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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Geography of Language
    • 2. What variations exist within languages?
    • 3. Standard language
      • A standard language uses the accepted community norms of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation.
      • Who decides? Those in power.
    • 4. Dialects
      • Dialects display variations in vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, and speed at which the language is spoken.
    • 5.
      • Social dialects denote social class and educational level.Those of lower class are more likely to use the vernacular (nonstandard) language.
    • 6. More commonly we think of dialect in spatial terms.
      • Geographers use isoglosses to map a single dialect feature.
    • 7. What term do you prefer for a sale of unwanted items on your porch, in your yard, etc.?
    • 8. Pidgin
      • Pidgin is a simplified language that is used informally in the marketplace or for work administration.
      • Pidgin uses a highly simplified grammatical structure and limited vocabulary.
    • 9.
      • Translation of “The Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe”
      • Dere waz one ol Tutu
      • Stay living in one slippa
      • She get choke kids
      • Planny braddahs and one sistah
      • She geev um lau lau
      • But no mo da poi
      • Den broke dere okoles
      • And sent dem moi moi
    • 10. Creole
      • If a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers, a creole language has evolved.
    • 11. A newspaper ad in an English-language newspaper in Papua/New Guinea encouraging advertisers to appeal to those who speak pidgin as a first language.
    • 12.
      • Gullah creole language
      • "Tek'e foot een 'e han"= to run, or to leave quickly.
      • "Dry 'long so " = without a reason or explanation.
      • "Two -time-one-gun"= a double barreled gun.
      • "Tas'e 'e mout'"= something appetizing to eat.
      • "Lawfully lady"= lawfully wedded wife.
      • "Haa'dly'kin"= barely able.
    • 13. Lingua franca
      • A lingua franca is an third language used by people who could not otherwise understand each other.
    • 14. Three African lingua franca
    • 15.
      • Swahili began as a trade language of East Africa--it has progressed to a legitimate language.
    • 16. Official languages
    • 17. Multilingual states
    • 18. Switzerland is a multilingual state. (There is no Swiss language.)
    • 19. Mexico’s multilingualism reflects culture regions that do not coincide with political boundaries.
    • 20. Nigeria is representative of many African countries with a multitude of languages. The colonial language is often the lingua franca .
    • 21.
      • Languages of Europe
    • 22.
      • Languages of India
    • 23.
      • Languages of Africa
    • 24. Ethnolinguistic Areas of China
    • 25. How are Languages Classified?
    • 26. A language family is a collection of languages that existed long before recorded history.
    • 27. A language subfamily is a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago
    • 28. A language group is a collection of languages within a subfamily branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past.
    • 29.  
    • 30. Where did the Indo-European Language originate?
      • There is some disagreement about this.
    • 31. The dispersal hypothesis
    • 32. The Agriculture theory proposed an Anatolian origin for the Indo-European language family
    • 33. The Renfrew Model suggests three source areas of agriculture, each of which gave rise to a great language family
    • 34. How do languages spread and change?
    • 35. Stages in Austronesian Expansion
    • 36. Greenberg’s Three Indigenous Language Families
    • 37. Diffusion of Languages
      • Relocation diffusion of language occurs massive migration transports a culture to and becomes dominant in a new location. (Bantu, Arabic)
      • Expansion diffusion occurs when the advantages of a new language are discerned and it is adopted by native speakers of another language as they become acculturated.
      • Hierarchical diffusion occurs when those who aspire to positions of importance are the first to adopt the language of control and prestige.
    • 38. Barriers to diffusion of language
      • Cultural barriers may slow or prevent language adoption. (Greeks resisted Turkish rule and clung to their language.)
      • Migrants or invaders follow paths of least topographic resistance, and linguistic barriers often coincide with physical barriers.
    • 39. How has technology affected language?
    • 40. Technology can both increase vulnerability and create a vehicle for preservation.
    • 41. The Printing Press
      • Standardized written languages
      • Aided in diffusion
    • 42. Radio
      • Standardized spoken language
      • Wider diffusion
    • 43. Television and the Movies
    • 44. The Internet
      • 83% of all web pages are in English.
    • 45. How can language lead to conflict?
    • 46. French in Quebec
    • 47. Belgium
    • 48. Cyprus
    • 49.  

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