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    Recovered file 1 Recovered file 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Module 4
    • Planned Change
    • What is Change?
      • Movement from one point to another
      • A disruption of the status quo
      • Process of giving up something in exchange for something else
      • Adopting something different
    • Definition of Change
      A modification of those forces keeping a system’s behavior stable.
      Specifically, the level of behavior at any moment in time is the result of two sets of forces -- those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change.
      Kurt Lewin’s Change Model
    • What is Planned Change?
      Planned Change refers to initiatives done to effect a desired end in view or to address an issue and/or a given problem situation
      Planned Change subscribes to the use of frameworks, tools, techniques, methods towards achieving this
    • Why Planned Change?
      The need to respond to a social reality
      Economic and cultural globalisation, climate change, competition for markets and for strategic and scarce resources, new complexities on all sectors of societies the world over
      The desire to effect change towards a desired future state
      Poverty alleviation
      The need to sustain gains of planned change
      Nation building
    • Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?
      We need to build the thinking for those involved in the process of development: individuals, communities, organizations, donors etc.
      So that we may understand what is happening beneath the surface: ask good questions, determine a systematic approach at approaching the work we do
      A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
      By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association
    • Why the Need for Planned Change Theories?
      To provide entities such as Civil Society and the Business Sector with better handles at effecting social change
      To respond to the pressure on NGOs to show measureable results, be more business-like
      Development fund has become a market-place
      A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
      By Doug Reeler, of the Community Development Resource Association
    • Three Stage Model (Lewin)
      Creating motivation and readiness
      (Felt Pain)
      UNFREEZING
      Integration
      of new elements
      (Stabilizing)
      REFREEZING
      New elements are introduced
      (Action)
      CHANGE
    • Models of Planned Change
    • Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
      Establish a Sense of Urgency
      • Examine the market and competitive realities
      • Identify and discuss crises, possible crises or major opportunities
      2. Create the guiding coalition
      • Put together the group with enough power to lead the change
      • Get the group to work like a team
      3. Develop a Vision and Strategy
      • Create a vision to help direct the change effort
      • Develop strategies for achieving the vision
    • Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
      4. Communicate the Change Vision
      • Use every vehicle possible to communicate the change vision
      • Have the guiding coalition role model the desired behaviors
      5. Empower Broad Based Action
      • Get rid of obstacles
      • Change systems or structures that undermine the change vision
      • Encourage risk taking and non- traditional activities and actions
    • Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
      6. Generate Short Term Wins
      • Plan for visible Improvements in performance or “wins”
      • Create those wins
      • Visibly recognize people who make those wins
      7. Consolidate gains and produce more change
      • Use increased credibility to change all systems, structures that
      don’t fit together and don’t fit the vision
      • Hire and promote people who can implement the vision
      • Re-invigorate the process with new projects themes and change
      agents
    • Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Change
      8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
      • Create better performance through customer and productivity-
      oriented behavior, more and better leadership and more effective
      management
      • Articulate the connections between new behaviors and
      organizational success
      • Develop means to ensure leadership development and succession
    • Contracting
      • Contracting is the process of coming to agreement with those person or persons who are key to the success of a change project.
      The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • Contracting: Effective change contracts specify at least three things:
      a. Change goals that are clear, internally consistent, and that have a systemic and human values orientation.
      b. The roles of project leader (the client) and process facilitator (consultant).
      c.  Collaborative, inclusive, consensus-building change processes.
      The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • Data gathering
      a. It provides needed information for the effective planning of further Change Actions.
      b. It galvanizes organizational energy in preparation for "something happening.”
      c.  It provides an opportunity for some initial empowerment coaching of those from whom data is gathered.
      The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • Interventions/Actions - referred to in the change management literature as interventions-are those actions designed to improve relationships within the target system on behalf of opening communication, and developing more informed and inclusive decision-making processes.
      Interventions include, in their various forms, feedback to the system, team-building, strategic planning, training, conflict management, and coaching.
      The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • Evaluation - informs the change agent and the system about the results the change project or specific change actions have had. In essence, evaluation is a feedback based data-gathering process- feedback which will give the change leaders critical information about how the system has responded to a change action and how they might design the next action to be more effective
      The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • Disengagement - include a closing evaluation session, statements of learnings gleaned from the project, and celebration of whatever success was achieved
      The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • The Meta Model of Planned Change - Michael F. Broom, Ph.D. and Edith W. Seashore, M.A.
