Compilation of reports in Leadership in Education (2nd Semester SY: 2013-2014)

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  • Who are the learners and what are their characteristics?
    What adult learning theory considerations apply?
    What is the timeline for project completion?
  • Apply instructional strategies according to intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor)
    Apply visual design (graphic design)
  •  the designers create storyboards and graphics
  • This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that books, hands-on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs, and software are in place, and that the learning application or website functions.
  • The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. 
    Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process.
  • Compilation of reports in Leadership in Education (2nd Semester SY: 2013-2014)

    1. 1. LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION 4:00 – 7:00 P.M Dr. Remylinda Soriano Professor
    2. 2. 1. Acido, Jackielou D. 2. Cerbito, Jessa I. 3. Del Rosario, Celeen Ivy V. 4. Del Rosario, Geleen Ivy V. 5. Edillo, Josie J. 6. Espina, Bernardo E. 7. Flores, Anamae C. 8. Gorembalem, Gilmore A. 9. Guillermo, Palmarin D. 10. Gumabay, Reylyn L. 11. Maglalang, Leslie
    3. 3. 12. Manara, Jocelyn, M. 13. Mirasol, Emma Ruth G. 14. Opulencia, teresit P. 15. Pascua, Jonalyn D. 16. Penero, Anna Rose P. 17. Perlado, Wilmer D. 18. Piolino, Mark Anthony B. 19. Ramos, Jenalyn B. 20. Tamayo, Claudine C. 21. Tolentino, Cherry Lou 22. Urbiztondo, Letecia D.
    4. 4. PRELIM PERIOD Definition of leadership, its roles and functions in school’s philosophy, vision and mission, its relationship in the context of learning community, decision – making and problem – solving, site – based management and change process.
    5. 5. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP : ITS ROLE AND FUNCTION REPORTER: PALMARIN D. GUILLERMO
    6. 6. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP : ITS ROLE AND FUNCTION L E A D E R S H I P Process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, students and parents toward achieving common educational aim. Guiding starts with the vision and mission of school and Philosophy. Identifying the DO’s and DON’T’s in School. Help Teachers, pupils and parents to become a proactive citizens of this society. Study of managing Educational Organization. Cross disciplinary field that incorporate psychology, financial management ,law and policy and organizational leadership.
    7. 7. WHAT SHOULD LEADERS DO? L- LEARN E-ENGAGE A-ANTICIPATE D-DEMONSTRATE E-EVOLVE R-RESPONSE S-SOLVE H-HOPE I-INITIATE P-PERSEVERANCE
    8. 8. NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP MORAL LEADERSHIP INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP TRANSFORMATI ONAL LEADERSHIP PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP
    9. 9. LEADERSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF THE LEARNING COMMUNITY: STAKE HOLDERS OF A LEARNING COMMUNITY LEARNING COMMUNITY ADMIISTRATORS TEACHERS STUDENTS PARENTS COMMUNITY MEMBERS
    10. 10. Function of a Stakeholder INVEST MONEY TAKE AWAY INVESTMENT
    11. 11. General Roles of a Stakeholders HIRE FIRE GUARDIANS IMPLIMENTO R SUPORTER RESPONSIB LE
    12. 12. S T A K E H O L D E R S Board of Educat Superintendents Site Administrators Parents Teachers Counselor Athletic Director- Library/Media Specialist Administrative Assistant Encumbrance Clerk School Nutritionist Teacher‘s Aide
    13. 13. STRUCTURE OF A STAKEHOLDER SELF CONTAINED CLASSROOM DEPARTMENTALIZED CLASSROOM
    14. 14. T Y P E S O F S T A K E H O L D E R E X T E R N A L Board members Former board members Staff members Volunteers Former volunteers Clients Community partners Members of group served by an organization who are not assessing services Leaders of colors from non-donors profit public or private sector. I N T E R N A L
    15. 15. Leadership in the Context of the Learning Community 1. Various Learning Community models 2. Qualities of High Performance Organizations
    16. 16. Various Learning Community Models REPORTER: GELEEN IV V. DEL ROSARIO
    17. 17. CLEARED AND SHARED FOCUS •ACHIEVING A SHARED VISION •ROLE IN ACHIEVING THE VISION HIGH STANDARDS AND EXPECTATIONS FOR ALL STUDENTS •CAN LEARN •MEET HIGH STANDARDS EFFECTIVE SCHOOL LEADERSHIP •EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL •ADMINISTRATIVE LEADERSHIP
    18. 18. HIGH LEVELS OF COLLABORATIO N AND COMMUNICATI ON • TEAMWORK • CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENTS •ACTUAL CURRICULA, RESEARCH- BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES •ROLE OF CLASSROOM FREQUENT MONITORING OF LEARNING AND TEACHING • STEADY CYCLE OF DIFFERENT ASSESSMENTS • INSTRUCTIONAL TIME
    19. 19. FOCUSED ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT •TRAINING SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT •ENVIRONMENT HIGH LEVEL OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT •RESPONSIBILITY
    20. 20. Heavenly father, I thank you for guiding my life and leading me at all times. Show me your way so that i might know your will. I ask you to be my vision, my eyes, my all. You are my lamp,O Lord. You lead me beside the still waters, and you restore my soul. Show me your ways O Lord, teach me your paths I thank you fot the knowledge that you will guide me with judgement and you will teach me your ways my path cause me to know the way in which I should walk Attend to my prayers ,Father as I incline my ear to your word Amen.
    21. 21. DECISION MAKING
    22. 22. PROBLEM SOLVING
    23. 23. GOOD LEADER
    24. 24. STEP- BY-STEPS TECHNIQUE
    25. 25. BRAINSTORMING
    26. 26. Proverbs 1:2 and 3 and Proverbs 2:6 To know wisdom and instruction ,to perceive the words of understanding. For the Lord gives wisdom from His mouth come knowledge and undestanding. To receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, judgement and equity.
