Psychological Foundation of education presentation

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Psycological Foundations of Education

Psycological Foundations of Education

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  • 1. Foundation Of Education Psychological Foundation of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker
  • 2. Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Education depends heavily upon psychology because the king and amount of education that the learner acquires is conditioned by his psychological traits such as general mental ability, aptitudes, temperament, interests, effort-making capacity, physical condition, etc. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Home
  • 3. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychology This is the point of view held by Wundt and Titchener. All consciousness of facts and phenomena of experiences are based upon the operation of the nervous system, particularly the brain. Then follows as abstract analysis of the mental structures that are operating. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 4. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychology Led by Dewey and Carr, functionalists are interested in how an organism makes its adjustment to its environment, that is, either it changes or makes adaptation to it. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 5. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychology Founded by Watson, behaviorism considers the Stimulus Response hypothesis as its basic theory. This theory believes that a stimulus, physical or otherwise, creates a response. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 6. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychology According to this theory, the whole is more than the sum of all its parts, meaning that the whole processes qualities, attributes, or functions which the individual component elements do not possess. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 7. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Reflexes Drives, needs, wants, urges Capacities and special aptitudes Temperament or emotion These are inborn automatic responses to simple localized stimulation involving particular muscles and parts of the body. The automatic withdrawal of a foot upon stepping on a live charcoal is an example. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 8. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Reflexes Drives, needs, wants, urges Capacities and special aptitudes Temperament or emotion These are inborn urges and tendencies and wants. Some refer to these instincts as drives. These tendencies give rise to ambitions which motivate individuals to exert efforts to attain their goal. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 9. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Reflexes Drives, needs, wants, urges Capacities and special aptitudes Temperament or emotion These include all those latent potentialities that an individual possesses which are developed through the process of education. Besides general capacity and intelligence, an individual possesses certain special talents or aptitudes, such as those for mathematics, arts, music and the like. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 10. The systems of Schools of Psychology Psychological factors that Condition the Intellectual and Behavioural Development Reflexes Drives, needs, wants, urges Capacities and special aptitudes Temperament or emotion This refers to certain emotional predispositions of an individual. Some emotional patterns such as rage, some forms of fear, and lust (sex) are inborn. One with a poor temperament , one who is easily irritated and emotionalized even with trivial matters. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Psychological Basis of Education Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 11. Learner
    • Learner
    • n 1: someone (especially a child) who learns (as from a teacher)
    • or takes up knowledge or beliefs [syn: scholar, assimilator]
    • 2: works for an expert to learn a trade [syn: apprentice, prentice]
    Definition Types of Learners Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Stages of development Home
  • 12. Definition Types of Learners Stages of development 1. Prenatal Period From conception to birth, during this period all parts of the human body such as the internal organs, skeletal bones, flesh, etc. are formed. The inherited characteristics from the parents are also imparted to the child during this period. 2. Period of Infancy or Babyhood This period is from birth to two years. The baby begins to learn the rudiments from right and wrong. Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Learner Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 13. 3. Early Childhood From 2-6 years, the pre-school age. The child begins to learn some social relationships and mixes and plays with children of his age group. The child wants to explore or anything he can reach and asks too many questions. 4. Late Childhood From 6 or 7 years to 11 or 12 years, the elementary period. They learns things taught in school such as reading, writing, arithmetic, and language, and social studies. Further learns what is right and wrong. They begins to be interested in the opposite sex. Definition Types of Learners Stages of development Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Learner Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 14. 5. Puberty Stage from 12 or 13 to 14 or 15 years, the early high school period. This is the stage when the urge of sex begins to assert itself very rapidly. In fact, man at this age is already capable of procreation. The girls start having their monthly period. 6. Early Adolescence From puberty to 17 years, middle high school period. Rapid sex maturation occurs. Some young people get married at this age. Voice, feeling and thinking continue changing. Start to develop their life ambitions and aspirations. Definition Types of Learners Stages of development Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Learner Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 15. 7. Late Adolescence From 18 to 21 years. The student in college are now preparing for the professional or vocational careers and those out of school are entering or finding jobs in preparation for an independent life. Development of intellectual and social skills continues. 