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Module 4<br />
Planned Change<br />
What is Change? <br /><ul><li>Movement from one point to another
A disruption of the status quo
Process of giving up something in exchange for something else
Adopting something different</li></li></ul><li>Definition of Change<br />A modification of those forces keeping a system’s...
What is Planned Change?<br />Planned Change refers to initiatives done to effect a desired end in view or to address an is...
Why Planned Change?<br />The need to respond to a social reality<br />Economic and cultural globalisation, climate change,...
Why the Need for   Planned Change Theories?<br />We need to build the thinking for those involved in the process of develo...
Why the Need for   Planned Change Theories?<br />To provide entities such as Civil Society and the Business Sector with be...
Three Stage Model (Lewin)<br />Creating motivation and readiness<br />(Felt Pain)<br />UNFREEZING<br />Integration <br />o...
Models of Planned Change <br />
Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />Establish a Sense of Urgency<br /><ul><li>Examine the market and comp...
Identify and discuss crises, possible crises or major opportunities</li></ul>2.  Create the guiding coalition<br /><ul><li...
Get the group to work like a team</li></ul>3.  Develop a Vision and Strategy<br /><ul><li>Create a vision to help direct t...
Develop strategies for achieving the vision</li></li></ul><li>Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />4.  Com...
Have the guiding coalition role model the desired behaviors</li></ul>5.  Empower Broad Based Action<br /><ul><li>Get rid o...
Change systems or structures that undermine the change vision
Encourage risk taking and non- traditional activities and actions</li></li></ul><li>Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creati...
Create those wins
Visibly recognize people who make those wins</li></ul>7.  Consolidate gains and produce more change<br /><ul><li>Use incre...
Re-invigorate the process with new projects themes and change </li></ul>agents<br />
Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />8.  Anchor new approaches in the culture<br /><ul><li>Create better p...
Contracting: Effective change contracts specify at least three things:<br />a. Change goals that are clear, internally con...
Data gathering<br />a. It provides needed information for the effective planning of further Change Actions.<br />b. It gal...
Interventions/Actions - referred to in the change management literature as interventions-are those actions designed to imp...
Evaluation - informs the change agent and the system about the results the change project or specific change actions have ...
Disengagement - include a closing evaluation session, statements of learnings gleaned from the project, and celebration of...
The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
KEY POINTS<br /><ul><li> In each change situation, both opportunity and danger forces exist.
  Status quo occurs when the opportunity forces and danger forces are equal.
  Change takes place when an imbalance occurs between the sum of the opportunity forces and the sum of the danger forces.<...
Diagnosis for Change<br />
Diagnostic Models <br />Importance <br />Facilitates the process of learning “how things work”, <br />Relationships betwee...
Modeling Organizations <br />
Seven  S Framework<br />SharedValues<br />Structure<br />Systems<br />Strategy<br />Skills<br />Style<br />Staff<br />
7S Framework<br />
7S Framework<br />
Weisbord Model<br />Purposes<br />environment<br />Structure<br />Relationships<br />Leadership<br />Rewards<br />Helpful<...
THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION<br />CHANGE MODEL (IOCM)<br />Environment<br /><ul><li>    macro and micro  environment (objec...
    perception of environment</li></ul>Desired Results<br />Vision-Mission-Goals<br />(Desired Organizational<br />Effecti...
    competence
    leadership style</li></ul>Structure<br />Technology<br /><ul><li>    division and</li></ul>       coordination of work...
    work processes
    equipment</li></ul>Culture<br /><ul><li>    artifacts (norms, physical, etc.)
    values
    basic assumptions</li></ul>Human Resources<br />Group and Intergroup<br />Processes<br /><ul><li>    selection and tra...