    27. 27. * A cognitive process resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios.
    28. 28. WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING? -Orderly manner, for finding solution to problems.
    29. 29. What are the benefits of decision making and problem solving? -Important for management and leadership to come up the best solution. -Established the aspects of life of the leader and the members as a team.
    30. 30. Problem recogniz ing Problem Labeling Problem Cause Analysis Optional Solutions Decision Making Action Planning
    31. 31. *A wise man will hear and increase learning, and a man of undestanding will attain wise counsel.
    32. 32. *We all have the right to make bad decisions,thats how we learn to make good ones. *When something goes wrong it’s more important to decide whos going to fix it than who’s going to blame.
    33. 33. PRINCIPAL’S DECISIONS VERSUS GROUP DECISIONS
    34. 34. The commonly acknowledged "leader" of a school. PRINCIPAL Grading , Curriculum management and Relationship with students Mediate conflicts among students ,staff ,parents and community members Publicly represent the school Interact with district, division and educational authorities Responsible for most areas of school operation Executing others Decision
    35. 35. GROUP DECISION MAKING It is the process used when individuals are brought together in a group to solve problems
    36. 36. GROUP DECISION MAKING PROCESS • Define and analyse the problem. • Determine the requirements • Generate decision alternatives • Evaluate positive and negative consequences • Choose alternatives • Manage the decision implementation
    37. 37. Advantages of Group Decisions 1. Greater Sum Total of Knowledge. 2. Greater Number of Approaches to the Problems. 3. Greater Number of Alternatives. 4. Increased Acceptance of a Decision 5. Better Comprehension of a Problem and Decision.
    38. 38. Disadvantages of Group Decision Making 1. Social Pressure Toward Conformity 2. Individual Domination 3. Conflicting Secondary Goals 4. Competition 5. Ambiguous Responsibility 6. Time
    39. 39. SITE-BASED MANAGEMENT
    40. 40. SITE-BASED Management Decentralized management Shared Governance Participatory decision making Shared decision making Responsible autonomy
    41. 41. • Site- Based Management is a consensus-driven learning environment which is linked to decentralization and driven by the School Improvement Team.
    42. 42. SITE- BASED MANAGEMENT PRINCIPAL SCHOOL BOARD STUDENTS PARENTS AND COMMUNITY PARTNERS TEACHERS DEPARTMENT HEAD
    43. 43. An effective PRINCIPAL not only wants his staff to participate in decision making but gives them the opportunity to try new things and even the right to fail in other words , supports his staff in all their endeavors.
    44. 44. THANK YOU By: EMMA RUTH G. MIRASOL
    45. 45. Implications Competencies
    46. 46. Centralized Decentralized
    47. 47. Physical inputs – classrooms, teachers, textbooks Incentives that lead to better instruction and learning Good Education Extremely demanding of the managerial, technical, and financial capacity of governments The government adopts this innovation to decentralize the authority to the school level. Education System
    48. 48. Responsibility Decision-making over school operations Principals, teachers, parents, students, school community members Conform or operate within a set of centrally determined policies
    49. 49. SBM monitoring and evaluation hiring and firing of teachers and other school staff curriculum development Textbook procurement infrastructure improvement setting the school calendar budget allocation educational material procurement
    50. 50. SBM school grants school- development plans information dissemination of educational results
    51. 51. SBM Dimensions by Scale of Practice School leadership Internal Stakeholders’ Participation External Stakeholders’ Participation School Improvement Process School-Based Resources School Performance Accountability
    52. 52. School Leadership School head Assistant to the school head Head teachers Grade chair
    53. 53. Level 1 SH is designated and trained Performs fund management duties SH exercises instructional leadership and management functions Pursues continuing professional development Relieved of accounting & bookkeeping functions. SH is fully accountable to stakeholders Acts as fund manager Level 2 Level 3 SCHOOL LEADERSHIP
    54. 54. Internal Stakeholders Teachers Parents Students
    55. 55. INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Student and parents’ awareness of their responsibilities Teachers’ training on curriculum, content, and pedagogy Students share in school leadership and management Teachers and parents are accountable for student performance Students exercise their rights and fulfills their responsibilities Teachers mentor peers Parents co-manage and co-monitor learning process .
    56. 56. External Stakeholders’ Participation Alumni Parents of alumni Local Leaders Retired teachers Youth leaders
    57. 57. EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Level 1 Community leaders, People’s Organizations (POs) non-government organizations are oriented, organized, and mobilized to support SBM. Community leaders/POs/NGOs are enabled through capacity development interventions resource and programming planning and management for expanded and school- wide support Community leaders/POs/NGOs are fully enabled to provide institutionalized support community-wide programs to continuously improve learning outcomes and to promote children’s welfare
    58. 58. SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROCESS School conducts assessment of SBM practice using assessment tool SIP/AP needs and priorities are systematically identified School conducts periodic assessment of SBM practice using assessment tool School does participatory and knowledge-based SIP/AP development that is responsive to community needs and performance feedbacks. School institutionalize assessment of SBM practice using assessment tool SIP/AP meets Divisional/Regional/Na tional performance standards on learning outcomes
    59. 59. SCHOOL BASED RESOURCES School manages and controls funds/resources with Division Office assistance. ASB is executed with guidelines. ASB is executed in accordance with guidelines School undertakes school- based procurement with Division Office assistance School manages and controls funds/resources with Division Office assistance technical guidance ASB is executed in accordance with efficiency and cost effectiveness. School undertakes school- based procurement with Division Office assistance. School fully manages and controls funds/resources with Division Office assistance technical guidance. ASB is executed in accordance with efficiency and cost effectiveness School undertakes school- based procurement subject to DepEd-wide guidelines including IMTEX, furniture and equipment.
