THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TOAGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENTFOR SMALL FARMERS:The CRS-Philippines ExperienceA Guidebook for Facili...
About the coverOrganized clusters can be the key to successful agroenterprisedevelopment. The illustration on the cover re...
THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TOAGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENTFOR SMALL FARMERS:The CRS-Philippines ExperienceA Guidebook for Facili...
Correct CitationCRS-Philippines. 2007. The Clustering Approach to AgroenterpriseDevelopment for Small Farmers: The CRS-Phi...
Guidebook Review andOversight CommitteePedro Terry R.Tuason - ChairProgram Manager, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural Resourc...
Guidebook Writing TeamCRS-PhilippinesJessan S. CatreMarketing Project Coordinator, Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagem...
ContentsAcronyms                                                ixGlossary of Terms                                       ...
Step 8     Cluster strengthening                            127Part III   Cluster Stories to Tell                         ...
Figure 5    A sample of market chain showing the              28            different stages and the corresponding        ...
Figure 24    Activity Operational Plan five days before         107             deliveryFigure 25    Diagram showing the e...
AcronymsAE           AgroenterpriseAMAD         Agricultural Marketing Assistance             DivisionA/NRM        Agricul...
MCS     Market Chain StudyNFTS    Natural Farming Technology SystemNGO     Non-Government OrganizationNSO     National Sta...
Glossary of TermsAgroenterprise - refers to a business venture, typically small-scale, that can be undertaken either on-fa...
and compensations, and policies and procedures of thecluster.Market Plan – the component of the AE Plan which indicatesthe...
requirements, the product operational flow, and the materials,equipment and other needs.Territorial Approach - a participa...
PrefaceOver the past several years, a new trend in the marketing ofagricultural produce has emerged driven by the increasi...
to enable them to equitably participate in the opportunities ofevolving dynamic markets. Through the clusters, farmers can...
ForewordIn recent years, CRS programs in Africa, Latin America andAsia have promoted market driven strategies for poor,mar...
guides CRS staff and partners are better able to facilitate theprocess of positive change.We congratulate the CRS and part...
Republic of the Philippines                 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                 Office of the Secretary             ...
MessageThe production of “The Clustering Approach to AgroenterpriseDevelopment for Small Farmers, the CRS –Philippines Exp...
MessagePhilippine agricultural development is key in moving the countryforward and it is widely known that sustained expan...
Office of the Archbishop                  Archbishop’s House                  P.O. Box 113                  Cagayan de Oro...
About this GuidebookThis Guidebook is published by the Catholic Relief Services –Philippines primarily, but not exclusivel...
the clustering approach for agroenterprise development wereclarified and simplified under different situations.The cluster...
How to Use this GuidebookThis Guidebook is for use by Facilitators of developmentservice providers such as government agen...
AcknowledgementsThe publication of this Guidebook has been made possible through thegenerous sharing of resources, time an...
Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well BeingPart IAgroenterprise Development as aStrategy to Imp...
Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well BeingTHE INTEGRAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENTFRAMEWORKThe Catholic ...
Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well BeingTHE AGRCULTURE/NATURAL RESOURCEMANAGEMENT DEVELOPMEN...
Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well Beingsustainable when “it can cope with and recover from ...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentPart IIThe 8-Step Clustering Approach toAgroenterpris...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentPhilippines in partnership with local NGOs and LocalG...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentBeing small groups, clusters are better able to keep ...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise Developmentengage the market with favorable arrangements that im...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentTable 1. The steps, features, and outputs of the clus...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentTable 1 continued…   The Farmers                  Ste...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentTable 1 continued…   The Farmers               Step  ...
Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise Development    5. Better relations among growers as a result of ...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation Site Selection, Partnership Building    and Worki...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation      Government Agencies, Non-Government      Org...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation      5. Favorable social conditions (peace and or...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation     2. Community profile (gender, age distributio...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationby the office of the Local Chief Executive, the MA...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationand complementation of local programs and resource...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationleaders) in the community who can facilitate the c...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation                                                  ...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation          3.     Ask them to discreetly write on o...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation                                  Man             ...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation    B. SESSION GUIDE FOR THE ORIENTATION ON       ...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation           possible to move coffee beans from the ...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation       Session Content/Topics       1. What is Mar...
Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationconsumption needs. To be able to do this, farmers ...
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THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO
AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT
FOR SMALL FARMERS:
The CRS-Philippines Experience
A Guidebook for Facilitators

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Agroenterprise Guidebook

  1. 1. THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TOAGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENTFOR SMALL FARMERS:The CRS-Philippines ExperienceA Guidebook for Facilitators
  2. 2. About the coverOrganized clusters can be the key to successful agroenterprisedevelopment. The illustration on the cover represents the eight-step participatory process where clusters of small scale farmersbecome active players gainfully engaging in the dynamic market.Innovated by CRS-Philippines Agri/NRM Program from the CRS-CIAT Learning Alliance on Agroenterprise Development, theprocess continues and progresses towards the empowerment ofthe clusters and the building of new ones.
  3. 3. THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TOAGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENTFOR SMALL FARMERS:The CRS-Philippines ExperienceA Guidebook for Facilitators
  4. 4. Correct CitationCRS-Philippines. 2007. The Clustering Approach to AgroenterpriseDevelopment for Small Farmers: The CRS-Philippines Experience.A Guidebook for Facilitators. Davao City, Philippines.Published byCatholic Relief Services – USCCBPhilippine ProgramISBN 978-971-93973-0-4For further information and feedback, please contact:Catholic Relief Services – USCCBPhilippine ProgramCBCP Building, 470 Gen. Luna StreetIntramuros, 1002 ManilaPhilippinesTel. (63 2) 527 8331 to 35Fax (63 2) 527 4140E-mail: crsphils@ph.seapro.crs.orgWebsite: www.crs.org This Guidebook is considered as an international public good. Any part of it may be quoted or reproduced provided the source is acknowledged and the purpose is non-profit. CRS-Philippines will appreciate receiving feedbacks on this Guidebook and copies of any publication which draws on it.ii ii
  5. 5. Guidebook Review andOversight CommitteePedro Terry R.Tuason - ChairProgram Manager, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural Resource ManagementProgramDonato Romulo C. del Castillo – Vice ChairProgram Advisor, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural Resource ManagementProgramJessan S. Catre - MemberMarketing Project Coordinator, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramFloro T. Israel - MemberMarketing Project Coordinator, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramLionel D. Mendoza - MemberMarketing Project Coordinator, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramJoan Cua Uy - MemberMarketing Consultant, CRS Ph Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramVice President for Marketing, Northern Mindanao Vegetable ProducersAssociation, Inc. (NorminVeggies) iii iii
