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  • 1. Module 4
  • 2. Planned Change
  • 3. What is Change?
    • Movement from one point to another
    • 4. A disruption of the status quo
    • 5. Process of giving up something in exchange for something else
    • 6. Adopting something different
  • Definition of Change
    A modification of those forces keeping a system’s behavior stable.
    Specifically, the level of behavior at any moment in time is the result of two sets of forces -- those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change.
    Kurt Lewin’s Change Model
  • 7. What is Planned Change?
    Planned Change refers to initiatives done to effect a desired end in view or to address an issue and/or a given problem situation
    Planned Change subscribes to the use of frameworks, tools, techniques, methods towards achieving this
  • 8. Why Planned Change?
    The need to respond to a social reality
    Economic and cultural globalisation, climate change, competition for markets and for strategic and scarce resources, new complexities on all sectors of societies the world over
    The desire to effect change towards a desired future state
    Poverty alleviation
    The need to sustain gains of planned change
    Nation building
  • 9. Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?
    We need to build the thinking for those involved in the process of development: individuals, communities, organizations, donors etc.
    So that we may understand what is happening beneath the surface: ask good questions, determine a systematic approach at approaching the work we do
    A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
    By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association
  • 10. Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?
    To provide entities such as Civil Society and the Business Sector with better handles at effecting social change
    To respond to the pressure on NGOs to show measureable results, be more business-like
    Development fund has become a market-place
    A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
    By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association
  • 11. Three Stage Model (Lewin)
    Creating motivation and readiness
    (Felt Pain)
    UNFREEZING
    Integration
    of new elements
    (Stabilizing)
    REFREEZING
    New elements are introduced
    (Action)
    CHANGE
  • 12. Models of Planned Change
  • 13. Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
    Establish a Sense of Urgency
    • Examine the market and competitive realities
    • 14. Identify and discuss crises, possible crises or major opportunities
    2. Create the guiding coalition
    • Put together the group with enough power to lead the change
    • 15. Get the group to work like a team
    3. Develop a Vision and Strategy
    • Create a vision to help direct the change effort
    • 16. Develop strategies for achieving the vision
  • Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
    4. Communicate the Change Vision
    • Use every vehicle possible to communicate the change vision
    • 17. Have the guiding coalition role model the desired behaviors
    5. Empower Broad Based Action
    • Get rid of obstacles
    • 18. Change systems or structures that undermine the change vision
    • 19. Encourage risk taking and non- traditional activities and actions
  • Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
    6. Generate Short Term Wins
    • Plan for visible Improvements in performance or “wins”
    • 20. Create those wins
    • 21. Visibly recognize people who make those wins
    7. Consolidate gains and produce more change
    • Use increased credibility to change all systems, structures that
    don’t fit together and don’t fit the vision
    • Hire and promote people who can implement the vision
    • 22. Re-invigorate the process with new projects themes and change
    agents
  • 23. Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
    8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
    • Create better performance through customer and productivity-
    oriented behavior, more and better leadership and more effective
    management
    • Articulate the connections between new behaviors and
    organizational success
    • Develop means to ensure leadership development and succession
  • Contracting
    • Contracting is the process of coming to agreement with those person or persons who are key to the success of a change project.
    The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 24. Contracting: Effective change contracts specify at least three things:
    a. Change goals that are clear, internally consistent, and that have a systemic and human values orientation.
    b. The roles of project leader (the client) and process facilitator (consultant).
    c.  Collaborative, inclusive, consensus-building change processes.
    The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 25. Data gathering
    a. It provides needed information for the effective planning of further Change Actions.
    b. It galvanizes organizational energy in preparation for "something happening.”
    c.  It provides an opportunity for some initial empowerment coaching of those from whom data is gathered.
    The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 26. Interventions/Actions - referred to in the change management literature as interventions-are those actions designed to improve relationships within the target system on behalf of opening communication, and developing more informed and inclusive decision-making processes.
    Interventions include, in their various forms, feedback to the system, team-building, strategic planning, training, conflict management, and coaching.
    The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 27. Evaluation - informs the change agent and the system about the results the change project or specific change actions have had. In essence, evaluation is a feedback based data-gathering process- feedback which will give the change leaders critical information about how the system has responded to a change action and how they might design the next action to be more effective
    The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 28. Disengagement - include a closing evaluation session, statements of learnings gleaned from the project, and celebration of whatever success was achieved
    The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 29. The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
  • 30. KEY POINTS
    • In each change situation, both opportunity and danger forces exist.