    60. 60. SCHOOL PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY School introduces transparency and accountability mechanisms. Quarterly and annual school performance are monitored and evaluated by community stakeholders. Improvement in learning outcomes by Grade/Year level are monitored and evaluated by homeroom and tracked per student/subject School exercises transparency and accountability. Quarterly and annual school performance are monitored and evaluated by community stakeholders. Improvement in learning outcomes by Grade/Year level are monitored and evaluated by homeroom and tracked per student/subject School fully transparency and accountable. School performance is presented, published and validated through community satisfaction surveys. Improvement in learning outcomes is tracked for benchmarking with other SB schools.
    61. 61. The Rational Approach to Organizational Change Reporter : Cherry Lou D. Tolentino
    62. 62. Rational Approach • Michael Beer C= D x M x P > R C = Change D = Dissatisfaction M= Change Model ( Vision ) P = Process R = Resistance
    63. 63. Dissatisfaction •Follower’s level of satisfaction is an important ingredient in leader’s ability to drive change. •Follower’s emotions are fuel for change
    64. 64. Model • Four Components Environmental scanning Vision Identification of needed change New goals
    65. 65. Process • Development and execution of the change plan • Outline of sequence of events, deliverables, responsibilities, timelines, metrics, and feedback mechanisms. • Inability to execute major reason for executive failure
    66. 66. Resistance •Frustrations caused by expecting too much •Fear of loss – power, relationships, rewards, competence , identity
    67. 67. Resistance – SARA Model • Four reactions to change Shock or Surprise Anger Rejection Acceptance
    68. 68. Reasons why change efforts succeed • Demostrate a sense of urgency • Envision the future and build a strategy • Constantly communicate the vision • Remove barriers and align the organization • Build on early successes
    69. 69. Reasons why change efforts fail • Allow too much complacency • Under estimate the power of vision • Under communicate the vision • Fail to create short-term wins • Neglect changes to the culture
    70. 70. MIDTERM PERIOD Curriculum models and instructional designs, and strategies and student services, multicultural education, Business Management, Communication and Marketing Techniques, Individuals and Organizational Ethics, Morals and its relation to Educational process and finally Empowerment.
    71. 71. In formal education, a curriculum (/kəˈrɪkjʉləm/; plural: curricula /kəˈrɪkjʉlə/ or curriculums) is the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives.
    72. 72. All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually.
    73. 73. Outlines the skills, performances, attitudes, and values pupils are expected to learn from schooling.
    74. 74. The total learning experience provided by a school.
    75. 75. The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment.
    76. 76. Curriculum can refer to the entire program provided by a classroom, school, district, state, or country.
    77. 77. Instructional Design or Instructional Systems Design is the practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing.
    78. 78. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some intervention to assist in the transition.
    79. 79. System Approach to Instructional Design
    80. 80. Edgar Dale (April 27, 1900 in Benson, Minnesota, March 8, 1985 in Columbus, Ohio) American educationist who developed the “Cone of Experience”
    81. 81. According to the “Father of Modern Media in Education”, audio-visual materials are not for not for entertainment or amusement. They are to educate, to help students develop workable, useful generalizations in important fields of subject matter. If they can’t help educate, they should not be used.
    82. 82. AUDIO VISUAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Interactive Whiteboards 2. Document Cameras 3. LCD Projectors 4. Mp3’s 5. E-Book 6. Web 2.0 Tools 7. Podcasts 8. Adaptive and Assistive Tools
    83. 83. ADDIE
    84. 84. Analysis phase The analysis phase clarifies the instructional problems and objectives, and identifies the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills.
    85. 85. Design phase The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning, and media selection.
    86. 86. Development phase In the development phase, instructional designers and developers create and assemble content assets blueprinted in the design phase. In this phase, the designers create storyboards and graphics.
    87. 87. Implementation phase The implementation phase develops procedures for training facilitators and learners. Training facilitators cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures.
    88. 88. Evaluation phase The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative is present in each stage of the ADDIE process.
    89. 89. Curriculum Models Discussant: Celeen Ivy V. del Rosario
    90. 90. Curriculum Models Subject- Centered Design Problem- Centered Design Learner- Centered Design Subject Design Discipline Design Life- situations designExperience -centered design Child- centered design Core Design
    91. 91. Subject-Centered Curriculum
    92. 92. Subject-Centered Curriculum - This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. - The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject.
    93. 93. Subject-centered curriculum: 1. Subject Design - The drawback of this design is that sometimes learning is so compartmentalized. 2. Discipline Design - Discipline refers to specific knowledge and through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields.
    94. 94. Learner-Centered Curriculum - centered on certain aspects of the learners themselves. - may explore the learner’s own life or family history or local environment.
    95. 95. Child-centered Design Learner- Centered Curriculum•It is anchored on the needs and interests of the child. •Believes that the interests and needs of learners cannot be planned. •The development of self is the ultimate objective of learning. Experience-Centered Design Humanistic Design
    96. 96. Problem-Centered Curriculum Problem-centered curriculum, or problem based learning, organizes subject matter around a problem, real or hypothetical, that needs to be solved.
    97. 97. 1. Life- Situations design - It uses the past and present experiences of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living. - The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum.
    98. 98. 2. Core design - It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities. - The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, concerns, of the learners.