    evaluation and rewards
    knowledge, skills, </li></ul>       values, attitudes<br /><ul><li>    decision making
    problem solving
    communication  process
    conflict management
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  1. 1. Module 4<br />
  2. 2. Planned Change<br />
  3. 3. What is Change? <br /><ul><li>Movement from one point to another
  4. 4. A disruption of the status quo
  5. 5. Process of giving up something in exchange for something else
  6. 6. Adopting something different</li></li></ul><li>Definition of Change<br />A modification of those forces keeping a system’s behavior stable. <br />Specifically, the level of behavior at any moment in time is the result of two sets of forces -- those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change.<br />Kurt Lewin’s Change Model<br />
  7. 7. What is Planned Change?<br />Planned Change refers to initiatives done to effect a desired end in view or to address an issue and/or a given problem situation<br />Planned Change subscribes to the use of frameworks, tools, techniques, methods towards achieving this<br />
  8. 8. Why Planned Change?<br />The need to respond to a social reality<br />Economic and cultural globalisation, climate change, competition for markets and for strategic and scarce resources, new complexities on all sectors of societies the world over<br />The desire to effect change towards a desired future state<br />Poverty alleviation <br />The need to sustain gains of planned change <br />Nation building<br />
  9. 9. Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?<br />We need to build the thinking for those involved in the process of development: individuals, communities, organizations, donors etc.<br />So that we may understand what is happening beneath the surface: ask good questions, determine a systematic approach at approaching the work we do<br />A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation<br />By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association<br />
  10. 10. Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?<br />To provide entities such as Civil Society and the Business Sector with better handles at effecting social change<br />To respond to the pressure on NGOs to show measureable results, be more business-like <br />Development fund has become a market-place<br />A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation<br />By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association<br />
  11. 11. Three Stage Model (Lewin)<br />Creating motivation and readiness<br />(Felt Pain)<br />UNFREEZING<br />Integration <br />of new elements<br />(Stabilizing)<br />REFREEZING<br />New elements are introduced<br />(Action)<br />CHANGE<br />
  12. 12. Models of Planned Change <br />
  13. 13. Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />Establish a Sense of Urgency<br /><ul><li>Examine the market and competitive realities
  14. 14. Identify and discuss crises, possible crises or major opportunities</li></ul>2. Create the guiding coalition<br /><ul><li>Put together the group with enough power to lead the change
  15. 15. Get the group to work like a team</li></ul>3. Develop a Vision and Strategy<br /><ul><li>Create a vision to help direct the change effort
  16. 16. Develop strategies for achieving the vision</li></li></ul><li>Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />4. Communicate the Change Vision<br /><ul><li>Use every vehicle possible to communicate the change vision
  17. 17. Have the guiding coalition role model the desired behaviors</li></ul>5. Empower Broad Based Action<br /><ul><li>Get rid of obstacles
  18. 18. Change systems or structures that undermine the change vision
  19. 19. Encourage risk taking and non- traditional activities and actions</li></li></ul><li>Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />6. Generate Short Term Wins<br /><ul><li>Plan for visible Improvements in performance or “wins”
  20. 20. Create those wins
  21. 21. Visibly recognize people who make those wins</li></ul>7. Consolidate gains and produce more change<br /><ul><li>Use increased credibility to change all systems, structures that </li></ul>don’t fit together and don’t fit the vision<br /><ul><li>Hire and promote people who can implement the vision
  22. 22. Re-invigorate the process with new projects themes and change </li></ul>agents<br />
  23. 23. Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />8. Anchor new approaches in the culture<br /><ul><li>Create better performance through customer and productivity-</li></ul>oriented behavior, more and better leadership and more effective <br />management<br /><ul><li>Articulate the connections between new behaviors and </li></ul>organizational success<br /><ul><li>Develop means to ensure leadership development and succession</li></li></ul><li>Contracting<br /><ul><li>Contracting is the process of coming to agreement with those person or persons who are key to the success of a change project. </li></ul>The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  24. 24. Contracting: Effective change contracts specify at least three things:<br />a. Change goals that are clear, internally consistent, and that have a systemic and human values orientation.<br />b. The roles of project leader (the client) and process facilitator (consultant). <br />c.  Collaborative, inclusive, consensus-building change processes. <br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  25. 25. Data gathering<br />a. It provides needed information for the effective planning of further Change Actions.<br />b. It galvanizes organizational energy in preparation for "something happening.”<br />c.  It provides an opportunity for some initial empowerment coaching of those from whom data is gathered.<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  26. 26. Interventions/Actions - referred to in the change management literature as interventions-are those actions designed to improve relationships within the target system on behalf of opening communication, and developing more informed and inclusive decision-making processes. <br /> Interventions include, in their various forms, feedback to the system, team-building, strategic planning, training, conflict management, and coaching.<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  27. 27. Evaluation - informs the change agent and the system about the results the change project or specific change actions have had. In essence, evaluation is a feedback based data-gathering process- feedback which will give the change leaders critical information about how the system has responded to a change action and how they might design the next action to be more effective<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  28. 28. Disengagement - include a closing evaluation session, statements of learnings gleaned from the project, and celebration of whatever success was achieved<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  29. 29. The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  30. 30. KEY POINTS<br /><ul><li> In each change situation, both opportunity and danger forces exist.
  31. 31. Status quo occurs when the opportunity forces and danger forces are equal.