8. Early Adulthood From 21 – 40 years, productive years. New life adjustments occur such as courtship and marriage, parenthood, employment, recreational hobby, religious affiliation which may occur earlier, joining clubs, and years of achievement. Definition Types of Learners Stages of development Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Learner Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 16. 9. Middle Age From 46 - 65 years. Man or woman must have achieved most of his/her aspirations in life such as a well-established home and family, stable and lucrative employment or business, creative achievements even political achievement. Some physical and physiological functioning begin to decrease or deteriorate. The preparation of retirement. 10. Old age 65 and above, period of retirement. Characteristics of old age occur, such as deafness, failing eyesight, forgetfulness, baldness arthritis, senility, etc. Painful adjustments have to be made to meet some unavoidable circumstances such as death of spouse, solitude as children now have their own homes or jobs in far places, etc. Definition Types of Learners Stages of development Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Home Reporters Learner Psychological Basis of Education Learner
  • 17. Learner Definition Types of Learners Visual Learners Kinesthetic Learners Read-Write Learners Auditory Learners Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Definition Stages of development Types of Learners Home
  • 18. Learner Definition Types of Learners Visual Learners Kinesthetic Learners Read-Write Learners Auditory Learners Visual learners are characterized by the following: _ They tend to be fast talkers. _ They exhibit impatience and have a tendency to interrupt. _ They use words and phrases that evoke visual images. _ They learn by seeing and visualizing. Your teaching strategy for visual learners should include the use of demonstrations and visually pleasing materials, and you should make an effort to paint mental pictures for learners. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Definition Stages of development Types of Learners Home
  • 19. Learner Definition Types of Learners Visual Learners Kinesthetic Learners Read-Write Learners Auditory Learners Auditory learners are characterized by the following: _ They speak slowly and tend to be natural listeners. _ They think in a linear manner. _ They prefer to have things explained to them verbally rather than to read written information. _ They learn by listening and verbalizing. Your teaching strategy for auditory learners should sound good and should be planned and delivered in the form of an organized conversation. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Definition Stages of development Types of Learners Home
  • 20. Learner Definition Types of Learners Visual Learners Kinesthetic Learners Read-Write Learners Auditory Learners Read-write learners are characterized by the following: _ They prefer for information to be displayed in writing, such as lists of ideas. _ They emphasize text-based input and output. _ They enjoy reading and writing in all forms. Your teaching strategy for read-write learners should include writing out key words in list form. The learners will learn by silently reading or rewriting their notes repeatedly; writing out in their own words the ideas and principles that were taught or discussed; organizing any diagrams, graphs, other visual depictions into statements (e.g., “The trend is . . . ”); and putting reactions, actions, diagrams, charts, and flowcharts into words. They like multiple-choice tests. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Definition Stages of development Types of Learners Home
  • 21. Learner Definition Types of Learners Visual Learners Kinesthetic Learners Read-Write Learners Auditory Learners Kinesthetic learners are characterized by the following: _ They tend to be the slowest talkers of all. _ They tend to be slow to make decisions. _ They use all their senses to engage in learning. _ They learn by doing and solving real-life problems. _ They like hands-on approaches to things and learn through trial and error. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Definition Stages of development Types of Learners Home
  • 22. Temperament 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types Definition Temperament In psychology, temperament refers to those aspects of an individual's personality, such as introversion or extroversion, that are often regarded as innate rather than learned. A great many classificatory schemes for temperament have been developed; none, though, has achieved general consensus in academia. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 23. Temperament Definition 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Research by Thomas and Chess used the following nine temperament traits in children based on a classification scheme developed by Dr. Herbert Birch Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 24. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Activity refers to the child's physical energy. Is the child constantly moving, or does the child have a relaxing approach? A high-energy child may have difficulty sitting still in class, whereas a child with low energy can tolerate a very structured environment. The former may use gross motor skills like running and jumping more frequently. Conversely, a child with a lower activity level may rely more on fine motor skills, such as drawing and putting puzzles together. This trait can also refer to mental activity, such as deep thinking or reading—activities which become more significant as the person matures. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 25. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Regularity , also known as Rhythmicity, refers to the level of predictability in a child’s biological functions, such as waking, becoming tired, hunger, and bowel movements. Does the child have a routine in eating and sleeping habits, or are these events more random? For example, a child with a high regularity rating may want to eat at 2 p.m. every day, whereas a child lower on the regularity scale may eat at Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 26. Temperament Definition 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Initial reaction is also known as Approach or Withdrawal . This refers to how the child responds (whether positively or negatively) to new people or environments. Does the child approach people or things in the environment without hesitation, or does the child shy away? A bold child tends to approach things quickly, as if without thinking, whereas a cautious child typically prefers to watch for a while before engaging in new experiences. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 27. Temperament Temperament Temperament Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Adaptability refers to how long it takes the child to adjust to change over time (as opposed to an initial reaction). Does the child adjust to the changes in their environment easily, or is the child resistant? A child who adjusts easily may be quick to settle into a new routine, whereas a resistant child may take a long time to adjust to the situation. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 28. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Intensity refers to the energy level of a positive or negative response. Does the child react intensely to a situation, or does the child respond in a calm and quiet manner? A more intense child may jump up and down screaming with excitement, whereas a mild-mannered child may smile or show no emotion. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 29. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Mood refers to the child’s general tendency towards a happy or unhappy demeanor. All children have a variety of emotions and reactions, such as cheerful and stormy, happy and unhappy. Yet each child biologically tends to have a generally positive or negative outlook. A baby who frequently smiles and coos could be considered a cheerful baby, whereas a baby who frequently cries or fusses might be considered a stormy baby. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 30. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Distractibility refers to the child’s tendency to be sidetracked by other things going on around them. Does the child get easily distracted by what is happening in the environment, or can the child concentrate despite the interruptions? An easily distracted child is engaged by external events and has difficulty returning to the task at hand, whereas a rarely distracted child stays focused and completes the task at hand. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 31. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Persistence and attention span refer to the child’s length of time on a task and ability to stay with the task through frustrations—whether the child stays with an activity for a long period of time or loses interest quickly. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 32. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types 9 Temperament Characteristics Activity Regularity Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span Sensitivity Sensitivity refers to how easily a child is disturbed by changes in the environment. This is also called sensory threshold or threshold of responsiveness. Is the child bothered by external stimuli like noises, textures, or lights, or does the child seem to ignore them? A sensitive child may lose focus when a door slams, whereas a child less sensitive to external noises will be able to maintain focus. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 33. Temperament Definition 9 Temperament Characteristics 4 Temperament Types Each of the four types of humours corresponded in ancient times to a different personality type. Sanguine temperament Phlegmatic temperament Choleric temperament Melancholic temperament Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 34. Choleric temperament Temperament Definition 4 Temperament Types Sanguine temperament Phlegmatic temperament Melancholic temperament 9 Temperament Characteristics sanguine temperament is fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking; sanguine people are sociable and charismatic. They tend to enjoy social gatherings, making new friends and tend to be boisterous. They are usually quite creative and often daydream. However, some alone time is crucial for those of this temperament. Sanguine can also mean sensitive, compassionate and thoughtful. Sanguine personalities generally struggle with following tasks all the way through, are chronically late, and tend to be forgetful and sometimes a little sarcastic. Often, when they pursue a new hobby, they lose interest as soon as it ceases to be engaging or fun. They are very much people persons. They are talkative and not shy. Sanguines generally have an almost shameless nature, certain that what they are doing is right. They have no lack of confidence. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 35. Temperament Definition 4 Temperament Types Choleric temperament Sanguine temperament Phlegmatic temperament Melancholic temperament 9 Temperament Characteristics choleric temperament is fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. They have a lot of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill it in others. They can dominate people of other temperaments, especially phlegmatic types. Many great charismatic military and political figures were choleric. They like to be in charge of everything. However, cholerics also tend to be either highly disorganized or highly organized. They do not have in-between setups, only one extreme to another. As well as being leader-like and assertive, cholerics also fall into deep and sudden depression. Essentially, they are very much prone to mood swings. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 36. Temperament Definition 4 Temperament Types Choleric temperament Sanguine temperament Phlegmatic temperament Melancholic temperament 9 Temperament Characteristics melancholic temperament is fundamentally introverted and thoughtful. Melancholic people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate, getting rather worried when they could not be on time for events. Melancholics can be highly creative in activities such as poetry and art - and can become preoccupied with the tragedy and cruelty in the world. Often they are perfectionists. They are self-reliant and independent; one negative part of being a melancholic is that they can get so involved in what they are doing they forget to think of others. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 37. Temperament Definition 4 Temperament Types Choleric temperament Sanguine temperament Phlegmatic temperament Melancholic temperament 9 Temperament Characteristics phlegmatic temperament is fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatics tend to be content with themselves and are kind. They are accepting and affectionate. They may be receptive and shy and often prefer stability to uncertainty and change. They are consistent, relaxed, calm, rational, curious, and observant, qualities that make them good administrators. They can also be passive-aggressive. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 38. Personality Definition Five-dimension Personality Model According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association , personality traits are "enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts." Theorists generally assume a) traits are relatively stable over time, b) traits differ among individuals (for instance, some people are outgoing while others are reserved), and c) traits influence behavior. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 39. Personality Definition Five-dimension Personality Model
    • Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model, nicknamed the "Big Five":
    • Openness to Experience: the tendency to be imaginative, independent, and interested in variety vs. practical, conforming, and interested in routine.
    • B. Conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized, careful, and disciplined vs. disorganized, careless, and impulsive.
    • C. Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring, somber, and reserved.
    • D. Agreeableness : the tendency to be soft-hearted, trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless, suspicious, and uncooperative.
    • E. Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm, secure, and self-satisfied vs. anxious, insecure, and self-pitying
    Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 40. Learning Process Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Learning Theory Learning theory may be described as a body of principles advocated by psychologists and educators to explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Various branches of learning theory are used in formal training programs to improve and accelerate the learning process . Behaviorists Combined Approach Cognitive Learning Theory Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 41. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Learning Theory Behaviorists Combined Approach Cognitive Behaviorists believe that animals, including humans, learn in about the same way. Behaviorism stresses the importance of having a particular form of behavior reinforced by someone, other than the student, to shape or control what is learned. In aviation training, the instructor provides the reinforcement. Frequent, positive reinforcement and rewards accelerate learning. This theory provides the instructor with ways to manipulate students with stimuli, induce the desired behavior or response, and reinforce the behavior with appropriate rewards. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 42. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Learning Theory Behaviorists Combined Approach Cognitive Cognitive Theory Much of the recent psychological thinking and experimentation in education includes some facets of the cognitive theory. This is true in basic as well as more advanced training programs. Unlike behaviorism, the cognitive theory focuses on what is going on inside the student's mind. Learning is not just a change in behavior; it is a change in the way a student thinks, understands, or feels. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 43. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Learning Theory Behaviorists Cognitive Combined Approach Both the behavioristic and the cognitive approaches are useful learning theories. A reasonable way to plan, manage, and conduct aviation training is to include the best features of each major theory. This provides a way to measure behavioral outcomes and promote cognitive learning. The combined approach is not simple, but neither is learning. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 44. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Learning is Purposeful Learning is an Active Process Learning is Multifaceted Learning is a Result of Experience Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 45. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Definition of Learning Learning is Purposeful Learning is an Active Process Learning is Multifaceted Learning is a Result of Experience Each student sees a learning situation from a different viewpoint. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the requirements involved. For example, an instructor may give two aviation maintenance students the assignment of learning certain inspection procedures. One student may learn quickly and be able to competently present the assigned material. The combination of an aviation background and future goals may enable that student to realize the need and value of learning the procedures. A second student's goal may only be to comply with the instructor's assignment, and may result in only minimum preparation. The responses differ because each student ads in accordance with what he or she sees in the situation. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 46. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Definition of Learning Learning is Purposeful Learning is an Active Process Learning is Multifaceted Learning is a Result of Experience Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do it for the student. The student can learn only from personal experiences; therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. A person's knowledge is a result of experience, and no two people have had identical experiences. It seems clear enough that the learning of a physical skill requires actual experience in performing that skill. Student pilots learn to fly aircraft only if their experiences include flying them; student aviation maintenance technicians learn to overhaul power plants only by actually performing that task. Mental habits are also learned through practice. If students are to use sound judgment and develop decision Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 47. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Definition of Learning Learning is Purposeful Learning is an Active Process Learning is Multifaceted Learning is a Result of Experience If instructors see their objective as being only to train their students' memory and muscles, they are underestimating the potential of the teaching situation. Students may learn much more than expected if they fully exercise their minds and feelings. The fact that these items were not included in the instructor's plan does not prevent them from influencing the learning situation. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 48. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Definition of Learning Learning is Purposeful Learning is an Active Process Learning is Multifaceted Learning is a Result of Experience Students do not soak up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water. The instructor cannot assume that students remember something just because they were in the classroom, shop, or airplane when the instructor presented the material. Neither can the instructor assume that the students can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. For students to learn, they need to react and respond, perhaps outwardly, perhaps only inwardly, emotionally, or intellectually. But if learning is a process of changing behaviour, clearly that process must be an active one. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 49. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 50. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Principles of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. Getting students ready to learn is usually the instructor's responsibility. If students have a strong purpose, a clear objective, and a definite reason for learning something, they make more progress than if they lack motivation. Readiness implies a degree of single-mindedness and eagerness. When students are ready to learn, they meet the instructor at least halfway, and this simplifies the instructor's job. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 51. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Principles of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise The principle of exercise states that those things most often repeated are best remembered. It is the basis of drill and practice. The human memory is fallible. The mind can rarely retain, evaluate, and apply new concepts or practices after a single exposure. Students do not learn to weld during one shop period or to perform crosswise landings during one instructional flight. They learn by applying what they have been told and shown. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 52. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Principles of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It states that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. Experiences that produce feelings of defeat, frustration, anger, confusion, or futility are unpleasant for the student. If, for example, an instructor attempts to teach landings during the first flight, the student is likely to feel inferior and be frustrated. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 53. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Principles of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable, impression. For the instructor, this means that what is taught must be right the first time. For the student, it means that learning must be right. Unteaching is more difficult than teaching. If, for example, a maintenance student learns a faulty riveting technique, the instructor will have a difficult task correcting bad habits and reteaching correct ones. Every student should be started right. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 54. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Principles of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise A vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring experience. A student is likely to gain greater understanding of slow flight and stalls by performing them rather than merely reading about them. The principle of intensity implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute. In contrast to flight instruction and shop instruction, the classroom imposes limitations on the amount of realism that can be brought into teaching. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 55. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Principles of Learning Readiness Effect Recency Intensity Primacy Exercise The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. Conversely, the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding, the more difficult it is to remember. It is easy, for example, for a student to recall a torque value used a few minutes earlier, but it is usually impossible to remember an unfamiliar one used a week earlier. Instructors recognize the principle of recency when they carefully plan a summary for a ground school lesson, a shop period, or a postflight critique. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 56. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Graph Definition Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 57. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning How People Learn What I hear , I forget . What I hear and see , I remember a little . What I hear, see, and ask questions about or discuss with someone else, I begin to understand . What I hear, see, discuss, and do , I acquire knowledge and skill. What I teach to another, I master . (Silberman, 1996, p. 1) Graph Definition Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 58. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Graph Definition Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 59. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Levels of Learning Graph Definition Levels of learning may be classified in any number of ways. Four basic levels have traditionally been included in aviation instructor training. The lowest level is the ability to repeat something which one has been taught, without understanding or being able to apply what has been learned. This is referred to as rote learning. Progressively higher levels of learning are understanding what has been taught, achieving the skill for application of what has been learned, and correlation of what has been learned with other things previously learned or subsequently encountered. Figure 1-3 Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 60. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning Domains of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 61. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Graph Definition Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 62. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Graph Definition Besides the four basic levels of learning, educational psychologists have developed several additional levels. These classifications consider what is to be learned. Is it knowledge only, a change in attitude, a physical skill, or a combination of knowledge and skill? One of the more useful categorizations of learning objectives includes three domains: cognitive domain (knowledge), affective domain (attitudes, beliefs, and values), and psychomotor domain (physical skills). Each of the domains has a hierarchy of educational objectives. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 63. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Graph Definition Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 64. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Graph Definition The affective domain may be the least understood, and in many ways, the most important of the learning domains. A similar system for specifying attitudinal objectives has been developed by D.R. Krathwohl. Like the Bloom taxonomy, Krathwohl's hierarchy attempts to arrange these objectives in an order of difficulty. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 65. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Graph Definition Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 66. Learning Process Learning Theory Levels of Learning How People Learn Principles of Learning Definition of Learning Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Graph Definition Psychomotor or physical skills always have been important in aviation. Typical activities involving these skills include learning to fly a precision instrument approach procedure, programming a GPS receiver, or using sophisticated maintenance equipment. As physical tasks and equipment become more complex, the requirement for integration of cognitive and physical skills increases. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 67. Motivation Definition Positive Motivation Negative Motivation Motivation is probably the dominant force which governs the student's progress and ability to learn. Motivation may be negative or positive, tangible or intangible, subtle and difficult to identify, or it may be obvious. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 68. Motivation Definition Positive Motivation Negative Motivation Positive motivation is provided by the promise or achievement of rewards. These rewards may be personal or social; they may involve financial gain, satisfaction of the self-concept, or public recognition. Motivation which can be used to advantage by the instructor includes the desire for personal gain, the desire for personal comfort or security, the desire for group approval, and the achievement of a favourable self-image. Reward is getting something good for doing a given task. It needs someone who has the power to give the good thing. It is the opposite of punishment. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 69. Motivation Definition Positive Motivation Negative Motivation Negative motivation may engender fear, and be perceived by the student as a threat. While negative motivation may be useful in certain situations, characteristically it is not as effective in promoting efficient learning as positive motivation. Punishment is the authoritative imposition of something negative or unpleasant on a person or animal in response to behavior deemed wrong by an individual or group. Negative consequences that are not authorized or that are administered without a breach of rules are not considered to be punishment as defined here. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 70. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES Guidance and discipline of children are ongoing processes that will embrace everything you do with children. Learning self-control and how to get along with others is part of growing up, and family child care providers play an important role in teaching children these important skills. The word discipline comes from the word disciple, meaning to teach. Caring for children for long hours each day, year after year, gives providers a wonderful opportunity to help shape, guide, and nurture the behavior of children. A good understanding of children and guidance techniques is the basis for effective discipline. Take time to view things from a child's perspective. It can make a difference in your relationship with children. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 71. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE One of the most important things a caregiver can do is to establish a safe environment. Children move quickly, and they love to climb and explore. Take a close look at your home indoors and outdoors. A fenced-in yard will help keep children away from the street. Childproof your home by locking up dangerous chemicals and medicines, covering electrical outlets, and storing breakable objects up high. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 72. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Young children need a consistent routine and schedule. Their small stomachs and high energy levels need nutritious snacks and meals frequently. Establish consistent times for eating, napping, and playing. It helps children learn how to pace themselves. Balance active time with quiet time and group time with time to be alone. This kind of balancing leads to a well-planned and balanced routine. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 73. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Young children love to imitate adults. Watch your habits because children will be sure to be copy them! If you want children to treat each other kindly or have good eating habits, be sure to demonstrate how to do it. Talk about what you do, and explain things in simple terms. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 74. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Use your words carefully when you teach children. Focus on what to do rather than what not to do. TRY SAYING: "Slow down and walk" INSTEAD OF: "Stop running" TRY SAYING: "Come hold my hand" INSTEAD OF: "Don't touch anything" TRY SAYING: "Keep your feet on the floor" INSTEAD OF: "Don't climb on the couch" TRY SAYING: "Use your quiet voice inside" INSTEAD OF: "Stop screaming and shouting" Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 75. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Effective praise encourages learning, independence, and strong self-esteem in children. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 76. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE When a child is running out into the street or about to get into the household bleach, there is no time for negotiation. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 77. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE A more sophisticated form of "remove or isolate" is called "time out." A "time out" is just that - a cooling off period. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 78. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Natural and logical consequences are effective in helping children see the connection between their actions and the results of their behavior. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 79. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE This technique works especially well with very young children. When a child is doing something unacceptable, try to call attention to another activity - perhaps playing with another toy or reading a book together. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 80. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Sometimes the problem with behavior is not what the child is doing as much as how she is doing it. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 81. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Behavior that is not harmful to the child or others can be ignored. The goal is to have the child stop the undesirable behavior by not paying attention to it. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 82. Discipline and Guidance Definition GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUES SET UP A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISH A PREDICTABLE ROUTINE REWARD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE PRAISE REMOVE OR ISOLATE TIME OUT NATURAL AND LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES DISTRACT REDIRECT IGNORE Remember that it is more effective to reward good behavior than to punish bad behavior. A reward or "positive reinforcement" refers to positive ways adults can respond when children behave in desirable ways. Positively rewarded behavior is usually repeated. Rewarding a child for good behavior at the right time is very important. So is the reward itself. You can use social or material rewards with children. Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 83. The Teacher and the Policy Maker Policy making often is considered a privilege and jealously guarded by those in authority. In education, policies are usually made by school board members and administrators, but teachers are rarely part of the process. For our purposes, let’s define policy as “a definite method of action selected from among alternatives to guide present and future decisions.” Curriculum Planning and Implementation School-Based Management Internal Evaluation Technology Advisory Councils Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 84. Curriculum Planning and Implementation School-Based Management Internal Evaluation Technology Advisory Councils Curriculum Planning and Implementation Teachers are an integral part of the decision-making process in curriculum planning and implementation at the classroom level. Unfortunately, the impact of teachers on the curriculum at the K-12 level is minimized by the involvement of special interest groups, politicians, and bureaucrats. The Teacher and the Policy Maker Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 85. Curriculum Planning and Implementation School-Based Management Internal Evaluation Technology Advisory Councils
    • School-Based Management
    • School-based management is another way to maximize the teacher’s role as policy maker. In school-based management, the decision-making process is decentralized to involve school constituencies such as administrators, teachers, parents, community members, and students
    • a higher level of meaningful involvement by teachers and teacher teams in the decision-making process;
    • opportunities for professional development in decision-making skills;
    • a proactive approach to information sharing among school constituents;
    • and freedom and empowerment for teachers to implement innovative teaching reform ideas
    The Teacher and the Policy Maker Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 86. Curriculum Planning and Implementation School-Based Management Internal Evaluation Technology Advisory Councils Internal Evaluation Internal evaluation is a team-based approach in which teachers can play an important part in policy decisions. A “somewhat specialized form of action research” The Teacher and the Policy Maker Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 87. Curriculum Planning and Implementation School-Based Management Internal Evaluation Technology Advisory Councils Technology Computer technology has become an inseparable part of the 21st-century schooling in the United States and provides another platform for teachers to get involved in policy decisions. In a free-market society, computer networks are one of the best tools to establish dialogues between professionals across different disciplines, share ideas, enhance professional awareness, and influence public policy . The Teacher and the Policy Maker Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 88. Curriculum Planning and Implementation School-Based Management Internal Evaluation Technology Advisory Councils Advisory Councils Another avenue through which teachers have impacted policy decisions is evident in the School Advisory Councils (SAC) created by the Florida Department of Education (1998). SAC is a model for school-site policy making and accountability. SAC is made up of teachers, parents, community leaders, non-instructional staff, and administrators. SAC gives its partners responsibilities and opportunities for making decisions on all school issues. The Teacher and the Policy Maker Psychological Basis of Education Learner Temperament Personality Learning Process Motivation Discipline and Guidance The Teacher and the Policy maker Reporters Home
  • 89. Dr. Jane Castillo Reported to: Jerome M. dela Cruz Maylin Fadrigon Reported by: Foundations of Education
  • 90. References: www.improvelearning.com www.cedu.niu.edu.com www.ctu-online,edu.ph.com www.en.wikipedia.org www.cedh.umn.edu.com www.youtube.com www.google.com www.yahoo.com