    99. 99. Student Services Discussant: Jackielou D. Acido
    100. 100. Student Services Academic Services Enrollment Services Campus Life Health and Welness Academic Advising Assessment and Research Career Services Campus Safety Student Activities Leadership Health Services Counseling Services Wellness Education Admission Student Financial Aid Enrollment Management
    101. 101. Student Services Health Services Guidance Services Canteen Services Library Services
    102. 102. Health Services National Drug Education Program Medical, Dental and Nursing TB Prevention and Control Program School Milk Project Breakfast Feeding Program
    103. 103. Guidance Services Individual Inventory Service Testing Services Information Service Placement Services Counseling Services Follow-Up Service Monitoring, Research, and Evaluation Extension and Community Linkages
    104. 104. MANAGING CONFLICT Presented by: MS. LESLIE H. MAGLALANG, RPT
    105. 105. Business Management Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives
    106. 106. Planning Motivation Creating Communicating Controlling/ Monitoring Leading Staffing Management
    107. 107. Basic Roles of Management Interpersonal Informational Decisional
    108. 108. Management Skills Political Diagnostic TechnicalInterpersonal Conceptual
    109. 109. Conflict Tension between two or more social entities (individuals, groups, or larger organizations) that arises from incompatibility of actual or desired responses
    110. 110. Sources of Conflict/ Involved Persons School Leaders Teachers School Staff Parents Community Students
    111. 111. Ways to Handle Conflicts With Your Child's School Focus on Your Child's Needs . Handling Disagreements Related to Conflicting Perceptions Control Your Anger and Frustration If There is No Communication, There is No Conflict Resolution What to do When Conflict Resolution Fails
    112. 112. Key steps in managing a conflict 1. Share points of view and feelings. 4. Move on to problem solving 2. Summarize the issues. 3. Identify common ground when it exists.
    113. 113. Basic Principles of Conflict ManagementConflict is natural and necessary Management Skills Advantage in certain situations.
    114. 114. Effective Skills in Handling Conflict Management Emotional Skills Orientation Skills Emotional Skills Creative Thinking Critical Thinking Communication Perception Skills
    115. 115. Orientation Skills Values Attitudes Respect Justice Beliefs
    116. 116. Communication Skills Active Listening Ability to articulate your view of the situation Use non- defensive language
    117. 117. Creative Thinking Skills Ability to find new ways in addressing challenges Ability to create new perspectives Ability to create new options
    118. 118. Critical Thinking Skills Ability to contrast and compare data Ability to predict and analyze situation Ability to construct and test hypothesis
    119. 119. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: How can good church folks deal with it? Benoni Silva-Netto Associate General Secretary General Council on Ministries The United Methodist Church
    120. 120. Conflict is defined as:  A situation of competition in which each party wishes to occupy a position that is incompatible with the wishes of another;  a situation in which two or more persons desire and pursue goals which they perceive as being attainable by one or the other, but not by both.
    121. 121. Conflict also refers to Important differences between individuals or groups which, if not adequately handled, those involved are unable to come together in understanding
    122. 122.  The word conflict comes from the Greek word agonia, meaning “contest.”
    123. 123. Why do conflicts develop?  Competition for limited resources;  clashes of values, views, and visions;  poorly defined responsibilities;  drive for survival, success, security, sense of significance, stability, sexuality, and spirituality;  poor communication.
    124. 124. What are the common myths about conflict?  Conflict which disrupts the peace in the congregation is demonic;  A truly loving person is always serene and never becomes angry or upset;  Harmony in the parish is dependent upon uniformity in individual beliefs, stands on social issues, and even in the way one behaves and dresses in public.
    125. 125. But are there some positive values in conflict?  A greater diversity of viewpoints than have been heard before.  Innovative and creative ideas for the church and its mission.  Clearer communication as to each person’s positions and views.  New motivation and energy.  A greater genuineness in personal relationships.
    126. 126. LEVELS OF CONFLICT  1. Problem to solve  2.Disagreement  3. Contest  4. Fight/flight  5. Intractable situation
    127. 127. Level 1: Problems to solve  Tasks need attention;  discussion and sharing;  problem-solving;  optimistic and hopeful;  language clear.
    128. 128. Level 2: Disagreement  Self-protection;  shrewdness;  planning strategies;  language shift;  impersonal;  generalizing;  hiding information;  hostile humor.
    129. 129. Level 3: Contest  Win/lose dynamics;  self-protection;  factions emerge;  language distortion;  personal attacks;  appealing to emotion.
    130. 130. Level 4: Fight or Flight  Hurting and getting rid of. . .;  hopelessness;  good of sub-group;  factions solidify;  language more problematic;  survival responses;  running/ attacking;  insensitivity.
    131. 131. Level 5: Intractable situation  The situation has become unmanageable;  conflict is out of control;  objective is to destroy the other;  deluded perception.
    132. 132. MODELS OF POWER & INTIMACY  “DUEL MODEL”  a combative, disputatious way of dealing with the enemy.  “DUET MODEL”  harmonizing differences to blend personalities into healthy relationship.
    133. 133. Basic Assumptions:  DUEL  “OMNIPOTENCE - IMPOTENCE”  DUET  “POTENTIAL - EMPOWERMENT”
    134. 134. Social Values:  DUEL  COMPETITION  COLLISION  HOSTILITY  DUET  COMPLETION  COALITION  HOSPITALITY
    135. 135. Social Structure:  DUEL  HIERARCHICAL  PATRIARCHAL  ASYMMETRICAL  DUET  EGALITARIAN  PARTNERSHIP  BALANCED
    136. 136. Power Dynamics:  DUEL  DOMINATING: “power over”  COMPETING: “power against”  DUET  NURTURING: “power for”  COOPERATING: “power with”
    137. 137. Experiences:  DUEL  BREAKDOWN  GRIEF  HAUNTS  PROBLEMS  FRIGHT  PAIN  FEAR  CLASHING  DUET  BREAKTHROUGH  GRACE  HOPES  PROMISES  DELIGHT  GAIN  FAITH  COALESCING
    138. 138. Experiences:  DUEL  TEARS  TRASH  ROAST  FOE  GREED  DUET  CHEERS  TREASURES  TOAST  JOE  NEED
    139. 139. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES:  Avoidance/denial  Competition/power  Accommodation/sup pression  Compromise/negotia tion  Collaboration/integr ation
    140. 140. STYLES Avoidance/denial Use if:  threat of violence exists;  long terms feelings of dislike occur;  a cooling-off period is needed. Consequences:  separation reduces violence;  cooling-off period sets up negotiation;  allows both to continue separately.