  32. 32. Change takes place when an imbalance occurs between the sum of the opportunity forces and the sum of the danger forces.</li></li></ul><li>PRESENT STATE<br />DESIRED STATE<br />DRIVING FORCES<br />(Opportunities)<br />RESTRAINING FORCES<br />(Dangers)<br />Driving Forces of Change<br />
  33. 33. Diagnosis for Change<br />
  34. 34. Diagnostic Models <br />Importance <br />Facilitates the process of learning “how things work”, <br />Relationships between and among systems.<br />Facilitates how we think about and talk about situations.<br />Helps to simplify things.<br />Helps us determine causes and “solutions”,<br />Helps in the implementation process.s<br />
  35. 35. Modeling Organizations <br />
  36. 36. Seven S Framework<br />SharedValues<br />Structure<br />Systems<br />Strategy<br />Skills<br />Style<br />Staff<br />
  37. 37. 7S Framework<br />
  38. 38. 7S Framework<br />
  39. 39. Weisbord Model<br />Purposes<br />environment<br />Structure<br />Relationships<br />Leadership<br />Rewards<br />Helpful<br /> Mechanisms<br />
  40. 40. THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION<br />CHANGE MODEL (IOCM)<br />Environment<br /><ul><li> macro and micro environment (objective reality)
  41. 41. perception of environment</li></ul>Desired Results<br />Vision-Mission-Goals<br />(Desired Organizational<br />Effectiveness)<br /><ul><li> clarity and agreement</li></ul>Strategy<br />GAP<br /><ul><li> formulated and emergent strategies</li></ul>Actual Results<br />(Actual Organizational<br />Effectiveness)<br />Leadership<br /><ul><li> character/integrity
  42. 42. competence
  43. 43. leadership style</li></ul>Structure<br />Technology<br /><ul><li> division and</li></ul> coordination of work<br /><ul><li> roles, responsibilities</li></ul> and expectations<br /><ul><li> tasks
  44. 44. work processes
  45. 45. equipment</li></ul>Culture<br /><ul><li> artifacts (norms, physical, etc.)
  46. 46. values
  47. 47. basic assumptions</li></ul>Human Resources<br />Group and Intergroup<br />Processes<br /><ul><li> selection and training
  48. 48. evaluation and rewards
  49. 49. knowledge, skills, </li></ul> values, attitudes<br /><ul><li> decision making
  50. 50. problem solving
  51. 51. communication process
  52. 52. conflict management
  53. 53. power and politics</li></li></ul><li>Galbraith Model <br />Strategy<br />Vision<br />Direction <br />Competitive Advantage<br />Structure<br />Power and Authority<br />Reporting Relationships<br />Organizational Roles<br />People Practices<br />Staffing and Selection<br />Performance Feedback<br />Learning and Development<br />Process and <br />Lateral Capability<br />Networks, processes,teams,<br />Integrative roles,<br />matrix structures<br />Reward Systems<br />Goals, scorecards and metrics,<br />Values and behaviors<br />Compensation/Rewards<br />
  54. 54. Organization Development Framework<br />BUSINESS<br />SITUATION<br />(Environment<br />Demands)<br />Structure<br />Rewards<br />SYSTEMS<br />&<br />Decision<br />Making<br />POLICIES<br />Tasks<br />People<br />Information<br />BUSINESS<br />STRATEGY<br />Purpose <br />and<br />Direction<br />BUSINESS RESULTS<br />Outputs and <br />Performance<br />CULTURE<br />Norms <br />and<br />Practices<br />David Hanna: Designing High Performing Organizations<br />
  55. 55. Component Analysis<br />Scenario Analysis: Painting a picture of the Future<br />Gap Analysis<br />News flash Analysis: Using certain diagnostic in analyzing specific events, occurences<br />Culture Web<br />
  56. 56. Where are we now?<br />Where do we want to go?<br />How do we get there?<br />Gap Analysis<br />
  57. 57. The Culture Web <br />Stories<br />Symbols<br />Power <br />Structures<br />Rituals and <br />Routines<br />The <br />Paradigm<br />Organizational<br />Structures<br />Control <br />Systems<br />
  58. 58. Culture Web<br />Paradigm - The set of assumptions held throughout the organization.<br />Rituals and routines - In regard to how organizational members treat each other; behave according to what is right and proper<br />Stories - Told by organization members<br />Symbols - Logos, dress, style, language<br />Control Systems - Through what is measured, rewarded<br />Power structure - Refer to most influential groupings <br />Organizational structure - Refer to the formal and informal differentiation of tasks<br />
  59. 59. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li> What is the vision, goals and strategies of the organization
  60. 60. Does the vision and goals of the organization remain relevant to the environment and to the requirements of the members of the organization?