    • 31. Status quo occurs when the opportunity forces and danger forces are equal.
    • 32. Change takes place when an imbalance occurs between the sum of the opportunity forces and the sum of the danger forces.
  • PRESENT STATE
    DESIRED STATE
    DRIVING FORCES
    (Opportunities)
    RESTRAINING FORCES
    (Dangers)
    Driving Forces of Change
  • 33. Diagnosis for Change
  • 34. Diagnostic Models
    Importance
    Facilitates the process of learning “how things work”,
    Relationships between and among systems.
    Facilitates how we think about and talk about situations.
    Helps to simplify things.
    Helps us determine causes and “solutions”,
    Helps in the implementation process.s
  • 35. Modeling Organizations
  • 36. Seven S Framework
    SharedValues
    Structure
    Systems
    Strategy
    Skills
    Style
    Staff
  • 37. 7S Framework
  • 38. 7S Framework
  • 39. Weisbord Model
    Purposes
    environment
    Structure
    Relationships
    Leadership
    Rewards
    Helpful
    Mechanisms
  • 40. THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION
    CHANGE MODEL (IOCM)
    Environment
    • macro and micro environment (objective reality)
    • 41. perception of environment
    Desired Results
    Vision-Mission-Goals
    (Desired Organizational
    Effectiveness)
    • clarity and agreement
    Strategy
    GAP
    • formulated and emergent strategies
    Actual Results
    (Actual Organizational
    Effectiveness)
    Leadership
    • character/integrity
    • 42. competence
    • 43. leadership style
    Structure
    Technology
    • division and
    coordination of work
    • roles, responsibilities
    and expectations
    Culture
    • artifacts (norms, physical, etc.)
    • 46. values
    • 47. basic assumptions
    Human Resources
    Group and Intergroup
    Processes
    • selection and training
    • 48. evaluation and rewards
    • 49. knowledge, skills,
    values, attitudes
    • decision making
    • 50. problem solving
    • 51. communication process
    • 52. conflict management
    • 53. power and politics
  • Galbraith Model
    Strategy
    Vision
    Direction
    Competitive Advantage
    Structure
    Power and Authority
    Reporting Relationships
    Organizational Roles
    People Practices
    Staffing and Selection
    Performance Feedback
    Learning and Development
    Process and
    Lateral Capability
    Networks, processes,teams,
    Integrative roles,
    matrix structures
    Reward Systems
    Goals, scorecards and metrics,
    Values and behaviors
    Compensation/Rewards
  • 54. Organization Development Framework
    BUSINESS
    SITUATION
    (Environment
    Demands)
    Structure
    Rewards
    SYSTEMS
    &
    Decision
    Making
    POLICIES
    Tasks
    People
    Information
    BUSINESS
    STRATEGY
    Purpose
    and
    Direction
    BUSINESS RESULTS
    Outputs and
    Performance
    CULTURE
    Norms
    and
    Practices
    David Hanna: Designing High Performing Organizations
  • 55. Component Analysis
    Scenario Analysis: Painting a picture of the Future
    Gap Analysis
    News flash Analysis: Using certain diagnostic in analyzing specific events, occurences
    Culture Web
  • 56. Where are we now?
    Where do we want to go?
    How do we get there?
    Gap Analysis
  • 57. The Culture Web
    Stories
    Symbols
    Power
    Structures
    Rituals and
    Routines
    The
    Paradigm
    Organizational
    Structures
    Control
    Systems
  • 58. Culture Web
    Paradigm - The set of assumptions held throughout the organization.
    Rituals and routines - In regard to how organizational members treat each other; behave according to what is right and proper
    Stories - Told by organization members
    Symbols - Logos, dress, style, language
    Control Systems - Through what is measured, rewarded
    Power structure - Refer to most influential groupings
    Organizational structure - Refer to the formal and informal differentiation of tasks
  • 59. Diagnosing the Organization
    Identifying Critical Elements
    Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
    Organizational Component
    Issues to Consider
    • What is the vision, goals and strategies of the organization
    • 60. Does the vision and goals of the organization remain relevant to the environment and to the requirements of the members of the organization?
    • 61. What is the ability of the organization to keep its strategies and goals relevant to the changes in the environment?