    141. 141. STYLES Avoidance/denial Avoid if:  immediate resolution is needed;  one party remains frustrated by the avoidance. Consequences:  one party wants revenge;  ineffective work climate.
    142. 142. STYLES Competition/power Use if:  swift action is needed;  authority is well- respected;  negotiation is unrealistic. Consequences:  fast action;  more confidence in the leader.
    143. 143. STYLES Competition/power Avoid if:  concern for both parties is not clear;  consequences not considered. Consequences:  feeling of impotency;  continued resentment.
    144. 144. STYLES Accommodation/suppression Use if:  not important to one party;  harmony is more important;  one party needs to win. Consequences:  builds goodwill;  leads to cooperation.
    145. 145. STYLES Accommodation/suppression Avoid if:  important to both parties;  one party always gives;  power is balanced and strong. Consequences:  creates win/lose dynamics;  source of conflict remains;  cumulative effect: frustration.
    146. 146. STYLES Compromise/negotiation Use if:  both parties are open to giving and getting;  both parties feel negotiation is possible;  both parties agree that compromise helps. Consequences:  both parties satisfied;  both parties have a sense of control;  further negotiation is possible.
    147. 147. STYLES Compromise/negotiation Avoid if:  negotiation is not possible;  only one party is willing to give. Consequences:  one party loses;  unwillingness for further negotiation.
    148. 148. STYLES Collaboration/integration Use if:  conflict is clearly defined;  power is balanced;  communication is effective;  there are shared values and goals. Consequences:  both parties participate and feel rewarded;  common goals/values are realized;  firm agreement/ commitment is made.
    149. 149. STYLES Collaboration/integration Avoid if:  there is no balance of power;  goals or values are not shared;  poor communication exists. Consequences:  agreement will likely be violated;  there will be feelings of deception;  there will be the use of power/avoidance in the future.
    150. 150. STRATEGIES:  Identify sources and sides of conflict as soon as possible.
    151. 151. STRATEGIES:  Bring everyone affected by conflict into the decision- making process.
    152. 152. STRATEGIES:  Deal with emerging grievances directly as soon as possible.
    153. 153. STRATEGIES:  Continue goal- setting and long- range planning.
    154. 154. STRATEGIES:  Encourage members to have communication training.
    155. 155. STRATEGIES  Provide opportunities for common corporate experiences.
    156. 156. STRATEGIES:  Be sure that dissident groups are represented in negotiation.
    157. 157. STRATEGIES:  Maintain redemptive, accepting atmosphere through the use of small fellowships and Bible study groups.
    158. 158. STRATEGIES:  Foster negotiation and compromise.
    159. 159. STRATEGIES:  Remove conflict from win/lose context.
    160. 160. STRATEGIES:  Halt expansion of conflict.
    161. 161. STRATEGIES:  Employ graduated reciprocal reduction in tensions.
    162. 162. STRATEGIES:  Use bargaining negotiating techniques.
    163. 163. SOME GENERAL RULES:  Ask whether this is worthy of attention or should be let go.  Make your approach one of concern for the person and for preservation of relationship.  Seek understanding through inquiry before forming judgments and making accusations (blaming.
    164. 164. SOME GENERAL RULES:  Separate facts from rumor, partial information, feelings and interpretation.  Consider how much stress the relationship can bear; this will help you tell how much time and sensitivity will be required
    165. 165. SOME GENERAL RULES:  Put yourself in the other person’s place and try to appreciate his or her perspective on the matter.  Address behaviors rather than motivation.
    166. 166. SOME GENERAL RULES:  When you detect tense emotions or defensiveness, back up and give assurances of friendship and your desire to understand.  Frequently acknowledge and summarize what the other person has said to assure accuracy of understanding for both parties.
    167. 167. SOME GENERAL RULES:  Believe a win/win resolution is possible if both parties can remain calm, understand each other’s interests and negotiate with integrity and fairness.
    168. 168. WIN/WIN NEGOTIATION Elements of the strategy:  Defining controversy as mutual problem.  Encouragement of participation by all group members.  There is an open and honest expression of ideas and feelings.
    169. 169. WIN/WIN NEGOTIATION Elements of the strategy:  Everyone’s contributions are listened to, given attention, taken seriously, valued, and respected.  Quiet members are encouraged to participate.  Effective sending and receiving communication skills are used.
    170. 170. WIN/WIN NEGOTIATION Elements of the strategy:  Differences in opinions and ideas are sought out and clarified.  Underlying assumptions, core values, agenda and frames of reference are brought out into the open and discussed.  Disagreement is not taken as personal rejection by some or all group members.
    171. 171. WIN/WIN NEGOTIATION Elements of the strategy:  There is adequate differentiation of positions; differences are clearly understood.  There is adequate integration of positions; similarities are clearly understood and positions are combined in creative synthesis.
    172. 172. WIN/WIN NEGOTIATION Elements of the strategy:  Emotions are responded to with involvement and other sincere and honest emotions.  There is equal situational power among all members.  There is just a moderate level of tension.
