Population Ii


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  • Population Ii

    1. 1. Chapter 5 “Processes and Cycles of Population Change”
    2. 2. The “J” curve
    3. 3. Worldwide Population Trends
    4. 4. <ul><li>World population increase has been a result of declining death rates, not increasing birth rates. </li></ul>
    5. 6. The “S” curve
    6. 7. Population growth is occurring more quickly in some parts of the world than in others.
    7. 9. 10 Places With the Lowest Birth Rates Worldwide
    8. 10. Doubling Times <ul><li>Doubling time is the number of years it would take for a population to double at the current rate of growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries with rapid population growth have low doubling times. </li></ul><ul><li>As population increase slows, doubling time increases. </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>The world doubling time is 51 years. </li></ul><ul><li>--North America--124 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Europe--0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Middle America--35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--South America--41 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--N. Africa/SW Asia--35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Subsaharan Africa--27 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--South Asia--36 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--East Asia--87 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--SE Asia--41 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Austral Realm--109 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Pacific Realm--34 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 12. Russia’s demographic collapse
    11. 13. Why do women in some parts of the world have more babies than those in other parts of the world?
    12. 14. Economic Factors Affecting Fertility <ul><li>--agrarian society--children are economic assets </li></ul><ul><li>--industrial societies--children are economic liabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>--level of development--smaller family size is associated with a higher standard of living </li></ul>
    13. 15. Social Factors Affecting Fertility <ul><li>--traditional role of woman as a child-bearer </li></ul><ul><li>--need for adult children to care for the elderly </li></ul><ul><li>--preference for male child </li></ul><ul><li>--high infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>--low literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>--access to birth control information </li></ul><ul><li>--machismo factor </li></ul><ul><li>--religion </li></ul>
    14. 16. Political factors affecting fertility <ul><li>--anti-natal policies. </li></ul><ul><li>(China/India) </li></ul><ul><li>--pro-natal policies </li></ul><ul><li>-concern over changing demographics </li></ul><ul><li>(France/Singapore) </li></ul><ul><li>-a “civic duty” in some places </li></ul>
    15. 17. Possible solutions? <ul><li>Encourage development </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden role of women in society </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Establish pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives for one child </li></ul>
    16. 18. The changing world ecumene (2000 years ago)
    17. 19. World ecumene 1000 years ago (10 million people)
    18. 20. World ecumene 1800 (1 billion people)
    19. 21. World ecumene 1927 (2 billion people)
    20. 22. World ecumene 1960 (3 billion people)
    21. 23. World ecumene 1974 (4 billion people)
    22. 24. World ecumene 1987 (5 billion people)
    23. 25. World ecumene 1999 (6 billion people)
    24. 26. World ecumene 2050 (9 billion people)
    25. 27. <ul><li>The Great Population Debate “No Population Problem” Cornucopians: People are the world’s ultimate resource. Marxists: Poverty is the result of distribution problems, not </li></ul><ul><li>overpopulation. “There Is a Population Problem” Malthusians: Population growth, which is exponential, is </li></ul><ul><li>limited by growth in the food supply, which is arithmetic. Neomalthusians: In addition to food, other factors (such as </li></ul><ul><li>shortages of water and space) impose limits on </li></ul><ul><li>continued growth. Zero Population Growth: A halt in population growth is </li></ul><ul><li>needed “The ‘Population Problem’ Is a Complex Issue” Problems are the result of unequal distribution of resources </li></ul><ul><li>and high growth rates. Overconsumption by slow-growth countries is also </li></ul><ul><li>problematic. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Population Pyramids show the age and sex structure of given populations <ul><li>By age cohort </li></ul>
    27. 30. Some basic terminology… <ul><li>…Birth Rate (aka Crude Birth Rate) </li></ul><ul><li>…Death Rate (aka Crude Death Rate) </li></ul><ul><li>…Total Fertility Rate (TFR) </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 is replacement rate </li></ul><ul><li>…Infant Mortality Rate </li></ul>
    28. 31. The demographic equation <ul><li>TP=OP+B-D+I-E </li></ul>