    • KEY POINTS
      • In each change situation, both opportunity and danger forces exist.
      • Status quo occurs when the opportunity forces and danger forces are equal.
      • Change takes place when an imbalance occurs between the sum of the opportunity forces and the sum of the danger forces.
    • PRESENT STATE
      DESIRED STATE
      DRIVING FORCES
      (Opportunities)
      RESTRAINING FORCES
      (Dangers)
      Driving Forces of Change
    • Diagnosis for Change
    • Diagnostic Models
      Importance
      Facilitates the process of learning “how things work”,
      Relationships between and among systems.
      Facilitates how we think about and talk about situations.
      Helps to simplify things.
      Helps us determine causes and “solutions”,
      Helps in the implementation process.s
    • Modeling Organizations
    • Seven S Framework
      SharedValues
      Structure
      Systems
      Strategy
      Skills
      Style
      Staff
    • 7S Framework
    • 7S Framework
    • Weisbord Model
      Purposes
      environment
      Structure
      Relationships
      Leadership
      Rewards
      Helpful
      Mechanisms
    • THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION
      CHANGE MODEL (IOCM)
      Environment
      • macro and micro environment (objective reality)
      • perception of environment
      Desired Results
      Vision-Mission-Goals
      (Desired Organizational
      Effectiveness)
      • clarity and agreement
      Strategy
      GAP
      • formulated and emergent strategies
      Actual Results
      (Actual Organizational
      Effectiveness)
      Leadership
      • character/integrity
      • competence
      • leadership style
      Structure
      Technology
      • division and
      coordination of work
      • roles, responsibilities
      and expectations
      • tasks
      • work processes
      • equipment
      Culture
      • artifacts (norms, physical, etc.)
      • values
      • basic assumptions
      Human Resources
      Group and Intergroup
      Processes
      • selection and training
      • evaluation and rewards
      • knowledge, skills,
      values, attitudes
      • decision making
      • problem solving
      • communication process
      • conflict management
      • power and politics
    • Galbraith Model
      Strategy
      Vision
      Direction
      Competitive Advantage
      Structure
      Power and Authority
      Reporting Relationships
      Organizational Roles
      People Practices
      Staffing and Selection
      Performance Feedback
      Learning and Development
      Process and
      Lateral Capability
      Networks, processes,teams,
      Integrative roles,
      matrix structures
      Reward Systems
      Goals, scorecards and metrics,
      Values and behaviors
      Compensation/Rewards
    • Organization Development Framework
      BUSINESS
      SITUATION
      (Environment
      Demands)
      Structure
      Rewards
      SYSTEMS
      &
      Decision
      Making
      POLICIES
      Tasks
      People
      Information
      BUSINESS
      STRATEGY
      Purpose
      and
      Direction
      BUSINESS RESULTS
      Outputs and
      Performance
      CULTURE
      Norms
      and
      Practices
      David Hanna: Designing High Performing Organizations
    • Component Analysis
      Scenario Analysis: Painting a picture of the Future
      Gap Analysis
      News flash Analysis: Using certain diagnostic in analyzing specific events, occurences
      Culture Web
    • Where are we now?
      Where do we want to go?
      How do we get there?
      Gap Analysis
    • The Culture Web
      Stories
      Symbols
      Power
      Structures
      Rituals and
      Routines
      The
      Paradigm
      Organizational
      Structures
      Control
      Systems
    • Culture Web
      Paradigm - The set of assumptions held throughout the organization.
      Rituals and routines - In regard to how organizational members treat each other; behave according to what is right and proper
      Stories - Told by organization members
      Symbols - Logos, dress, style, language
      Control Systems - Through what is measured, rewarded
      Power structure - Refer to most influential groupings
      Organizational structure - Refer to the formal and informal differentiation of tasks
    • Diagnosing the Organization
      Identifying Critical Elements
      Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
      Organizational Component
      Issues to Consider
      • What is the vision, goals and strategies of the organization
      • Does the vision and goals of the organization remain relevant to the environment and to the requirements of the members of the organization?
      • What is the ability of the organization to keep its strategies and goals relevant to the changes in the environment?