    173. 173. MODELS OF ENGAGEMENT:  DISTANCE MODELS:  Xenophobic  Antagonistic  INTIMACY MODEL:  Dialogic  Integrative
    174. 174. XENOPHOBIC MODEL  Fear of the strangers;  push for dissociation with the culturally different;  psychological encapsulation, exclusiveness, “ghetto-mentality.
    175. 175. ANTAGONISTIC MODEL  From the Greek word: anti, against + agonizesthai, to struggle;  conflicted, controversial, tension-filled
    176. 176. DIALOGIC MODEL  Building bridges;  conversational;  reaching out to understand and to relate;  assumes conflict can have positive values.
    177. 177. INTEGRATIVE MODEL  Genuine appreciation of what others bring to the relationship;  acknowledges diversities;  blending of visions, values, views, and vocations.
    178. 178. A BENEDICTION  We are simply called to make gentle this bruised and hurting world, to tame its savagery, to have love and compassion for all, including ourselves, the enemies and the strangers; and in all the time given to us to live on this earth resonate through our lives and our labors the ancient tale of God’s redemptive.
    179. 179. FINAL GRADING PERIOD Ethics, Morals and Rules of Behavior, Individual/Personal Ethics of Development, Group/Organizational Ethics and Changing Ethics.
    180. 180. ETHICS DISCUSSANT BERNARD E. ESPINA
    181. 181. ETHICS “MORAL PHILOSOPHY” RIGHT (Good) How should I behave and why? How should I balance the my needs against the needs of others? WRONG (Evil)
    182. 182. BASIC ETHICS CONCEPT VIRTUE ETHICS ACTION ETHICS
    183. 183. ETHICS HOW DO THEY RELATE?
    184. 184. 1. VALUES Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn't, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another.
    185. 185. 2. MORALS Morals have a greater social element to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Morals are far more about good and bad than other values. We thus judge others more strongly on morals than values. A person can be described as immoral, yet there is no word for them not following values.
    186. 186. 3. ETHICS You can have professional ethics, but you seldom hear about professional morals. Ethics tend to be codified into a formal system or set of rules which are explicitly adopted by a group of people. Thus you have medical ethics. Ethics are thus internally defined and adopted, whilst morals tend to be externally imposed on other people. If you accuse someone of being unethical, it is equivalent of calling them unprofessional and may well be taken as a significant insult and perceived more personally than if you called them immoral (which of course they may also not like).
    187. 187. “Follow your dreams; lead a good life”
    188. 188. Classical Theories of Ethics Discussant: Anamae C. Flores
    189. 189. What is Ethics? •The Philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it.
    190. 190. What is meant by business, professional and personal ethics?
    191. 191. Business Ethics •is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole. Applied ethics is a field of ethics that deals
    192. 192. Professional Ethics •Rules governing the conduct •Transaction and relationship within a profession and among its public •The accountant’s professional ethics affect the reputation of the profession and confidence of the public
    193. 193. Personal Ethics • Professionals, and those working in acknowledged professions, exercise specialist knowledge and skill. How the use of this knowledge should be governed when providing a service to the public can be considered a moral issue and is termed professional ethics. • Professionals are capable of making judgments, applying their skills and reaching informed decisions in situations that the general public cannot, because they have not received the relevant training. • One of the earliest examples of professional ethics is probably the Hippocratic oath to which medical doctors still adhere to this day.
    194. 194. •How does the application of Different Theories to the same situation
    195. 195. 1. Golden Mean - Aristotle •The golden mean is the desirable middle between two extreme •One of excess and the other of deficiency
    196. 196. Example •“Beauty is truth, truth is beauty”. That is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
    197. 197. Utilitarianism •An ethical philosophy in which the happiness of the greatest number of people in the society is considered the greatest good. •According to this philosophy, an action is morally right if its consequences lead to happiness (absence of pain)
    198. 198. Deontology – Kant/Ross •Deontological ethics or deontology is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on the action’s adherence to a rules or rule.
    199. 199. Situational Ethics •Is Christian theory that was principally developed in in the 1960s by then Episcopal priest Joseph Fletcher.
    200. 200. Distributive Justice - Rawls The economic framework that each society •Its laws •Institution •politics
    201. 201. 1. Categorical Imperative • Human beings simply occupy a special place in creation • Morality can be summed up in one ultimate commandment of reason • Imperative, from which all duties and obligations drive. --If I wish to quench my
    202. 202. 2. Principle Generic Consistency Gewirth is best known for his ethical rationalism, according to which a supreme moral principle
    203. 203. 3. Public Morality •Refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society by law or police work or social pressure, applied to public life to the content of the media and to conduct in public places.
    204. 204. The Role of Ethics in Education and Current ethical issues in Education
    205. 205. Points to Ponder...... • Have you ever done anything that made you feel uncomfortable to please an authority? • Have you ever broken some rules to help out a friend?
    206. 206. • Have you ever seen someone act unethically and justify his/her actions by saying “I'm just doing my job?” what did you say or do in response? What should you have said or done? • Has an employer ever explicitly asked you to set aside your own ethical standards?