  6. 6. Guidebook Writing TeamCRS-PhilippinesJessan S. CatreMarketing Project Coordinator, Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramFloro T. IsraelMarketing Project Coordinator, Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramLionel D. MendozaMarketing Project Coordinator, Agriculture and Natural ResourceManagement ProgramJoan Cua UyMarketing Consultant, Agriculture and Natural Resource ManagementProgramVice President for Marketing, Northern Mindanao Vegetable ProducersAssociation, Inc. (NorminVeggies)External WritersDinah Q. TabbadaFormerly Community and Institution Development and Extension Specialistof the EU-GOP Upland Development Project in Southern Mindanao andDevelopment Communication Specialist of the World Agroforestry Centre(ICRAF-Philippines).Alexander U. TabbadaFormerly Senior Programme Specialist and NRM Research Officer of theWorld Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF-Philippines) and Agribusiness Specialistof the USAID-Growth with Equity in Mindanao Program – Phase 1.iv iv
  7. 7. ContentsAcronyms ixGlossary of Terms xiPreface xivForewords xviMessages xixAbout this Guidebook xxiiHow to Use this Guidebook xxivAcknowledgements xxvPart I Agroenterprise as a Strategy to 1 Improve Well Being The Integral Human Development 2 Framework The Agriculture/Natural Resource 3 Management Framework The Agroenterprise Development 3 ApproachPart II The 8-step Clustering Approach to 5 Agroenterprise DevelopmentStep 1 Site selection, partnership building and 13 formation of Working GroupStep 2 Product supply assessment and product 35 selectionStep 3 Market chain study 49Step 4 Cluster formation 73Step 5 Cluster plan formulation 89Step 6 Test marketing 109Step 7 Scaling up 119 v v
  8. 8. Step 8 Cluster strengthening 127Part III Cluster Stories to Tell 141Story 1 Reaping the fruits of improved timing and 144 quality of deliveriesStory 2 The cluster of hat makers in 151 MaguindanaoStory 3 Organizing and training for the strawberry 154 marketStory 4 Testing the waters with dried fish 157Story 5 The cluster moves forest coffee (and 160 other farmers) to the marketStory 6 Missing the boat, missing the market 165Story 7 Small, steady steps to build a marketing 169 enterprise for Maguindanao’s organically grown, traditional riceStory 8 Small Impasugong squash farmers 173 moving into the market with the vegetable industry group in Northern MindanaoPart IV Lessons Learned 177References 184List of FiguresFigure 1 The CRS framework for Integral Human 2 DevelopmentFigure 2 The Agri-NRM Development Framework and 3 Processes of CRS-PhilippinesFigure 3 An illustration of the 8-step process of the 8 clustering approach to agroenterprise development, CRS-Philippines experienceFigure 4 Example of a sociogram used to identify 22 leaders among 10 pre-identified community membersvi vi
  9. 9. Figure 5 A sample of market chain showing the 28 different stages and the corresponding business support servicesFigure 6 An example of a value chain for calamansi, 29 Siay, Zamboanga SibugayFigure 7 The ANSOFF Matrix used in assessing risks 43 when deciding for new products & marketsFigure 8 Sample of a market chain for green coffee 51 beansFigure 9 Market chain map drawn from a corn market 58 chain study using the RMAFigure 10 Market chain map drawn from a vegetable 58 market chain study using the RMAFigure 11 Example of a value chain for dried coffee 59 beansFigure 12 Another way of presenting the margins along 59 the chainFigure 13 Matrix for Buyer Comparison summarized by 60 the farmers after market survey and visitsFigure 14 A graph of the Nestle Coffee Buying Price 62 over a 1 -year periodFigure 15 Projected Marketing Costs & Returns from 63 Various Buyers in the Coffee Market ChainFigure 16 Basic structure of a group of clusters 79Figure 17 Structure of Clusters covering 3 municipalities 84 in 3 provinces collaborating to supply one marketFigure 18 Cluster Map of Saranga Coffee Farmers 88Figure 19 Coffee harvest and product delivery calendar 88 of Saranga ClusterFigure 20 The framework of Agroenterprise 91 DevelopmentFigure 21 Illustration of a sample PQMP that each 95 cluster member must follow to ensure quality of produce vii vii
  10. 10. Figure 24 Activity Operational Plan five days before 107 deliveryFigure 25 Diagram showing the elements of 114Figure 22 agroenterprise implementation Example of a Cluster Map 105Figure 26 23 An illustration of the Maragusan Coffee Operational Plan of transformation process of 130 107 a cluster as an organization ClustersFigure 27 24 An illustration of the Plan five days of the Activity Operational strengthening before 131 107 marketing position of a cluster deliveryFigure 28 25 An illustration of the development of a stable Diagram showing the elements of 133 114 product supply implementation agroenterprise base within a cluster 26Figure 29 transformation process of An illustration of the improvement of the 130 135 business as an organization a cluster management capacity of a cluster 27Figure 30 An illustration of the strengthening of the growth of a cluster from 131 137 assisted toposition of a cluster marketing sustainableFigure 28 An illustration of the development of a stable 133List of Tables product supply base within a clusterFigure1Table 29 An illustration of the improvement of the The steps, features, and outputs of the 135 9 business management agroenterprise clustering approach to capacity of a clusterFigure 30 An illustrationas developed by a cluster from development of the growth of CRS-Ph 137Table 2 assisted to sustainable Effect on profit of different levels of 26 production, prices, sales and costsList of TablesTable 3 Sample matrix used in comparing the values 61Table 1 offered by buyers and outputs of the The steps, features, 9 clustering approach to agroenterprise development as developed by CRS-PhTable 2 Effect on profit of different levels of 26 production, prices, sales and costsTable 3 Sample matrix used in comparing the values 61 offered by buyersviiiviiiviii
  11. 11. AcronymsAE AgroenterpriseAMAD Agricultural Marketing Assistance DivisionA/NRM Agriculture/Natural Resource ManagementBAS Bureau of Agricultural StatisticsBLGU Barangay Local Government UnitCAG Cluster Advisory GroupCDO Cagayan de Oro CityCIAT Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (a.k.a. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture)COPAR Community Organizing through Participatory Action ResearchCRS-SEAPRO Catholic Relief Services – Southeast Asia Pacific Regional OfficeDA Department of AgricultureDAR Department of Agrarian ReformDTI Department of Trade and IndustryGEM-USAID Growth with Equity in Mindanao Program - USAIDIHD Integral Human DevelopmentKasilak Kasilak Development Foundation, Inc.Kaanib Kaanib Foundation, Inc.Kadtuntaya Kadtuntaya Foundation, Inc.KRA Key Result AreaLGU Local Government Unit ix ix
  12. 12. MCS Market Chain StudyNFTS Natural Farming Technology SystemNGO Non-Government OrganizationNSO National Statistics OfficePCEEM People Collaborating for Environmental and Economic Management in Davao Foundation, Inc.PME Participatory Monitoring and EvaluationPSA Product Supply AssessmentPQMP Product Quality Management PlanRMA Rapid Market AssessmentSFMP Small Farms Marketing ProjectSWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and ThreatsUSAID United States Agency for International DevelopmentUSDA United States Department of AgricultureWG Working GroupXAES Xavier Agricultural Extension Servicex x
  13. 13. Glossary of TermsAgroenterprise - refers to a business venture, typically small-scale, that can be undertaken either on-farm, or a service thatcan be used to support other businesses (CIAT ERI Guide 2).An agroenterprise operates in a defined territory which may bea barangay (village), municipality, or group of municipalities.Agroenterprise Plan – a business plan which contains theMarket, Supply, Management and Financial Plans of thecluster. The AE Plan serves a guide for the cluster and itsmembers in their production and marketing activities.Cluster – a group of 5-15 farmers who are committed toestablish a market-linked agroenterprise within a definedterritory.Cluster Advisory Group - formerly the Working Group atpost cluster formation. The WG farmer-members who joinedthe cluster are no longer included in the Cluster AdvisoryGroup.Facilitator – refers to Community Organizer, MarketingFacilitator, Marketing Officer, Agricultural Technologist,Development Facilitator, and similar change agents chargedwith the task of assisting farmers in the areas of organizing,extension, technical assistance, marketing linkage, and AEdevelopment.Financial Plan – the component of the AE Plan which reflectsthe capital requirements and the projected costs and returnsof the cluster’s business.Management Plan – the component of the AE Plan whichindicates the management structure, tasks, responsibilities xi xi
