Cognitive Theory stems from traditional psychological concepts of thinking. Cognitivists view activities such as thinking, deciding, and remembering in terms of how they underlie behavior.
Background Information• Cognitive theory came about as a reaction to behaviorism• Cognitivists and Behaviorists have conflicting views• A “cognitive revolution” took place in the 1950s which led to a collection of cognitive sciences studied present day
Key Cognitive Theory Concepts• Cognitive psychology focuses on how people think, understand, and know• Emphasis on learning how people comprehend and represent the world around them• Focus on conscious thinking• Emphasis on individual’s active construction of understanding
Important Cognitive TheoristsAllan PaivioRobert GagneHoward GardnerBenjamin Bloom
Allan Paivio (1925- present)• Dual Coding Theory- believed people process information in two ways: processing images or processing language• His dual coding theory formed the beginnings of subsequent educational theories• Paivio placed an equal importance on verbal and nonverbal processing
Robert Gagne (1916-2002)• Psychologist and educator• Known for contributions to cognitive learning hierarchies• Identified 5 major categories of learning outcomes (verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes)• Also known for his “nine events of instruction” model shown on the right
Howard Gardner (1943-present)•Focused on understanding and definingintelligence•Developed a theory of multiple intelligences(there are eleven in all)• Professor at Harvard University where heconducted research on his regular, gifted, andadult students•Believed educators need to take into account thestudent’s multiple intelligences and use them toguide themselves while instructing
Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999)• Educational psychologist who focused on students’ learning domains• Classified learning into three domains (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor)• Created Bloom’s Taxonomy which is made up of six levels that can be used to acquire knowledge on a topic (shown to the right)
Teachers Applying Cognitive TheoryExpository Teaching-• Teacher gives students the tools to organize information for easier encoding, storage, and retrieval• Teacher exposes students to underlying and selective interrelationships in cognitive learning to help students come up with the correct conclusionMeaningful learning method- when presenting new information the teacher uses old information to introduce new information and make connectionsDual Coding-• Using both text and picture or sound while instructing gives students a better chance of remembering and encoding the information• Technology can easily be used to enhance a lesson and the dual coding method
Students Applying Cognitive Theory• Students use sensory, short term, and long term memory to store information learning in class• Students come up with mnemonic devices to remember facts with ease• Using existing schemas to connect new information to helps students retain information• Technology can be used to organize information into charts, graphs, concept maps, etc.
Cognitive Theory in MY Classroom In my opinion, cognitive learning theory provides an effective way to teach students. I will use the theory in my classroom to bring the individuality of each student and their learning styles into lesson plans. This will encourage comprehension for a specific set of students, MY students, as it should be. I will definitely incorporate cognitive theories within my classroom in the future.
Sources and CreditInformation• Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World 7th edition• http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_5.pdfimages• http://leanlearning.wikispaces.com/instructional_design• http://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/ISR/education/bloom.htm• http://dryfly.ca/etec512/index.php?option=com_content&view=art icle&id=61&Itemid=73• http://www.lindamoodbell.com/International-Conference-on- Learning.Aspx• http://saludpublicaps.blogspot.com/2011_05_01_archive.html• http://www.kurzweilai.net/howard-gardner• http://www.mainlinehealth.org/phy/Page.asp?PageID=PHY000196