    207. 207. What is Ethics?  it comes from the Greek word ethos, which means character  it tells us the best way to live, and what kinds of actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances  it is concern on individual’s moral judgement about right and wrong
    208. 208. What is the role of Ethics in education? • It serves as guiding principles for our daily activities or endeavours
    209. 209. Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
    210. 210. • Help carry out the declared policies of the state • Refrain from engaging in the promotion of any political, religious or other partisan interest The Teacher and The State (Article II)
    211. 211. • Refrain from all sorts of immoral activities • Provide an environment conducive to learning and youth development The Teacher and the Community (Article III)
    212. 212. • Live up to the nobility and integrity of the teaching profession • Always be at his best in the practice of the profession The Teacher and the profession (Article IV)
    213. 213. • Be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, faithfulness and cooperativeness with others in the teaching profession The Teacher and the Teaching Community (Article V)
    214. 214. • Support the legitimate policies of the school and the administration regardless of personal feeling or private opinion • Make no false and anonymous accusations or charges against superior The Teacher and the Higher authorities in the profession (Article VI)
    215. 215. • Determine the academic marks and promotion of learners in accordance with generally accepted procedures or measurement and evaluation The Teachers and the Learners (Article VIII)
    216. 216. • Desist from inflicting any form of corporal punishment on offending pupils, make no deductions from the learner’s scholastic grade as a punishment for student’s offense The Teachers and the Learners (Article VIII)
    217. 217. • Engage in legitimate income generating activities • Maintain good reputation with respect to financial matters The Teacher and Business (Article X)
    218. 218. • Live with dignity at all times wherever he/she is • Place premium upon self-respect and self- discipline The Teacher as a Person (Article XI)
    219. 219. A BRANCH OF STUDY DEALING WITH WHAT IS THE PROPER COURSE OF ACTION FOR MAN, IT IS THE METHOD BY WHICH WE CATEGORIZE OUR VALUES AND PURSUE THEM.
    220. 220. THE STUDY OF WHAT PEOPLE DO OR HOW PEOPLE ACT.
    221. 221. Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action without it our actions would be random or aimless.
    222. 222. To individuals enduring beliefs or ideals about what is good or desirable and what is not.
    223. 223. THESE ARE THE BASIS WHICH WE MAKE ETHICAL DECISIONS.
    224. 224. MEANS WHOLENESS A CONCEPT OF CONSISTENCY OF ACTION,VALUES,METHODS, MEASURES, PRINCIPLES, EXPECTATIONS AND OUTCOMES.
    225. 225. MEANS ABSTRACTLY SPEAKING TO TREAT PEOPLE WITH EQUAL RESPECT.
    226. 226. TREAT PEOPLE AS FREE BEING NOT AS THINGS.
    227. 227. THE QUALITY OF STATE OF BEING HONEST,FAIRNESS AND STRAIGHT FORWARDNESS OF CONDUCT.
    228. 228. WHEN DECIDING HOW TO SPEND YOUR RESOURCES AND USE THE LIMITED AMOUNTS OF TIME AND EFFORT THAT YOU POSSESS.
    229. 229. IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN AN OUT WARD FOCUS THAT IS CAPABLE OF ABSORBINS NEW INFORMATION AND OPINIONS A PERSON MUST HAVE AN ETHICAL GROUND RULE RESPECT FOR OTHER PEOPLE.
    230. 230. -ACT AS THE FOUNDATION FOR YOUR MORAL COMPASS -THE INTERNAL GUIDE THAT TELLS YOU WHATS RIGHT AND WRONG.
    231. 231. -ETHICAL CODES -ROLE MODELS -POLICIES AND PRACTICE -REWARD AND PUNISHMENT
    232. 232. -LEGAL -ECONOMIC -INTERNATIONAL
    233. 233. ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICS JESSA I. CERBITO Reporter
    234. 234. Organizational ethics is the application of these morality related choices as influenced and guided by values, standards, rules, principles, and strategies associated with organizational activities and business situations. If ethics deals with the choices (the morality of right vs wrong) that individuals make in their personal and professional lives, then…
    235. 235. They are at ease interacting with diverse internal and external stakeholder groups. How do we describe an ethical organization? They are obsessed with fairness. Responsibility is individual rather than collective, with individuals assuming personal responsibility for actions of the organization. They see their activities in terms of purpose.
    236. 236. Ethical Ground Rules These are the bases by which we make ethical decisions. Provide the basic rules by which to govern behavior and meet the many different challenges of life.
    237. 237. Six Pillars of Character Trustworthiness Caring Respect Fairness and Justice Citizenship Responsibility
    238. 238. ETHICAL Ground Rules Foster a culture of honesty. Remind group members that they don't have to like people to work with them. Affirm collective responsibility.
    239. 239. Spotlight the need for full participation. Everyone needs to take a fair share of the group work. Highlight the importance of developing and practicing listening skills.
    240. 240. Benefits of Managing Ethics in the Workplace Attention to ethics has substantially improved society. Ethics programs cultivate strong teamwork and productivity. Ethics programs support employee growth and meaning. Ethics programs help ensure that policies are legal.
    241. 241. Benefits of Managing Ethics in the Workplace Ethics programs help avoid criminal acts “of omission” and can avoid punishments. Ethics programs promote a strong public image. Managing ethical values in the workplace legitimizes managerial actions, strengthens the alignment of the organization’s culture, and improves trust in relationships between individuals and groups.
    242. 242. Who is responsible for creating Ethics in an Organization? The creation of an ethical organization resides with leaders and followers; leadership by nature demands that leaders be the front runners in establishing an ethical organization.
    243. 243. Ethics starts at the top! Thus, two things become apparent: 1. Organizational/business ethics are the responsibility of organizational leadership; and 2. The challenge of leaders to create an ethical organization. “Leaders play THE key role in developing the ethical organization as they confront balancing operational and profit goals with corporate moral obligations to internal and external stakeholders”.
    244. 244. Ethics starts at the top! Key Questions for Leaders as they build the ethical organization:  What are my core values and beliefs?  What are the core values and beliefs of the organization?  Whose values, beliefs and interests are affected by my actions and decisions?  Who will be harmed or helped by my actions and decisions and those of my organization?  How will my core values and those of my organization be affected or changed by my actions or decisions?  How will I and my organization be affected by my actions and decisions?  Do my actions and decisions represent a consistent set of values?  From this, how will I approach the creation of an ethical organization?