  14. 14. and compensations, and policies and procedures of thecluster.Market Plan – the component of the AE Plan which indicatesthe product/s to produce and market, the sales targets, thepayment arrangements and procedures, and the promotionstrategies.Marketing - the process of moving products from the point ofproduction to the point of consumption to satisfy the needsand wants of customers or buyers at a profit.Small-scale farmer – refers to a farmer who falls in any of thefollowing three types of poor as qualified by CRS-Philippines: 1. Resourceful poor - consistently able to sustain at least a small margin above a minimum livelihood , have sufficient resources to fall back on when there are extraordinary economic or environmental shocks and to “grow” their livelihood options. 2. Poor - vulnerable to extraordinary economic or environmental shocks but otherwise able to sustain a livelihood that meets their basic needs and to minimally improve their livelihoods. 3. Chronic or ultra poor - resources are at or below a bare minimum for daily survival, they are extremely vulnerable all or most of the time and have the greatest difficulty of all three groups in improving their situation.For purposes of developing clusters that can initiate andpump-prime more AEs, CRS-Philippines worked withresourceful poor farmers.Supply Plan – the component of the AE Plan which showsthe suppliers (of the products to be marketed), the estimatedvolumes of supply, the quality management processes andxii xii
  15. 15. requirements, the product operational flow, and the materials,equipment and other needs.Territorial Approach - a participatory and an area-definedscheme in rural enterprise development developed by theInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture. The territory maybe a barangay (village), municipality, or group ofmunicipalities.Working Group – composed of farmers, NGOs, LocalGovernment Units, local business sector, and PeoplesOrganizations. The Group is tasked to conduct Community-Based Market Research and Product Selection and otherrelevant activities. The WG may also be called the LocalPlanning Team or the Local Research Team. xiii xiii
  16. 16. PrefaceOver the past several years, a new trend in the marketing ofagricultural produce has emerged driven by the increasingpopulation of urban consumers with higher incomes anddynamic lifestyles. The increase in the demand for high qualityand safe produce, coupled with the want for leisure andconvenience, gave rise to the rapid growth of supermarkets,quick service restaurants and food manufacturers/processors.Globalization, which made it easier to move a variety of highquality products across geographical areas, has fueled thisdemand and contributed to this dramatic change in themarkets.With funding support from the United States Department ofAgriculture – Food for Progress Act of 2004, Catholic ReliefServices (CRS) Philippines started implementing in mid 2004the Small Farms Marketing Project (SFMP) in the followingprovinces of Mindanao: Bukidnon, Compostela Valley,Maguindanao, Zamboanga Sibugay and the upper watershedof Davao City. All CRS agriculture and natural resourcemanagement programs are guided by the following sixprinciples: [1] Work with farmers as partners; [2] Treat farmingas a family business, acknowledging that rural communitiesare linked to markets and that farm families need income foroff-farm products and services; [3] Focus on farming systems,supporting diverse production - crops, livestock, trees andfish; [4] Promote agricultural practices that do not deplete ordamage resources, linking production to conservation; [5] Usewatershed approaches, fostering cross-communitycollaboration for resource protection, natural disastermitigation, and upstream/downstream cooperation to meetcompeting water needs; and [6] Ensure immediate benefits;invest in long-term production.CRS Philippines, through the Small Farms MarketingProject, has organized small farmers into marketing clustersxivxiv
  17. 17. to enable them to equitably participate in the opportunities ofevolving dynamic markets. Through the clusters, farmers canproactively plan their production in cooperation with the bigconsolidators servicing these high value markets, managequality, and consolidate significant product supply. Theclustering strategy has enabled farmers to introduce reformsin the marketplace, gradually replacing adversarialrelationship with some traders into collaborative arrangementswith product consolidators and institutional buyers. This hasresulted in innovative supply chains that cut layers towardsthe dynamic markets and gave small farmers, actingcollectively, the benefits of more stable markets and/or higherreturns.This guidebook, “The Clustering Approach to AgroenterpriseDevelopment for Small Farmers, the CRS – PhilippinesExperience,” has been designed for Field Facilitators whohave adequate field experience in community developmentwork. The production of this guidebook was also made inresponse to the request of other development organizations toassist them on how to adopt, adapt and implementAgroenterprise Development in linking small farmers tomodern markets.PEDRO TERRY R. TUASONProgram ManagerAgriculture and Natural Resource Management ProgramCatholic Relief Services - Philippines xv xv
  18. 18. ForewordIn recent years, CRS programs in Africa, Latin America andAsia have promoted market driven strategies for poor,marginalized small farmers. This manual, The ClusteringApproach to Agroenterprise Development for Small Farmers,the CRS-Philippines Experience, is an exciting new addition tothe best practice guides being developed by CRS.The manual is a Guidebook for Field Facilitators. It provides astepwise practical approach to understanding markets,identifying market opportunities and then preparing farmers tosupply selected market types. The guide uses novel methodsfor clustering farmers and linking them into higher valuemarket chains that would not have been open to individualfarmers.This guidebook is valuable for all practitioners. It builds onexisting knowledge, is grounded in a local situation, and addsnew concepts on setting up farmer groups for marketing andclustering groups to achieve high volume for sales. Theprocess of developing this guide comes through a strongpartnership between CRS, research, farmer associations andtraders. These partners are essential to make markets workfor the poor farming communities.A critical part of CRS’ work is finding sustainable solutions forthe poor that provide livelihood pathways out of poverty. Thisprocess includes engaging with markets and playing an activeand innovative role in market chains. This guide provides uswith the stepwise approach to that goal of sustainability. All ofthis takes much time and effort but through these types of xvixvi
  19. 19. guides CRS staff and partners are better able to facilitate theprocess of positive change.We congratulate the CRS and partner agribusiness team inThe Philippines for the excellent guide. It’s important todocument our work and share it with the broader CRScommunity and others engaged in similar work.Agroenterprise approaches are proving successfulmechanism to lift poor farmers out of subsistence living andinto sustainable livelihoods. This manual is a significantcontribution to CRS’ work with the poor and marginalized.MARY HODEMRegional DirectorCRS-Southeast Asia and Pacific Region Office (SEAPRO)SUSAN HAHNDeputy Regional Director, Program QualityCRS-SEAPROSHAUN FERRISSenior Technical Advisor, Agriculture and Livelihood xvii xvii
  20. 20. Republic of the Philippines DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Elliptical Road, Diliman, Quezon City 1100 Foreword The task of teaching small farmers and fishers modern and sustainable technologies and convincing them to organize themselves into associations or cooperatives so they could expand into processing and marketing enterprises are enormous challenges that the Department of Agriculture family cannot perform and bankroll alone. Thus, we continuously seek the support of concerned groups and institutions, here and abroad. In this case, we wholeheartedly appreciate the initiatives of the Catholic Relief Services and the United States Department of Agriculture in the packaging and publication of this valuable document. Indeed, this guidebook will serve as a valuable reference for community organizers and facilitators, agriculture technicians and extension workers in helping organize small farmers into groups or clusters, link them directly with the markets, and pave the way to establishing their respective agro enterprises. We therefore commend the men and women of CRS-Philippines, its partner NGOs and farmer-leaders who shared their respective experiences and spent painstaking hours to complete this book, which we expect will serve its purpose well in transforming farmers into market-oriented producers and entrepreneurs. Mabuhay ang CRS at USDA! Maraming salamat sa inyong patuloy na tulong! ARTHUR C. YAP Secretary xviiixviii
