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  • 1. Module 4<br />
  • 2. Planned Change<br />
  • 3. What is Change? <br /><ul><li>Movement from one point to another
  • 4. A disruption of the status quo
  • 5. Process of giving up something in exchange for something else
  • 6. Adopting something different</li></li></ul><li>Definition of Change<br />A modification of those forces keeping a system’s behavior stable. <br />Specifically, the level of behavior at any moment in time is the result of two sets of forces -- those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change.<br />Kurt Lewin’s Change Model<br />
  • 7. What is Planned Change?<br />Planned Change refers to initiatives done to effect a desired end in view or to address an issue and/or a given problem situation<br />Planned Change subscribes to the use of frameworks, tools, techniques, methods towards achieving this<br />
  • 8. Why Planned Change?<br />The need to respond to a social reality<br />Economic and cultural globalisation, climate change, competition for markets and for strategic and scarce resources, new complexities on all sectors of societies the world over<br />The desire to effect change towards a desired future state<br />Poverty alleviation <br />The need to sustain gains of planned change <br />Nation building<br />
  • 9. Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?<br />We need to build the thinking for those involved in the process of development: individuals, communities, organizations, donors etc.<br />So that we may understand what is happening beneath the surface: ask good questions, determine a systematic approach at approaching the work we do<br />A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation<br />By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association<br />
  • 10. Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?<br />To provide entities such as Civil Society and the Business Sector with better handles at effecting social change<br />To respond to the pressure on NGOs to show measureable results, be more business-like <br />Development fund has become a market-place<br />A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation<br />By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association<br />
  • 11. Three Stage Model (Lewin)<br />Creating motivation and readiness<br />(Felt Pain)<br />UNFREEZING<br />Integration <br />of new elements<br />(Stabilizing)<br />REFREEZING<br />New elements are introduced<br />(Action)<br />CHANGE<br />
  • 12. Models of Planned Change <br />
  • 13. Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />Establish a Sense of Urgency<br /><ul><li>Examine the market and competitive realities
  • 14. Identify and discuss crises, possible crises or major opportunities</li></ul>2. Create the guiding coalition<br /><ul><li>Put together the group with enough power to lead the change
  • 15. Get the group to work like a team</li></ul>3. Develop a Vision and Strategy<br /><ul><li>Create a vision to help direct the change effort
  • 16. Develop strategies for achieving the vision</li></li></ul><li>Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />4. Communicate the Change Vision<br /><ul><li>Use every vehicle possible to communicate the change vision
  • 17. Have the guiding coalition role model the desired behaviors</li></ul>5. Empower Broad Based Action<br /><ul><li>Get rid of obstacles
  • 18. Change systems or structures that undermine the change vision
  • 19. Encourage risk taking and non- traditional activities and actions</li></li></ul><li>Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />6. Generate Short Term Wins<br /><ul><li>Plan for visible Improvements in performance or “wins”
  • 20. Create those wins
  • 21. Visibly recognize people who make those wins</li></ul>7. Consolidate gains and produce more change<br /><ul><li>Use increased credibility to change all systems, structures that </li></ul>don’t fit together and don’t fit the vision<br /><ul><li>Hire and promote people who can implement the vision
  • 22. Re-invigorate the process with new projects themes and change </li></ul>agents<br />
  • 23. Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change<br />8. Anchor new approaches in the culture<br /><ul><li>Create better performance through customer and productivity-</li></ul>oriented behavior, more and better leadership and more effective <br />management<br /><ul><li>Articulate the connections between new behaviors and </li></ul>organizational success<br /><ul><li>Develop means to ensure leadership development and succession</li></li></ul><li>Contracting<br /><ul><li>Contracting is the process of coming to agreement with those person or persons who are key to the success of a change project. </li></ul>The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 24. Contracting: Effective change contracts specify at least three things:<br />a. Change goals that are clear, internally consistent, and that have a systemic and human values orientation.<br />b. The roles of project leader (the client) and process facilitator (consultant). <br />c.  Collaborative, inclusive, consensus-building change processes. <br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 25. Data gathering<br />a. It provides needed information for the effective planning of further Change Actions.<br />b. It galvanizes organizational energy in preparation for "something happening.”<br />c.  It provides an opportunity for some initial empowerment coaching of those from whom data is gathered.<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 26. Interventions/Actions - referred to in the change management literature as interventions-are those actions designed to improve relationships within the target system on behalf of opening communication, and developing more informed and inclusive decision-making processes. <br /> Interventions include, in their various forms, feedback to the system, team-building, strategic planning, training, conflict management, and coaching.<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 27. Evaluation - informs the change agent and the system about the results the change project or specific change actions have had. In essence, evaluation is a feedback based data-gathering process- feedback which will give the change leaders critical information about how the system has responded to a change action and how they might design the next action to be more effective<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 28. Disengagement - include a closing evaluation session, statements of learnings gleaned from the project, and celebration of whatever success was achieved<br />The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 29. The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.<br />
  • 30. KEY POINTS<br /><ul><li> In each change situation, both opportunity and danger forces exist.