    245. 245. Develop ethical behavioral influences Build an integrity based organization Provide sound ethics training Instill strong organizational values Implement plans and strategies to achieve ethical excellence The Role of Leaders
    246. 246. “The ethics of the organization reflect the ethics and skills of leaders.” Lee Hartman, Ph.D.
    247. 247. PERSONAL ETHICS Personal ethics is a branch of Philosophy that addresses the question of morality through a set of behavioural guidelines. -It sums up how someone makes moral and ethical decisions.
    248. 248. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS Professional ethics is conforming to right principals of conduct as accepted by a specific profession.
    249. 249. PERSONAL VS. PROFESSIONAL Personal Ethics Professional Ethics – Differ by Individuals - Same throughout the – Religion, Sin, Virtue organization – Learned from Parents, - Law, Crime, Punishment Teachers, Clergy, - Learned from management, Role Models Team Leaders, Co-workers – Unwritten Code of - Written Code of Conduct Conduct - Professional Commitment – Personal Choice
    250. 250. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory Moral Reasoning
    251. 251. Lawrence Kohlberg  He was a moral philosopher and student of child development.  He was director of Harvard's Center for Moral Education.  His special area of interest is the moral development of children - how they develop a sense of right, wrong, and justice.
    252. 252.  Kohlberg’s Experiment  Interviewed children of various ages  Interviewed adults of different ages  Presented them with a moral dilemma  There is no “correct” answer  Answer is irrelevant to Kohlberg  Kohlberg noted HOW an answer was being arrived at  What reasoning did they use to decide?
    253. 253. STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
    254. 254. Stages of Moral Reasoning  Level One: Preconventional (Personal Impact)  Stage 1: Punishment/Obedience  It is wrong, if you are punished for it.  Physical consequences  A big punishment then means what to a child?  Stage 2: Personal Reward  It is right if I benefit from it  Personal needs are most important  Magnitude of the benefit tells what about the action?
    255. 255. Stages of Moral Reasoning  Level Two: Conventional (Personal Approval)  Stage 3: Good Boy/Good Girl  If I do this, Mommy will think I’m a “good boy/girl”  Right & wrong reasoned based on other’s approval  Pre-pubescent- Approval of authority figures  Post-pubescent- Approval of peers  Stage 4: Law & Order  Because it’s against the Law!  Laws are absolute, no gray areas or chaos will erupt  Family obligations?
    256. 256. Stages of Moral Reasoning  Level Three: Post-Conventional (Personal Interpretation)  Stage 5: Social Contract  Given my situation I had no other choice!  Laws are attempts at morality but are still contrived.  Meant for most situations but not all situations  Stage 6: Universal Ethic  Always right?  Always wrong?
    257. 257. Discussant: REYLYN L. GUMABAY
    258. 258. LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION Mr. Gilmore A. Gorembalem Discussant
    259. 259. ETHICS Personal Ethics Professional Ethics How to make decisions? How system are formed and operated? The ones we define for ourselves Designed by organization leaders Sense of fulfillment and purpose Executive decisions that are fair and legally sound
    260. 260. ETHICS Personal Ethics Professional Ethics Carried with the individual who defines them Designed to uphold at all times in the work place CONSEQUENCES
    261. 261. ETHICS Personal Ethics Professional Ethics CONSEQUENCES Not tangible Include a loss of pride, sense of failure or feeling of remorse Ramifications may include monetary losses, loss of status or even legal issues
    262. 262. Moral Reasoning Moral Development Difference between right and wrong Logic Lawrence Kohlberg STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
    263. 263. Pre- Conventional Level Conventional Level Post- Conventional Level Stage 1 Punishment/Obedience Stage 2 Mutual Benefit Stage 4 Law and Order Stage 6 Universal Principles Stage 5 Social Contract Stage 3 Social Approval
    264. 264. Historical Events in Education Pre-Spanish Period Spanish Era Japanese Era Revolutionary Government Contemporary Period American Regime
    265. 265. YEAR OFFICIAL NAME HEAD OF OFFICE LEGAL BASES 1863 Superior Commission of Primary Instruction Chairman Educational Decree of 1863 1901- 1916 Department of Public Instruction General Superintendent Act No. 74 of the Phil. Commission, Jan 21, 1901 1916- 1942 Department of Public Instruction Secretary Organic Act Law of 1916 (Jones Law) 1942- 1944 Department of Education, Health and Welfare Commissioner Renamed by the Japanese Exec. Commission, June 11, 1947 1944 Department of Education, Health and Welfare Minister Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic Same year Department of Public Instruction Secretary Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic
    266. 266. YEAR OFFICIAL NAME HEAD OF OFFICE LEGAL BASES 1945- 1946 Department of Public Instruction and Information Secretary Renamed by the Commonwealth Government 1946-1947 Department of Instruction Secretary Renamed by the Commonwealth Government 1947 1975 Department of Education Secretary E.O. 94 October 1947 (Reorganization Act of 1947) 1975- 1978 Department of Education and Culture Secretary Proc. No. 1081, September 24, 1972 1978- 1984 Ministry of Education and Culture Minister P.D. No. 1397, June 2, 1978
    267. 267. YEAR OFFICIAL NAME HEAD OF OFFICE LEGAL BASES 1984- 1986 Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports Minister Education Act of 1982 1987- 2001 Department of Education, Culture and Sports Secretary E.O. No. 117 January 30, 1987 2002- Present Department of Education Secretary R.A. No. 9155
    268. 268. “The more you do, the more you gain, The less you do, the more you lose.”

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