  21. 21. MessageThe production of “The Clustering Approach to AgroenterpriseDevelopment for Small Farmers, the CRS –Philippines Experience”is the result of years of experience and effort by CRS staff andpartners in Mindanao. It started over ten years ago with the idea ofassisting farmers in Mindanao to increase productivity throughimproved environment-friendly farming techniques.As the interaction grew between CRS, the farmers and the otherproject stakeholders, the focus of the project evolved from “farmer-to-farmer” training to “integrated pest management” to “landcare” to“marketing” to the “clustering approach to marketing”. The currentprogram continues to incorporate all of these aspects but with anemphasis on the “clustering approach”. The manual is an attempt toshare this learning process.Many talented and dedicated people were involved in this effortstarting with the farmers groups and the local government units.Archbishop Antonio Ledesma actively supported the first successful“calamansi” projects in the Ipil Prelature. Paul Hicks and TerryTuason of CRS led the transformation of the idea into a concreteproposal and initiative. Joan Uy provided the intellectual frameworkfor the “clustering” approach which was indispensable to theprogram. Danny Ocampo provided steady management supportthrough rough periods. Our NGO partners - Kasilak, Kaanib,Kadtuntaya, XAES, and PCEEM - were instrumental in leading theprocess of inclusion of and consultation with government at the localand provincial levels. Senator Ting Paterno and Bobby Ansaldohelped promote the program among the business community.Finally, the program could not have succeeded without the supportand encouragement of the Department of Agriculture of the Republicof the Philippines and the United States Department of Agriculture.Michael J. FrankCRS Ph Country Representative xix xix
  22. 22. MessagePhilippine agricultural development is key in moving the countryforward and it is widely known that sustained expansion of thenational economy will likewise require sustained growth in theagricultural sector. Various economic and sophisticateddevelopmental models have been designed for this although manytimes, they remain as such, all theory and speculation.Translating theory into reality is easier said than done and this isusually the case in developing countries whose agricultural sectorsare predominantly in the hands of small-scale farmers. As the worldrapidly changes and the dynamics of rural social systems continueto shift, identifying the appropriate mix of developmentalinterventions require patience and innovation.The Clustering Approach to AgroEnterprise Development for SmallFarmers: The CRS-Philippine Experience goes beyond identifyingthe tools for change by integrating, among others, certain essentialmanagement disciplines in the development process.Drawing from proven and tested countryside developmentalexperience, the guidebook is not only deliberate, determined andinstructional; it is also practical, realistic and concise. It is theperfect companion for the field-extension worker and ruraldevelopment planner.I would like to congratulate all those involved in the preparation ofthis excellent guidebook and I assure you of my continued supportEmiko PurdyAgricultural Counselorxx xx
  23. 23. Office of the Archbishop Archbishop’s House P.O. Box 113 Cagayan de Oro City 9000 Misamis Oriental, Philippines Tel. Nos. (08822) 72-63-04; 72-23-75 (088) 857-1357 • Fax No. (08822) 72-63-05 E-mail address: acdo_chancery@yahoo.comMessageThroughout Mindanao, on a seasonal or even daily basis, countlessrural households sell their produce at the farmgate to middlemen forimmediate cash, but at relatively low prices. These products rangefrom the traditional crops of rice, corn, and coconuts to the morediversified and location-specific commodities like vegetables, rubber,seaweed, calamansi, coffee, and rural handicraft. At the end of theday, the products of small farmers and fishermen reach the tables ofconsumers through a multi-linked marketing chain that channelsmost of the profits to middlemen rather than to the primaryproducers.It is this anomalous situation that the eight-step clustering approachexplained in this CRS guidebook tries to remedy. From actualexperience in pilot areas, this clustering approach has reapeddividends for many small farmer households—helping them togradually transform their production areas into entrepreneurial andself-reliant communities.Much study, discipline, and self-organization, however, are required.The eight steps focus on these prerequisites which can be viewedmore as guideposts for the planned and conscious development ofrural households—clustered together.+ ANTONIO J. LEDESMA, S.J. Archbishop of Cagayan de Oro xxi xxi
  24. 24. About this GuidebookThis Guidebook is published by the Catholic Relief Services –Philippines primarily, but not exclusively, for Facilitators whoare tasked in assisting small farmers interested to organizethemselves into marketing clusters and to develop their ownagroenterprises linked with the market. It provides the 8-stepprocess clustering approach that guides Facilitators inequipping farmers with innovative methods so they becomemarket oriented in their farming and can actually engage themarkets.This book has four parts. Part I provides an overview with thediscussion of the CRS Integral Human Developmentframework that helps the reader understand the holisticdimensions of an enabling development process for the poor.Part II describes the clustering approach comprising a set ofeight activities within a stepwise process that providesfacilitators with knowledge and skills in participatory methodsthat enable them to effectively assist farmers buildagroenterprises and engage the market. Tool kits are includedin Steps 1 to 6 to guide facilitation. Part III shares stories fromdifferent clusters, and Part IV presents the lessons distilledfrom program experiences and recommendations for futurecourse of action that can build on the current work.The contents of this Guidebook are based mainly on theexperiences of CRS-Philippines in assisting farmers developmarkets for their produce and build their agroenterprises,under its Agriculture/Natural Resource Management Programwith its partner non-governmental organizations (NGOs) andLocal Government Units (LGUs).This Guidebook took shape in a span of two years duringwhich time CRS-Philippines and its partners gathered severaltimes in knowledge-sharing sessions called the learningalliance. Through these joint learning activities, the steps inxxiixxii
  25. 25. the clustering approach for agroenterprise development wereclarified and simplified under different situations.The clustering approach to agroenterprise development forsmall farmers is a work in progress. CRS-Philippines hopesthat this Guidebook can lead or contribute to the developmentof approaches and strategies towards sustainableagroenterprises, especially among the small farmers. xxiii xxiii
  26. 26. How to Use this GuidebookThis Guidebook is for use by Facilitators of developmentservice providers such as government agencies, NGOs orother private sector actors including businesses, cooperativesand farmers associations that assist small farmers organizethemselves, assess their market opportunities, establish linkswith markets, and build their own agroenterprises.The steps in clustering for agroenterprise development arepresented with accompanying informational materials andtools to guide Facilitators in the conduct of training and marketvisits for farmers, and through the actual “learning by doing”process in enterprise operations.The approach is designed to be followed from Steps 1 to 8 ina systematic process as the farmers go through the marketpreparation and engagement for the first time. The sequenceof activities is planned so that the results of the previous steplead to the next.When farmers gain marketing experience and move to theexpansion stage (i.e. working with more producers, newproducts or higher value markets), they may skip certain stepsand proceed to those appropriate to their immediate needs.For instance, when an organized cluster decides to market anew product, it can immediately proceed to Step 3, MarketChain Study.The scenarios presented and options taken emphasize therealities of uncertainty and risk inherent in a business, andtherefore the user of this Guidebook should be flexible infollowing the steps according to the needs, capacities andresources of the farmers and the development serviceprovider.The user of this Guidebook is encouraged to innovate.Feedback on its use is welcome.xxivxxiv