      1. DIRECTION
      VISION
      MISSION
      GOALS
      STRATEGY
    • Diagnosing the Organization
      Identifying Critical Elements
      Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
      Organizational Component
      Issues to Consider
      • Is top management clear on organizational goals and strategies?
      • Are the management and leadership styles (top and middle management) aligned with the desired organization culture?
      • Do the managers have the necessary competencies to perform their expected roles and responsibilities?
      2. Leadership and Management
    • Diagnosing the Organization
      Identifying Critical Elements
      Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
      Organizational Component
      Issues to Consider
      • How aligned is the organizational design to the desired direction and culture?
      • How clear are roles and responsibilities in the organization?
      • Are the parameters for decision-making defined and understood?
      • Are there ways and means that allow for communication and coordination (within and across units)?
      3. Organizational Design and Structure
    • Diagnosing the Organization
      Identifying Critical Elements
      Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
      Organizational Component
      Issues to Consider
      • Do the employees possess the appropriate skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to perform their tasks?
      • Does the organization show sufficient teamwork in doing their jobs?
      • Are the communication lines and channels within and across levels open and available?
      • How are conflicts and problems resolved?
      • What is the morale of people? What are the satisfiers? Dissatisfiers?
      4. People and Relationships
    • Diagnosing the Organization
      Identifying Critical Elements
      Enhancing organizational performance is achieved through the alignment of all organizational components with direction and strategy. A culture characterized by high performance is brought about when all of these components reinforce and support each other.
      Organizational Component
      Issues to Consider
      • Describe the behaviors, practices and attitudes the organization needs in order to create a culture that is responsive to the team’s direction.
      • How are the desired behaviors, practices and attitudes reinforced and rewarded?
      • How much of these behaviors do you see manifested in the team?
      5. Culture
    • Common Diagnosis Methods
    • Common Diagnosis Methods
      Records, reports (Secondary data)
      Interviews
      Focus Group Discussions
      Diagnostic Workshops
      Observation
      Survey/Questionnaires
    • Secondary Data
      Employee data (performance data, disciplinary records, grievance, turnover, accidents, customer complaints)
      Organizational charts, policy manuals, audits, budget reports
      Program reports, program evaluation studies
      Advantages:
      Provide excellent clues to trouble spots
      Provide objective evidence
      Can be collected with minimum effort
    • Secondary Data
      Disadvantages:
      Dependent on quality of record-keeping in organization
      Causes of problems or possible solutions often do not show up
      Generally reflects past situation rather than current one
      Needs a skilled data analyst to synthesize technical and diffused raw data
      When useful:
      Presence of accurate, reliable and current records
    • Interviews
      One on one discussions aimed to obtain private views and feelings of respondents
      Face-to-face, phone, online
      Advantages:
      Provide rich data on problems and possible causes and solutions
      Allows for unanticipated responses
      Face-to-face allows researcher to obtain additional cues beyond what is being said
    • Interviews
      Disadvantages:
      Time-consuming
      Lack of anonymity of interviewee
      Difficult to analyze and quantify results
      Requires skillful interviewer
      When useful:
      Small organization
      Performance problems appear to be complex and multi-faceted
    • Resembles face to face interview
      Can focus on a job, function or any number of themes
      Uses one or several group facilitating techniques (brainstorming, nominal group process, consensus ranking)
      May be structured on unstructured
      Advantages:
      Permits on-the-spot synthesis of different viewpoints
      Builds support for particular program/intervention
      Decreases client’s dependence on consultant because analysis is a shared function
      Helps participants become better problem analysts, listeners, etc.
      Focus-group Discussion
    • Focus-group discussion
      Disadvantages:
      Time consuming
      Expensive
      Data is difficult to synthesize and quantify
      When useful:
      Small to medium sized organization
      Specific themes
      • How are things going around here? What is going well? What is not going well?
      • What do you like best? Like least about this organization?
      • What would you consider the strengths/weaknesses of this organization?
      • What changes would you like to see?
      • How do you think this organization could be more effective?
      Typical Open-Ended Questions
    • Some Challenges in FGDS
      Passive participants
      Inattentive participants
      Dominant participants
      Discussion goes off-tangent
      Personality clashes
      Venue not ideal (sound, temperature, seats)
      Recording and documentation