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  • Language

    1. 1. The Geography of Language
    2. 2. What variations exist within languages?
    3. 3. Standard language <ul><li>A standard language uses the accepted community norms of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides? Those in power. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Dialects <ul><li>Dialects display variations in vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, and speed at which the language is spoken. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Social dialects denote social class and educational level.Those of lower class are more likely to use the vernacular (nonstandard) language. </li></ul>
    6. 6. More commonly we think of dialect in spatial terms. <ul><li>Geographers use isoglosses to map a single dialect feature. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What term do you prefer for a sale of unwanted items on your porch, in your yard, etc.?
    8. 8. Pidgin <ul><li>Pidgin is a simplified language that is used informally in the marketplace or for work administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Pidgin uses a highly simplified grammatical structure and limited vocabulary. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Translation of “The Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe” </li></ul><ul><li>Dere waz one ol Tutu </li></ul><ul><li>Stay living in one slippa </li></ul><ul><li>She get choke kids </li></ul><ul><li>Planny braddahs and one sistah </li></ul><ul><li>She geev um lau lau </li></ul><ul><li>But no mo da poi </li></ul><ul><li>Den broke dere okoles </li></ul><ul><li>And sent dem moi moi </li></ul>
    10. 10. Creole <ul><li>If a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers, a creole language has evolved. </li></ul>
    11. 11. A newspaper ad in an English-language newspaper in Papua/New Guinea encouraging advertisers to appeal to those who speak pidgin as a first language.
    12. 12. <ul><li>Gullah creole language </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tek'e foot een 'e han&quot;= to run, or to leave quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Dry 'long so &quot; = without a reason or explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Two -time-one-gun&quot;= a double barreled gun. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tas'e 'e mout'&quot;= something appetizing to eat. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Lawfully lady&quot;= lawfully wedded wife. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Haa'dly'kin&quot;= barely able. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Lingua franca <ul><li>A lingua franca is an third language used by people who could not otherwise understand each other. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Three African lingua franca
    15. 15. <ul><li>Swahili began as a trade language of East Africa--it has progressed to a legitimate language. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Official languages
    17. 17. Multilingual states
    18. 18. Switzerland is a multilingual state. (There is no Swiss language.)
    19. 19. Mexico’s multilingualism reflects culture regions that do not coincide with political boundaries.
    20. 20. Nigeria is representative of many African countries with a multitude of languages. The colonial language is often the lingua franca .
    21. 21. <ul><li>Languages of Europe </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Languages of India </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Languages of Africa </li></ul>
    24. 24. Ethnolinguistic Areas of China
    25. 25. How are Languages Classified?
    26. 26. A language family is a collection of languages that existed long before recorded history.
    27. 27. A language subfamily is a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago
    28. 28. A language group is a collection of languages within a subfamily branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past.
    29. 30. Where did the Indo-European Language originate? <ul><li>There is some disagreement about this. </li></ul>
    30. 31. The dispersal hypothesis
    31. 32. The Agriculture theory proposed an Anatolian origin for the Indo-European language family
    32. 33. The Renfrew Model suggests three source areas of agriculture, each of which gave rise to a great language family
    33. 34. How do languages spread and change?
    34. 35. Stages in Austronesian Expansion
    35. 36. Greenberg’s Three Indigenous Language Families
    36. 37. Diffusion of Languages <ul><li>Relocation diffusion of language occurs massive migration transports a culture to and becomes dominant in a new location. (Bantu, Arabic) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion diffusion occurs when the advantages of a new language are discerned and it is adopted by native speakers of another language as they become acculturated. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical diffusion occurs when those who aspire to positions of importance are the first to adopt the language of control and prestige. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Barriers to diffusion of language <ul><li>Cultural barriers may slow or prevent language adoption. (Greeks resisted Turkish rule and clung to their language.) </li></ul><ul><li>Migrants or invaders follow paths of least topographic resistance, and linguistic barriers often coincide with physical barriers. </li></ul>
    38. 39. How has technology affected language?
    39. 40. Technology can both increase vulnerability and create a vehicle for preservation.
    40. 41. The Printing Press <ul><li>Standardized written languages </li></ul><ul><li>Aided in diffusion </li></ul>
    41. 42. Radio <ul><li>Standardized spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Wider diffusion </li></ul>
    42. 43. Television and the Movies
    43. 44. The Internet <ul><li>83% of all web pages are in English. </li></ul>
    44. 45. How can language lead to conflict?
    45. 46. French in Quebec
    46. 47. Belgium
    47. 48. Cyprus