  27. 27. AcknowledgementsThe publication of this Guidebook has been made possible through thegenerous sharing of resources, time and information by a number ofbenefactors and partners, the encouragement from the business sector,and the trust and confidence of the participants on the CRS process.CRS-Philippines is especially grateful to the following:International and National PartnersUnited States Department of Agriculture Food for Progress, benefactorof the Small Farms Marketing Project; CRS-Southeast Asia PacificRegional Office; International Centre for Tropical Agriculture; ThePhilippine Department of Agriculture and its Regional Field UnitsNon-Government OrganizationsKaanib Foundation, Inc.; Kadtuntaya Foundation, Inc.; KasilakDevelopment Foundation, Inc.; People Collaborating for Environmentaland Economic Management in Davao Foundation, Inc. and XavierScience Foundation – Xavier Agricultural Extension ServiceLocal Government UnitsDavao City; Impasugong, Bukidnon; Maragusan, Compostela ValleyProvince; Paglat and Gen. SK Pendatun, Maguindanao and Siay,Zamboanga SibugayBusiness SectorNorthern Mindanao Vegetable Producers Association, Inc.; VegetableIndustry Council of Southern Mindanao and the institutional buyers,wholesalers/traders and supermarkets and business service providersfor believing in and supporting the capability of small farmers to dobusiness with themThe Working Groups and the Agroenterprise Clusters and theirLeaders who journeyed with the staff of the CRS-Agri/NRM and itspartners in evolving the 8-step process in the clustering approach foragroenterprise development.The Guidebook Committee and the Writing Team who put all thesignificant experiences into this handy, practical and useful form. xxv xxv
  28. 28. Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well BeingPart IAgroenterprise Development as aStrategy to Improve Well Being Agroenterprise Development IMPROVED WELL BEING Agricultural Extension Good Governance ANRM Framework IHD FrameworkINTRODUCTIONPart I of this Guidebook presents the emergence ofAgroenterprise Development as a strategy to improve humanwell being. It traces the anchorage of this strategy which wasadopted by CRS-Philippines through its Agriculture andNatural Resource Management Program to the IntegralHuman Development Framework of CRS.11 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS : The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  29. 29. Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well BeingTHE INTEGRAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENTFRAMEWORKThe Catholic Relief Services or CRS is the official internationalrelief and development agency of the Catholic community ofthe United States of America. As a general approach, it buildscapacities to improve integral human development andpeople’s environment as it aims to: (1) alleviate humansuffering, (2) promote integral human development, (3)change unjust structures, and (4) promote solidarity. (SeeFigure 1 for the CRS IHD Framework.)Figure 1. The CRS framework for Integral Human Development.As a pro-poor organization, CRS seeks to enable people toprotect and expand the choices they have to improve theirlives, meet their basic human needs, free themselves fromoppression and realize their full human potential. As pro-environment, it promotes responsible stewardship of theresources through support for programs and activities that areecologically sustainable and are in harmony with the localenvironment. These have guided the development of theAgriculture/Natural Resource Management (Agri/NRM)Program of CRS – Southeast Asia Pacific Regional Office. 22 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS : The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  30. 30. Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well BeingTHE AGRCULTURE/NATURAL RESOURCEMANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKAs a guide in implementing its program, CRS-Philippinesconceptualized an Agri/NRM Development Framework andProcess that is anchored on the IHD Framework. The goal ofthe Framework is to improve the quality of life of farm familiesthrough improved livelihood supported by (1) agriculturaldevelopment interventions, (2) good governance, and (3)viable agroenterprise development services (Figure 2). Policy advocacy Good Governance & Peace Creation Building Acquisition of genuine & control of POs and alliances critical resources Crop & Improve the well-being Community livestock of farm families based Market improvement (the people we Research Agricultural Serve) Agroenterprise Extension Cluster DevelopmentEnterprise Participatory Participatory Services Development Service Design and Farm NRM Planning Landcare Approach & strengthening ImplementationFigure 2. The Agri/NRM Development Framework and Process ofCRS-Philippines.THE AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENTAPPROACHAs defined by Chambers and Conway (1992), livelihoodcomprises “people, their capabilities and their means of living,including food, income and assets.” A livelihood is held to be33 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS : The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  31. 31. Part I. Agroenterprise Development as a Strategy to Improve Well Beingsustainable when “it can cope with and recover from stressesand shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities andassets, both now and in the future, while not undermining thenatural resource base”. In line with this definition andqualification, CRS adopted the Agroenterprise Development(AED) Strategy to sustainable livelihood development.Agroenterprise refers to a business venture, typically small-scale, that can be undertaken either on-farm, or a service thatcan be used to support other businesses (CIAT ERI Guide 2).The AED Strategy brings small holder growers together andguides their activities towards market-oriented and competitivefarm business operations without necessarily forming a formalorganization as a prerequisite. It combines good farmingpractices and business skills for farmers to developsustainable production system that can respond to the needfor food security, increased income, and sustainable resourcebase.The CRS-Philippines experience in agroenterprisedevelopment stemmed from the 10-year experience of theInternational Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in manycollaborative projects in Latin America, Africa and Asia. TheCIAT model which guided the first implementation stage of theCRS-SFMP uses the “territorial approach” as it developscommunity-based agroenterprises operating within definedgeographical areas.In an analogy presented at the introduction of Part I,agroenterprise development is one of the branches of theAgri/NRM tree that is anchored on the IHD Framework. Theother branches of Agri/NRM are (1) agricultural extension,with emphasis on sustainable farm practices, and (2) goodgovernance that promotes peoples’ participation in policiesand programs that directly affect their livelihood. These threebranches provide nourishment to the fruits, which representthe improved well being of the poor. 44 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS : The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  32. 32. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentPart IIThe 8-Step Clustering Approach toAgroenterprise DevelopmentINTRODUCTIONPart II presents the eight steps in the clustering approach toagroenterprise development that evolved in the course of theimplementation of the USDA-assisted Small Farms MarketingProject (SFMP) that started in December 2004 andimplemented in five pilot sites in Mindanao by CRS-55 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  33. 33. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentPhilippines in partnership with local NGOs and LocalGovernment Units (NGOs).The sharing of experiences and the refinement of theclustering approach were facilitated by the gatherings of CRS-Philippines with its development partners and farmer leadersfor joint learning called the Mindanao Agroenterprise LearningAlliance (MAELA). These interactions captured the richexperiences of CRS-Philippines in developing agroenterprisesin the light of emerging and growing markets, and thechallenge to assist small farmers to become competitive andsignificant market players.CLUSTERING FOR SMALL FARMERSThe highlight of the CRS-Philippine agroenterprisedevelopment strategy is the innovative method of organizingfarmers into small groups called “clusters” within a definedterritory or geographical coverage. This geographical focusfacilitates the partnership building work with localdevelopment partners, like the LGUs, for sustainability. In adefined territory, the planning and monitoring processes for aparticular farm production system are more focused and moreefficient.The territory of a cluster can be a sitio (sub-village) barangay(village), group of barangays, or the whole municipality. Indue time, clusters may expand in membership or coverage, ormay form a network or federation of clusters and cover morebarangays or municipalities, and so on.Forming clusters signifies a new development in farmerorganizing and marketing set-up. The members in a clusteragree to develop an agroenterprise and proactively plan farmproduction according to a marketing objective. As productsupply units catering to specific quality and deliveryrequirements of the buyers, the clusters offer a focus toattract buyers. 66 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  34. 34. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentBeing small groups, clusters are better able to keep pace withcontinuously changing market opportunities that requireconstant innovations from them in production and postharvestpractices. Moreover, the chance for each member to activelyparticipate and be heard in meetings is greater than in largegroups.The clustering method provides a concrete mechanism wherefarmers can exercise ownership and control of theiragroenterprise, benefit from it, and thus facilitate the farmers’empowerment process. The clusters provide the learningground for self and group management, a maturation processthat is necessary for farmers to transition successfully intoformal business entities and effectively relate with othermarket players and partners.The clustering approach for agroenterprise development is asequential process involving eight steps that preparesfarmers to link with the market, assist them to be effectivelyorganized into small groups or clusters, and guides them to77 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  35. 35. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise Developmentengage the market with favorable arrangements that improvetheir incomes and livelihood.The first five steps comprise the preparatory activities. Thisemphasizes the need for farmers to learn new skills, accessnew information, and adopt innovative methods to be able toidentify and respond to market demands and opportunitiesgiven their capacities. Adequate preparation during thiscritical business preparation and organizing stage ensuresthat a higher degree of success is attained when their actualmarketing starts to take place in Step 6 (Test Marketing).As shown in Figure 3, the process does not end with thedevelopment and strengthening of the cluster. The clustermay either return to cluster plan formulation (Step 5) andreview its agroenterprise plan, or initiate the formation of newand additional cluster (Step 4). Table 1 presents the featuresand outputs of the different step.Figure 3. An illustration of the 8-step process of the clusteringapproach to agroenterprise development, CRS-Philippinesexperience. THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 8 8
  36. 36. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentTable 1. The steps, features, and outputs of the clustering approachto agroenterprise development as developed by CRS-Philippines. The Farmers Step Dura- Activities/Tasks Outputs“Journey” tion “The Work” “The Milestones”Getting (1) 2 to 4 • Identify project site • Identified project site forstarted weeks • Develop partnerships development support Site with stakeholders • Established partnership selection, (government, other with stakeholders with partnership NGOs & development their representatives building, organizations, local constituting a working and business sector, group (WG) formation farmers • WG provided with of Working • Organize a working orientation on the Group group (WG) development project, (WG) • Convene orientation marketing basics, sessions and planning participatory research meetings • WG with a plan to conduct researchKnowing our (2) 4 to 6 • Assist the WG to • WG/local research teamproduct weeks organize a local trained on PSA and thesupply Product research team use of the toolscapacity Supply • Provide training on • Research results (info Assess- PSA on farm assets, skills, ment • Conduct PSA products, production & (PSA) and • Undertake a marketing conditions, Product participatory analysis of problems, etc) Selection research results, then • List of existing dominant select product(s) products and farmers producing them • Selected products for further research (i.e. market chain study)Understand- (3) 4 to 6 • Provide training to WG • WG trained on MCS anding our weeks on MCS the use of toolsmarket Market • Conduct market visits • Diagrams of marketopportunities chain study (in immediate chains for selected (MCS) commercial areas) and products linking to undertake MCS potential buyers with • Undertake a costs and margins along participatory analysis of the chain research results and • Initial market negotiation consolidate findings with potential buyers into a report with • Research report analysis of product supply capacity matched with market opportunity99 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  37. 37. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentTable 1 continued… The Farmers Step Dura- Activities/Tasks Outputs“Journey” tion “The Work” “The Milestones”Deciding to (4) 2 weeks • Invite farmers growing • Report presentedwork the selected products • Identified farmerstogether and Cluster for orientation meeting; interested to join theto organize formation present research report clusterfor market • Provide orientation on • Cluster formed withcompetitive- marketing basics and cluster leadersness clustering • Basic cluster agreement • Initiate the formation of – to pool products and clusters, identification collectively market of cluster leaders, • Objectives set relative to conduct organizational agroenterprise planningPreparing to (5) 2 weeks • Review commitment of • Cluster planting calendarengage the cluster members or product harvestmarket Cluster (product supply, etc) calendar Plan • Discuss in detail • Product quality Formula- production management plan tion programming • A cluster agroenterprise (technologies like plan consolidating NFTS, support market, supply, services, infra) management and • Facilitate an interactive financial plans process of • An operational plan for agroenterprise planning test marketing with operational planningTaking a leap (6) 4 weeks • Undertake test • At least 4 trial product marketing activities deliveries Test • Call cluster meetings to • Performance report to Marketing assess performance the clusters of every after every product delivery relative to delivery, implement cluster plan adjustments in the plan • Expanded cluster for improvements agreements, as neededMoving (7) Continu- • Revisit cluster plan for • Regular productforward to ing (after scaling up deliveries to buyersbuild up our Scaling Up test • Establish business • Innovations (productbusiness market- operating systems and/or market ing) • Implement regular development) product deliveries to • Written business policies the established and systems markets; pursue new • Monthly financial and markets operational reports in • Call monthly cluster the cluster meetings meetings to assess performance THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 10 10
  38. 38. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise DevelopmentTable 1 continued… The Farmers Step Dura- Activities/Tasks Outputs“Journey” tion “The Work” “The Milestones”Making it (8) Continu- • Ensure that cluster • Knowledge and skills incontinue and ing (from leaders convene agroenterprisegrow. Cluster cluster regular cluster operations (in the fields strengthen- formation meetings and of leadership and ing to 2 undertake cluster organizational years) assessment development, market • Facilitate periodic strengthening, product capability building supply and financial support: trainings, management) team building activities, • Clusters progressing in cluster cross-visits, higher level of maturity exposure trips, • Networking of clusters; reflection sessions, etc. formalization • Promote networking of • Networks in the business clusters and business community links • Organize formal business entity (e.g. cooperative)It is worth noting that the market environment of clusters isdynamic and CRS experiences suggest that the best resultsare attained when the key ideas in the approach and theirapplication is adjusted to the local circumstances, includingthe resources of the farmers and the development serviceproviders.The succeeding sections of this Guidebook describe the eightsteps in more detail.Benefits of Clustering: To the farmers 1. Better access to markets and better bargaining power (as an effect of quality, volume, variety and regularity) 2. Lower cost of doing business 3. Diversified and more predictable markets 4. Better income (as a result of higher price, reduced losses and higher recovery, more stable markets) 1111 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  39. 39. Part II. The 8-Step Clustering Approach to Agroenterprise Development 5. Better relations among growers as a result of working together and helping one another 6. Good image in the business community 7. Organized way of relating to resource providers (government, non- government, business groups)To the buyersBuyers are always particular about quantity, quality anddelivery reliability. This is where transacting with clusterscan be beneficial due to these reasons: 1. Better compliance with quality agreements through the cluster’s Product Quality Management Plan it has formulated and must implement 2. Traceability of both cluster and grower through product labeling procedures 3. Easier product consolidation work 4. Immediate rewards & sanctions (discipline) 5. Flexibility to provide product preferences 6. Quick response to market feedback/complaints 7. A cluster can give in advance notice of impending changes in shortages of product to be deliveredTo the donors and implementing agencies 1. Efficient use of resources (including services) 2. Wider coverage 3. Equity of participating communities 4. Enhanced production-oriented livelihood, agriculture and NRM projects 5. Sustainability (post-project) THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 12 12