  • 31. Status quo occurs when the opportunity forces and danger forces are equal.
  • 32. Change takes place when an imbalance occurs between the sum of the opportunity forces and the sum of the danger forces.</li></li></ul><li>PRESENT STATE<br />DESIRED STATE<br />DRIVING FORCES<br />(Opportunities)<br />RESTRAINING FORCES<br />(Dangers)<br />Driving Forces of Change<br />
  • 33. Diagnosis for Change<br />
  • 34. Diagnostic Models <br />Importance <br />Facilitates the process of learning “how things work”, <br />Relationships between and among systems.<br />Facilitates how we think about and talk about situations.<br />Helps to simplify things.<br />Helps us determine causes and “solutions”,<br />Helps in the implementation process.s<br />
  • 35. Modeling Organizations <br />
  • 36. Seven S Framework<br />SharedValues<br />Structure<br />Systems<br />Strategy<br />Skills<br />Style<br />Staff<br />
  • 37. 7S Framework<br />
  • 38. 7S Framework<br />
  • 39. Weisbord Model<br />Purposes<br />environment<br />Structure<br />Relationships<br />Leadership<br />Rewards<br />Helpful<br /> Mechanisms<br />
  • 40. THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION<br />CHANGE MODEL (IOCM)<br />Environment<br /><ul><li> macro and micro environment (objective reality)
  • 41. perception of environment</li></ul>Desired Results<br />Vision-Mission-Goals<br />(Desired Organizational<br />Effectiveness)<br /><ul><li> clarity and agreement</li></ul>Strategy<br />GAP<br /><ul><li> formulated and emergent strategies</li></ul>Actual Results<br />(Actual Organizational<br />Effectiveness)<br />Leadership<br /><ul><li> character/integrity
  • 42. competence
  • 43. leadership style</li></ul>Structure<br />Technology<br /><ul><li> division and</li></ul> coordination of work<br /><ul><li> roles, responsibilities</li></ul> and expectations<br /><ul><li> tasks
  • 44. work processes
  • 45. equipment</li></ul>Culture<br /><ul><li> artifacts (norms, physical, etc.)
  • 46. values
  • 47. basic assumptions</li></ul>Human Resources<br />Group and Intergroup<br />Processes<br /><ul><li> selection and training
  • 48. evaluation and rewards
  • 49. knowledge, skills, </li></ul> values, attitudes<br /><ul><li> decision making
  • 50. problem solving
  • 51. communication process
  • 52. conflict management
  • 53. power and politics</li></li></ul><li>Galbraith Model <br />Strategy<br />Vision<br />Direction <br />Competitive Advantage<br />Structure<br />Power and Authority<br />Reporting Relationships<br />Organizational Roles<br />People Practices<br />Staffing and Selection<br />Performance Feedback<br />Learning and Development<br />Process and <br />Lateral Capability<br />Networks, processes,teams,<br />Integrative roles,<br />matrix structures<br />Reward Systems<br />Goals, scorecards and metrics,<br />Values and behaviors<br />Compensation/Rewards<br />
  • 54. Organization Development Framework<br />BUSINESS<br />SITUATION<br />(Environment<br />Demands)<br />Structure<br />Rewards<br />SYSTEMS<br />&<br />Decision<br />Making<br />POLICIES<br />Tasks<br />People<br />Information<br />BUSINESS<br />STRATEGY<br />Purpose <br />and<br />Direction<br />BUSINESS RESULTS<br />Outputs and <br />Performance<br />CULTURE<br />Norms <br />and<br />Practices<br />David Hanna: Designing High Performing Organizations<br />
  • 55. Component Analysis<br />Scenario Analysis: Painting a picture of the Future<br />Gap Analysis<br />News flash Analysis: Using certain diagnostic in analyzing specific events, occurences<br />Culture Web<br />
  • 56. Where are we now?<br />Where do we want to go?<br />How do we get there?<br />Gap Analysis<br />
  • 57. The Culture Web <br />Stories<br />Symbols<br />Power <br />Structures<br />Rituals and <br />Routines<br />The <br />Paradigm<br />Organizational<br />Structures<br />Control <br />Systems<br />
  • 58. Culture Web<br />Paradigm - The set of assumptions held throughout the organization.<br />Rituals and routines - In regard to how organizational members treat each other; behave according to what is right and proper<br />Stories - Told by organization members<br />Symbols - Logos, dress, style, language<br />Control Systems - Through what is measured, rewarded<br />Power structure - Refer to most influential groupings <br />Organizational structure - Refer to the formal and informal differentiation of tasks<br />
  • 59. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li> What is the vision, goals and strategies of the organization
  • 60. Does the vision and goals of the organization remain relevant to the environment and to the requirements of the members of the organization?