  61. 61. What is the ability of the organization to keep its strategies and goals relevant to the changes in the environment?</li></ul>1. DIRECTION<br /> VISION<br /> MISSION<br /> GOALS<br /> STRATEGY<br />
  62. 62. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li> Is top management clear on organizational goals and strategies?
  63. 63. Are the management and leadership styles (top and middle management) aligned with the desired organization culture?
  64. 64. Do the managers have the necessary competencies to perform their expected roles and responsibilities?</li></ul>2. Leadership and Management<br />
  65. 65. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li> How aligned is the organizational design to the desired direction and culture?
  66. 66. How clear are roles and responsibilities in the organization?
  67. 67. Are the parameters for decision-making defined and understood?
  68. 68. Are there ways and means that allow for communication and coordination (within and across units)?</li></ul>3. Organizational Design and Structure<br />
  69. 69. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li>Do the employees possess the appropriate skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to perform their tasks?
  70. 70. Does the organization show sufficient teamwork in doing their jobs?
  71. 71. Are the communication lines and channels within and across levels open and available?
  72. 72. How are conflicts and problems resolved?
  73. 73. What is the morale of people? What are the satisfiers? Dissatisfiers?</li></ul>4. People and Relationships<br />
  74. 74. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li>Describe the behaviors, practices and attitudes the organization needs in order to create a culture that is responsive to the team’s direction.
  75. 75. How are the desired behaviors, practices and attitudes reinforced and rewarded?
  76. 76. How much of these behaviors do you see manifested in the team?</li></ul>5. Culture<br />
  77. 77. Common Diagnosis Methods <br />
  78. 78. Common Diagnosis Methods<br />Records, reports (Secondary data)<br />Interviews<br />Focus Group Discussions<br />Diagnostic Workshops<br />Observation<br />Survey/Questionnaires<br />
  79. 79. Secondary Data<br />Employee data (performance data, disciplinary records, grievance, turnover, accidents, customer complaints)<br />Organizational charts, policy manuals, audits, budget reports<br />Program reports, program evaluation studies<br />Advantages:<br />Provide excellent clues to trouble spots<br />Provide objective evidence<br />Can be collected with minimum effort<br />
  80. 80. Secondary Data<br />Disadvantages:<br />Dependent on quality of record-keeping in organization<br />Causes of problems or possible solutions often do not show up<br />Generally reflects past situation rather than current one<br />Needs a skilled data analyst to synthesize technical and diffused raw data<br />When useful:<br />Presence of accurate, reliable and current records<br />
  81. 81. Interviews<br />One on one discussions aimed to obtain private views and feelings of respondents<br />Face-to-face, phone, online<br />Advantages:<br />Provide rich data on problems and possible causes and solutions<br />Allows for unanticipated responses<br />Face-to-face allows researcher to obtain additional cues beyond what is being said<br />
  82. 82. Interviews<br />Disadvantages:<br />Time-consuming<br />Lack of anonymity of interviewee<br />Difficult to analyze and quantify results<br />Requires skillful interviewer<br />When useful:<br />Small organization<br />Performance problems appear to be complex and multi-faceted<br />
  83. 83. Resembles face to face interview<br />Can focus on a job, function or any number of themes<br />Uses one or several group facilitating techniques (brainstorming, nominal group process, consensus ranking)<br />May be structured on unstructured<br />Advantages:<br />Permits on-the-spot synthesis of different viewpoints<br />Builds support for particular program/intervention<br />Decreases client’s dependence on consultant because analysis is a shared function<br />Helps participants become better problem analysts, listeners, etc.<br />Focus-group Discussion<br />
  84. 84. Focus-group discussion<br />Disadvantages:<br />Time consuming<br />Expensive<br />Data is difficult to synthesize and quantify<br />When useful:<br />Small to medium sized organization<br />Specific themes<br />
  85. 85. <ul><li>How are things going around here? What is going well? What is not going well?
  86. 86. What do you like best? Like least about this organization?
  87. 87. What would you consider the strengths/weaknesses of this organization?
  88. 88. What changes would you like to see?
  89. 89. How do you think this organization could be more effective?</li></ul>Typical Open-Ended Questions<br />
  90. 90. Some Challenges in FGDS<br />Passive participants<br />Inattentive participants<br />Dominant participants<br />Discussion goes off-tangent<br />Personality clashes<br />Venue not ideal (sound, temperature, seats)<br />Recording and documentation<br />
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