. 16
  17. 17. Part(B):structured questionnaire on types and treatment modalities.METHOD OF DATA COLLECTIONPhase1: After obtaining permission from concerned authorities, informed consent fromthe samples , the researcher will collect the data pertaining to the demographic variablesand assess the existing knowledge with the structured questionnaire.Phase2: Planned teaching programme will be conducted.Phase3; After five days self administered,structured questionnaire will be administered toassess the post test knowledge of the postgraduate students.SCORE INTERPRETATIONEach correct answer will be given a score of one and wrong answer as zero.Scoreinterpretation will be based on knowledge score in terms of percentages.The knowledgescore will be considered into three classes;  Below 33.33% - below average knowledge.  33.33% -66.66%- average knowledge.  Above 66.66% - above average knowledge.VALIDITYTo evaluate the content validity,the tool will be given to the experts in related fields likeobstetrics, gynaecology, and nursing.RELIABILITYThe reliability of the tool will be tested by test retest method with a time gap of five daysand the correlation co-efficient will be calculated by Karl Pearson formula.PILOT STUDYThe pilot study will be conducted to assess the practicability, feasibility andappropriateness of the tool.PLANS FOR DATA ANALYSIS 17
  18. 18. The collected data will be analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.Indescriptive statistics frequency, percentage, distribution, means and standard deviation.Inferential statistics Paired “t” test to compare the pre test and the post testknowledge,chi-square test to assess the association between the knowledge of postgraduate students with their selected demographic variables will be assessed.PROJECT OUTCOMEThe study will help the postgraduate students to have better knowledge regardinginfertility in selected postgraduate colleges at Hyderabad.ETHICAL CLEARANCEInformed consent will be obtained from the hospital authorities and subjects privacy,confidentiality, and anonymity will be guaranteed. Scientific objectivity of the study willbe maintained with honesty and impartiality. 18
  19. 19. Sample Registration System (SRS) Estimates of Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Andhra Pradesh from 1981-2010. Name 1981 1991 2001 2007 2010 19
  20. 20. Andhra pradesh 4.0 3.0 2.4 1.9 1.8India 4.5 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5Source : Family Welfare Statistics in India - 2006-2010; MoH&FW, GoI; SRS - 2010(April, 2012)http://planningcommission.nic.in/data/datatable/0904/tab_207.pdfRead more at: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/infertility-on-the-rise/1/103037.htmlhttp://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/10/2581.abstracthttp://www.rightdiagnosis.com/f/female_infertility/stats-country.htmhttp://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?md08031 20
  21. 21. http://www.nature.com/aja/journal/v7/n4/abs/aja200563a.htmlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237240 21

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