  40. 40. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation1.1 PROCESS OBJECTIVESThrough the help of the Facilitator, Step 1 aims to enable theproject to: 1. Determine the specific site for the agroenterprise; 2. Identify and engage institutional partners, such as Local Government Units, Regional and National 1313 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  41. 41. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation Government Agencies, Non-Government Organizations, and Peoples Organizations; 3. Form and orient a Working Group (WG); and 4. Assist the WG in formulating a plan for community- based research.1.2 INTRODUCTIONSite Selection, Partnership Building and Working GroupFormation is a community process where appropriate site orsites and partners for the agroenterprise project are identified,and a Working Group (WG) composed of producers, localgovernment units (LGU), non-governmental organizations(NGO), business sector and other relevant representation isconstituted.This is also the phase where potential farmer leaders areidentified through rapid appraisal. These leaders are invited tobe part of the Working Group (WG) and to participate in theupcoming initial activities.1.3 SELECTING THE SITEBasis for selectionIn many cases, sites for the agroenterprise endeavor can bepre-identified from among existing project areas, or on thebasis of donor preferences.Ideally, a potential site for the agroenterprise project shouldhave the following facilitating or enabling factors: 1. Responsive LGU 2. Presence of good extension services 3. Willing producers 4. Surplus farm products THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-PhilippinesExperience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 14 14
  42. 42. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation 5. Favorable social conditions (peace and order, community awareness) 6. Presence of potential partners or related projects such as agriculture, natural resource management, landcare, or community developmentThe presence of more of these factors would facilitate thedevelopment of an agroenterprise.At the minimum, willing farmers who have products that canbe marketed can let an agroenterprise endeavor begin.However, this will require so much facilitation for clustering,capacity building, operationalizing and networking.Geographical FocusThe site can be a sitio (sub-village), barangay (village),municipality, or a group/combination of each.In a small area, like the sitio or barangay, the focus can be onunderstanding the local marketing system and identifyingproblems and bottlenecks that can be addressed throughinterventions in the local economy.Rapid Area AssessmentIn order to have a good grasp of the current situation of thesite, a quick survey of the resources, institutions and theirpredominant business and production activities will be of helpto the Facilitator. Knowing what and who are in the communitywill help him/her in carrying out the assigned tasks.The following information can serve as a starting point for theFacilitator in making a rapid assessment of the area prior to amore extensive information gathering and analysis: 1. Physical resources (land and its use, water resources, soil, climate, rainfall patterns, cropping seasons, vegetation) 1515 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  43. 43. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation 2. Community profile (gender, age distribution, number of farmers, other sectors, household size, social groupings, educational level, history of collective action) 3. Infrastructure (roads/accessibility of farm areas, communications, electricity, water systems) 4. Business activities/services (business establishments, markets, business service providers, credit services both formal and informal) 5. Development assistance (NGOs, political structure, government policies and programs for the agriculture sector).The above information can be generated by direct observationor by reviewing secondary sources such as the barangay ormunicipal profiles and development plans, LGU reports suchas those in the Municipal Planning & Development Office(MPDO), the Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO), theMunicipal Economic Enterprise Development Office(MEEDO), the Municipal Engineering Office (MEO), and otherrelevant offices.1.4 BUILDING PARTNERSHIPSThis is the continuing process of linking with and engagingrelevant institutions or organizations to support theagroenterprise development undertakings. For example, theBarangay Development Plan (BDPs) of Barangay LocalGovernment Units (BLGUs) can be the entry point foragroenterprise projects especially when these are consistentwith, or part of the agricultural development component of theBDP. Moreover, barangay officials, such as the BarangayChair and the Committee Chair on Agriculture, can provide forthe relevant local policy and program support.At the level of the Municipal LGU, partnership can yield moresupport and counterparts, such as human resources,infrastructure, logistics (i.e., hand-held radios andtransportation services), and policies. These can be provided THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 16 16
  44. 44. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationby the office of the Local Chief Executive, the MAO, theMEEDO, the MEO, the MPDO, and the offices of relevantSangguniang Bayan (Municipal Council) Committees.Links with other institutions and organizations operating in thebarangay, municipal and provincial territories (such asproducers, business sector and church) can also beestablished.The process of building partnerships can be initiated throughcourtesy calls and meetings leading towards a consultationamong identified partners. The active partnership begins withthe establishment of a Working Group (WG).1.5 FORMING A WORKING GROUPDuring the community consultation, the Facilitator draws outthe current situation related to farmers’ production andmarketing, available resources, and existing programs ofNGOs and LGUs. From the discussions, he/she leads theparticipants to a consensus on issues pertaining to farmproductivity and incomes.Addressing the above issues realistically needs a multi-pronged approach which can be led by the WG.Role and lifespan of the WGThe WG is an adhoc body organized to provide leadership inthe gathering of information that can help in product selection(Step 2), in conducting market chain studies (Step 3), and informing cluster (or clusters) of farmers for agroenterprisedevelopment (Step 4). Immediately after cluster formation, theWG transforms itself into a Cluster Advisory Group (CAG) thatwill provide assistance in formulating and implementing anagroenterprise plan (Steps 5-7).Beyond the above tasks, the WG (and eventually the CAG),can take an active role in utilizing the partnership as amechanism to promote and develop the sharing, coordination 1717 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  45. 45. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationand complementation of local programs and resourcestowards a common goal.Composition of the WGA WG may be composed of representatives from the MAO,MEEDO, NGOs, business sectors, farmers and people’sorganization (PO). WG membership ranges from 10 to 15individuals, at least two-thirds of which are farmers.Members of the WG should meet at least once a month todiscuss updates and coordinate activities.To ensure the representation of farmers in the WG, theFacilitator must take extra effort to identify potential farmer-leaders.(Refer to Facilitator’s Tool Kit No. 1 for the standards used inidentifying farmer-leaders to be involved as members of theWG.)Identifying local leaders for the WGThe Sociogram method can be used to identify indigenousleaders (male and female key persons and/ or opinion THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 18 18
  46. 46. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationleaders) in the community who can facilitate the changeprocess.(Refer to Facilitator’s Tool Kit No.1 for a guide in using thesociogram.)1.6 ORIENTING THE WORKING GROUP ON MARKETINGImmediately after its formation, the WG undergoes anorientation on the basics of marketing. This includes thedefinition and importance of marketing to the farmers, theconcept of supply and demand, marketing strategies/mix (the4 Ps), types of market, and the market chain.(Refer to Facilitator’s Tool Kit No. 1 for the Session Guide forthe Orientation on Marketing.)After the orientation on marketing, the WG agrees on theschedule of the training on product supply assessment thatwill be undertaken in Step 2. 1919 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  47. 47. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation Facilitator’s Tool Kit No. 1A. IDENTIFYING LOCAL LEADERSStandards used in selecting farmer-leadersSelection standard for leaders, men and women, may include,but not limited to the following: 1. Farmer producer 2. With experience in marketing farm products T 3. Respected 4. Aware and concerned about the community issues and needs O 5. Believes in the stake and power of communities through participation O 6. Good communicator: good listener, can express well and open to ideas LUsing the Sociogram Method in identifying local leadersHow to Use the Sociogram KThe sociogram is especially useful in analyzing social or peerrelationships. It gives the Facilitator an idea of how a memberof a community or cluster is viewed by her/his peers in terms Iof leadership, trustworthiness, approachability and in othersimilar qualities. TSpot potential leaders you can invite later to join the Working TGroup, following the basic steps below. You may revise thesesteps depending on specific or bulk of information needed andthe number of respondents you can manage. Just make sureyou maintain gender inclusiveness. 1. Gather at least 20 respondents, 10 men and 10 women. Give each one two (2) small sheets of paper. Make sure each has a pencil or ballpen. 2. Ask them to write their names on the topmost part of each paper provided to them. THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 20 20