    1. DIRECTION
    VISION
    MISSION
    GOALS
    STRATEGY
  • 62. Diagnosing the Organization
    Identifying Critical Elements
    Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
    Organizational Component
    Issues to Consider
    • Is top management clear on organizational goals and strategies?
    • 63. Are the management and leadership styles (top and middle management) aligned with the desired organization culture?
    • 64. Do the managers have the necessary competencies to perform their expected roles and responsibilities?
    2. Leadership and Management
  • 65. Diagnosing the Organization
    Identifying Critical Elements
    Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
    Organizational Component
    Issues to Consider
    • How aligned is the organizational design to the desired direction and culture?
    • 66. How clear are roles and responsibilities in the organization?
    • 67. Are the parameters for decision-making defined and understood?
    • 68. Are there ways and means that allow for communication and coordination (within and across units)?
    3. Organizational Design and Structure
  • 69. Diagnosing the Organization
    Identifying Critical Elements
    Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
    Organizational Component
    Issues to Consider
    • Do the employees possess the appropriate skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to perform their tasks?
    • 70. Does the organization show sufficient teamwork in doing their jobs?
    • 71. Are the communication lines and channels within and across levels open and available?
    • 72. How are conflicts and problems resolved?
    • 73. What is the morale of people? What are the satisfiers? Dissatisfiers?
    4. People and Relationships
  • 74. Diagnosing the Organization
    Identifying Critical Elements
    Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
    Organizational Component
    Issues to Consider
    • Describe the behaviors, practices and attitudes the organization needs in order to create a culture that is responsive to the team’s direction.
    • 75. How are the desired behaviors, practices and attitudes reinforced and rewarded?
    • 76. How much of these behaviors do you see manifested in the team?
    5. Culture
  • 77. Common Diagnosis Methods
  • 78. Common Diagnosis Methods
    Records, reports (Secondary data)
    Interviews
    Focus Group Discussions
    Diagnostic Workshops
    Observation
    Survey/Questionnaires
  • 79. Secondary Data
    Employee data (performance data, disciplinary records, grievance, turnover, accidents, customer complaints)
    Organizational charts, policy manuals, audits, budget reports
    Program reports, program evaluation studies
    Advantages:
    Provide excellent clues to trouble spots
    Provide objective evidence
    Can be collected with minimum effort
  • 80. Secondary Data
    Disadvantages:
    Dependent on quality of record-keeping in organization
    Causes of problems or possible solutions often do not show up
    Generally reflects past situation rather than current one
    Needs a skilled data analyst to synthesize technical and diffused raw data
    When useful:
    Presence of accurate, reliable and current records
  • 81. Interviews
    One on one discussions aimed to obtain private views and feelings of respondents
    Face-to-face, phone, online
    Advantages:
    Provide rich data on problems and possible causes and solutions
    Allows for unanticipated responses
    Face-to-face allows researcher to obtain additional cues beyond what is being said
  • 82. Interviews
    Disadvantages:
    Time-consuming
    Lack of anonymity of interviewee
    Difficult to analyze and quantify results
    Requires skillful interviewer
    When useful:
    Small organization
    Performance problems appear to be complex and multi-faceted
  • 83. Resembles face to face interview
    Can focus on a job, function or any number of themes
    Uses one or several group facilitating techniques (brainstorming, nominal group process, consensus ranking)
    May be structured on unstructured
    Advantages:
    Permits on-the-spot synthesis of different viewpoints
    Builds support for particular program/intervention
    Decreases client’s dependence on consultant because analysis is a shared function
    Helps participants become better problem analysts, listeners, etc.
    Focus-group Discussion
  • 84. Focus-group discussion
    Disadvantages:
    Time consuming
    Expensive
    Data is difficult to synthesize and quantify
    When useful:
    Small to medium sized organization
    Specific themes
  • 85.
    • How are things going around here? What is going well? What is not going well?
    • 86. What do you like best? Like least about this organization?
    • 87. What would you consider the strengths/weaknesses of this organization?
    • 88. What changes would you like to see?
    • 89. How do you think this organization could be more effective?
    Typical Open-Ended Questions
  • 90. Some Challenges in FGDS
    Passive participants
    Inattentive participants
    Dominant participants
    Discussion goes off-tangent
    Personality clashes
    Venue not ideal (sound, temperature, seats)
    Recording and documentation