  • 61. What is the ability of the organization to keep its strategies and goals relevant to the changes in the environment?</li></ul>1. DIRECTION<br /> VISION<br /> MISSION<br /> GOALS<br /> STRATEGY<br />
  • 62. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li> Is top management clear on organizational goals and strategies?
  • 63. Are the management and leadership styles (top and middle management) aligned with the desired organization culture?
  • 64. Do the managers have the necessary competencies to perform their expected roles and responsibilities?</li></ul>2. Leadership and Management<br />
  • 65. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li> How aligned is the organizational design to the desired direction and culture?
  • 66. How clear are roles and responsibilities in the organization?
  • 67. Are the parameters for decision-making defined and understood?
  • 68. Are there ways and means that allow for communication and coordination (within and across units)?</li></ul>3. Organizational Design and Structure<br />
  • 69. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li>Do the employees possess the appropriate skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to perform their tasks?
  • 70. Does the organization show sufficient teamwork in doing their jobs?
  • 71. Are the communication lines and channels within and across levels open and available?
  • 72. How are conflicts and problems resolved?
  • 73. What is the morale of people? What are the satisfiers? Dissatisfiers?</li></ul>4. People and Relationships<br />
  • 74. Diagnosing the Organization<br />Identifying Critical Elements<br />Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.<br />Organizational Component<br />Issues to Consider<br /><ul><li>Describe the behaviors, practices and attitudes the organization needs in order to create a culture that is responsive to the team’s direction.
  • 75. How are the desired behaviors, practices and attitudes reinforced and rewarded?
  • 76. How much of these behaviors do you see manifested in the team?</li></ul>5. Culture<br />
  • 77. Common Diagnosis Methods <br />
  • 78. Common Diagnosis Methods<br />Records, reports (Secondary data)<br />Interviews<br />Focus Group Discussions<br />Diagnostic Workshops<br />Observation<br />Survey/Questionnaires<br />
  • 79. Secondary Data<br />Employee data (performance data, disciplinary records, grievance, turnover, accidents, customer complaints)<br />Organizational charts, policy manuals, audits, budget reports<br />Program reports, program evaluation studies<br />Advantages:<br />Provide excellent clues to trouble spots<br />Provide objective evidence<br />Can be collected with minimum effort<br />
  • 80. Secondary Data<br />Disadvantages:<br />Dependent on quality of record-keeping in organization<br />Causes of problems or possible solutions often do not show up<br />Generally reflects past situation rather than current one<br />Needs a skilled data analyst to synthesize technical and diffused raw data<br />When useful:<br />Presence of accurate, reliable and current records<br />
  • 81. Interviews<br />One on one discussions aimed to obtain private views and feelings of respondents<br />Face-to-face, phone, online<br />Advantages:<br />Provide rich data on problems and possible causes and solutions<br />Allows for unanticipated responses<br />Face-to-face allows researcher to obtain additional cues beyond what is being said<br />
  • 82. Interviews<br />Disadvantages:<br />Time-consuming<br />Lack of anonymity of interviewee<br />Difficult to analyze and quantify results<br />Requires skillful interviewer<br />When useful:<br />Small organization<br />Performance problems appear to be complex and multi-faceted<br />
  • 83. Resembles face to face interview<br />Can focus on a job, function or any number of themes<br />Uses one or several group facilitating techniques (brainstorming, nominal group process, consensus ranking)<br />May be structured on unstructured<br />Advantages:<br />Permits on-the-spot synthesis of different viewpoints<br />Builds support for particular program/intervention<br />Decreases client’s dependence on consultant because analysis is a shared function<br />Helps participants become better problem analysts, listeners, etc.<br />Focus-group Discussion<br />
  • 84. Focus-group discussion<br />Disadvantages:<br />Time consuming<br />Expensive<br />Data is difficult to synthesize and quantify<br />When useful:<br />Small to medium sized organization<br />Specific themes<br />
  • 85. <ul><li>How are things going around here? What is going well? What is not going well?
  • 86. What do you like best? Like least about this organization?
  • 87. What would you consider the strengths/weaknesses of this organization?
  • 88. What changes would you like to see?
  • 89. How do you think this organization could be more effective?</li></ul>Typical Open-Ended Questions<br />
  • 90. Some Challenges in FGDS<br />Passive participants<br />Inattentive participants<br />Dominant participants<br />Discussion goes off-tangent<br />Personality clashes<br />Venue not ideal (sound, temperature, seats)<br />Recording and documentation<br />

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