  48. 48. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation 3. Ask them to discreetly write on one piece of paper the names of one (1) man and one (1) woman from the community whom they mostly approached for advice or opinions. Please emphasize that their choices should come only from their community. 4. Collect the answers and proceed to the next question. 5. Ask them to discreetly write on one piece of paper the names of two people (one man and one woman) from their community whom they trusted most. Emphasize that their choices should come only from their community.T 6. Collect the answers and thank the respondents for cooperating.O 7. Classify the responses corresponding each of the two questions asked.O 8. Make a sociogram of the responses to show who among the names were frequently most approached,L or most trusted (and other qualities). 9. Make a sociogram of the results. (Refer to Figure 4 for the example.)K 10. Spot the two most approached men and women and list down their names. Similarly, spot the two most trusted men and women and list down their names.I This gives you eight potential leaders. In case a person is chosen as most approached andT most trusted by a respondent, give him/her a point forT each quality. 11. Develop a tool to further assess the above potential leaders in terms of leadership behavior (may be a matrix of leadership qualities or standard using a 3- or 5-point-scale from poor to excellent. 21 21 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  49. 49. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation Man Man Mario Ramon Woman Woman Bilma Lisa Man Armando T Man Rolando O Woman Woman Teresa Mila O L Man Woma Woman Nicasio Minerva n K I Most approached: Man – Armand; Woman – Bilma Most trusted: Man – Ramon; Woman - Teresa T TFigure 4. Example of a sociogram used to identify leaders among 10pre-identified community members. THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: TheCRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 22 22
  50. 50. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation B. SESSION GUIDE FOR THE ORIENTATION ON MARKETING Session Objectives At the end of the session, the members of WG will be able to: 1. Define marketing;T 2. Articulate the effects of market related factors on farmer’s profit; 3. Explain the relationships of supply and demand andO the factors affecting them; 4. Describe the market chain and the participants/actorsO involved; 5. Discuss value chain and how farmers earn from value addition through participation in the chain;L 6. Articulate the 4 P’s of marketing, competition and market positioning; and 7. Demonstrate positive attitude towards marketingK Time DurationI 2.0 hours Resources NeededTT Visual aids, marking pens, newsprint/manila paper, cartolina (for meta cards), adhesives, session and activity guide, and energizers Session Procedure 1. Draw out participants’ understanding of Marketing. Open participation with this statement: “One enjoyed a cup of brewed coffee this morning during breakfast because marketing made it 23 23 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  51. 51. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation possible to move coffee beans from the farmers and transform it into brewed coffee for your consumption.” Ask participants to individually write on the meta cards what comes into their mind on marketing based on the statement. Then synthesize the answers into a definition. (It will help to arrange the meta cards with suppliers and buyers on opposite ends, then product, actors and activities/functions in between). T2. Present a matrix for computation where farmers can appreciate increase in income that is substantial from market related factors such as price increase of O product, more volume sold/reduced damage, etc. (Refer to Table 1.) The red figures are the ones the O participants are asked to compute. Deepen participants with discussion. L3. Give lecture and facilitate discussion on supply and demand with the factors that affect them or are affected by them. K4. Give lecture and facilitate discussion on Market Chain and Value Chain. Present an example of a value chain. (Refer to the example on page 29.) Draw out from participants the ways in which product value increases as it moves in the chain. Distribute meta T cards for their individual answers, and synthesize by T putting together the cards with similar ideas.5. Give lecture and facilitate discussion on Marketing Strategy. Draw out from participants what kinds of questions will be helpful in strategizing using the marketing mix of product, price, placement and promotions. (Helpful questions as guide provided under the topic on Marketing Strategy, pages 31-33.)6. End the session with an input on competition and product positioning. THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 24 24
  52. 52. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formation Session Content/Topics 1. What is Marketing 2. Farming Profitability by being Market Oriented 3. Supply and Demand 4. Market Chain, Value Chain, Value Addition 5. The Marketing Strategy (Target Market and the Marketing Mix) 6. Competition and Market PositioningO Topic: WHAT IS MARKETING? Marketing is the set of activities in moving a product from theO point of production to the point of consumption at a profit. It is satisfying customers’ wants. Given this definition, the work of marketing involves: a. Understanding what the buyer wants in terms ofK products and the manner of supply to them; b. Undertaking post-harvest activities such as packaging, transport, storage, and sale that add value to the product as it flows from the producer to the buyer c. Establishing a production-market linkage and managing communications in between for market information and feedback Topic: FARMING PROFITABLY BY BEING MARKET- ORIENTED Improving production and yields has positive effect on income. But increases in price, being able to sell the product and reducing costs have an even higher impact to farmers’ incomes than just increasing production yield. Farmers’ concern is to earn profits from their sales to be able to cover the farm costs and to generate earnings for the household’s 2525 THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience
  53. 53. Step 1. Site Selection, Partnership Building and Working Group Formationconsumption needs. To be able to do this, farmers shouldhave a basic understanding of the market related factors thatinfluence profits: price, volumes sold and costs. Table 2shows how changes in these factors affect a farmer’s profit.Table 2. Effect on profit of different levels of production, prices, salesand costs. (Adapted from FAO publication, Horticultural Marketing) MktgSquash Base Yield Half Price Price Cost Case (+10%) Sold (-10%) (+10%) (-20%)Yield (kg) 1000 1100 1000 1000 1000 1000 TQuantity sold (%) 80% 80% 50% 80% 80% 80%Quantity sold (kg) 800 880 500 800 800 800Price per kg 5 5 5 4.50 5.50 5.00 OSALES 4000 4400 2500 3600 4400 4000Production costs 1000 1100 1000 1000 1000 1000Marketing costs 1600 1760 1000 1600 1600 1280 OTotal costs 2600 2860 2000 2600 2600 2280MARGIN 1400 1540 500 1000 1800 1720% of base case +10% -64% -29% +29% 23% LNote: marketing cost reduction can also apply for production cost reduction.Base case is farmer produces 1,000 kg of squash; 80% is sold, price is PhP5/kg, production cost is estimated at PhP 1,000 and marketing costpackaging, transport, marketing fees) estimated at PhP 1,600. K ITopic: SUPPLY AND DEMANDThe quantity of produce that consumers want to purchase is Taffected by these main factors: price, tastes and preferences Tof the consumers, number of consumers, incomes ofconsumers, prices of competing produce, range of productsavailable to the consumers.The quantity of that producers supply is affected primarily by:price of products, cost of production, technology available,climate and post-harvest capacities.The price of a produce is determined mainly by supply anddemand. The lower the price, the tendency is the higher willbe the demand. However, as the price goes down eventually THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience THE CLUSTERING APPROACH TO AGROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL FARMERS: The CRS-Philippines Experience 26 26
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