2. “ who can speak five languages” is a d efining relative clause. It tells us which person or thing the speaker is talking about. I can speak five languages Later… I’ve just hired a secretary who can speak five languages . relative pronoun Defining relative clause
3. who… is for people which… is for things that… is for people and things whose… is used to talk about possession a girl who swims well a house which has four bedrooms a girl that swims well a house that has four bedrooms a man whose wife sings a country whose population live well Relative Pronouns
4. Relative Pronouns Observe: I met a man. The man had a gun. subject I met a man who had a gun. subject The relative pronoun is necessary because it is the subject of the relative clause.
5. Mr Jones bought a new computer. I haven’t seen it. Observe: I haven’t seen the new computer that / which Mr Jones bought. subject object The relative pronoun is not necessary because it is the object of the relative clause.
6. Non-defining relative clause Anne and Tim work in the same office. They are good friends. Anne and Tim, who are good friends , work in the same office. who are good friends is a non-defining relative clause. We already know who or what the speaker is talking about. The clause just gives extra information . It should be between commas.
7. Relative Pronouns We can use who and which with non-defining relative clauses, but we can’t use that . John, who that works for a big company, is always nervous and tense.
8. Peter, whose that father is a doctor , opened a Chinese restaurant. He always travels by train, which that is faster and more comfortable .
9. Who has more than one sister, June or James? June’s sister, who lives in Paris, plays golf very well. James’s sister who lives in London is a real hard-worker. Answer: James Why? Because we needed a defining relative clause to specify which of his sisters we’re talking about. extra information
10. Combine the two sentences into one: 1- A boy had an accident. He’s in hospital now. The boy_________________________________________ 2- A girl helped me. She was nice and calm. The girl_________________________________________ 3- I was given a dog. It’s big and very ugly. The dog_________________________________________ 4- We saw a film. It was extremely boring. The film________________________________________ that/who had an accident is in hospital now that/who helped me was nice and calm (that/which) I was given is big and very ugly. (that/which) we saw was extremely boring
11. 5- I told you a story. It was true. The story_________________________________________ 6- He read some books. They were all interesting The books________________________________________ 7- Sue bought new shoes. They were not comfortable. The shoes________________________________________ 8- My husband took some photographs. I haven't seen them. I haven’t seen ___________________________________ (that/which) I told you was true (that/which) he read were all interesting (that/which) Sue bought were not comfortable the photographs (that/which) my husband took.
12. 9- The boy loves volleyball. He lives next to me. The boy________________________________________ 10- We bought a car. The car was too expensive. We bought________________________________________ 11- A vet is a doctor. He looks after animals. A vet_________________________________________ who loves volleyball lives next to me a car that / which was too expensive is a doctor who looks after animals