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Ch22

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  • 1. Location, Pattern, and Structure of Cities
  • 2. Urban Geography
  • 3.
    • Site refers to the physical characteristics of a location--local relief, landforms.
    • The site for Paris was an island in the middle of the Seine (and with a flat area surrounding.)
  • 4.
    • Its island site made it easier for Chinese-dominated Singapore to secede from Malay-dominated Malaysia.
  • 5.
    • Situation refers to the relative location of a place in terms of the larger regional or spatial system of which it is a part.
    • Suggests spatial interconnection and interdependence.
  • 6.
    • Situation can change with circumstances.
    • Changing political or economic circumstances can make a location more attractive. Agglomeration leads to growth.
  • 7.
    • As Paris grew, agglomeration led to an improved situation.
  • 8. Shenzhen has benefitted from its location relative to Hong Kong.
  • 9. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • The nested hexagons show urban areas with their surrounding market area ( hinterland).
  • 10. Range—how far will consumers generally travel to obtain a product or service. Threshold—how many potential customers are needed to support a business.
  • 11. “ High order” goods and services are relatively costly and generally are required less frequently. They have a longer range. “ Low order” goods and services are perishable or required in relatively large amounts at frequent intervals. They have a much shorter range.
  • 12.
    • Central Place Theory seeks to explain the size and distribution of settlements by measuring their economic reach.
    • Complementary regions can’t overlap, hence the hexagonal shape.
  • 13. Walter Christaller’s Central Place Model
    • Conclusion One
    • Ranks of urban places show an orderly hierarchy of central places in a spatial balance.
  • 14. Walter Christaller’s Central Place Model
    • Conclusion Two
    • Places of the same size with the same number of functions would be spaced the same distance apart.
  • 15. Walter Christaller’s Central Place Model
    • Conclusion Three
    • Larger cities would be spaced farther from each other than smaller towns and cities.
  • 16.  
  • 17. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • A hamlet provides some basic services to the people living there and those nearby.
  • 18. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • A village is likely to offer several dozen services. There will be some specialization.
  • 19. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • A town is larger than a village and has a higher level of specialization.
  • 20. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • A city has more specialization and a larger hinterland than a town..
    A ciy has suburbs while a town has outskirts
  • 21. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • An urban hierarchy is a ranking of settlements according to their size and functions.
  • 22. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • The rank-size rule states that there is an inverse relationship between the size of a city and its rank in the urban hierarchy.
  • 23. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • Under the rank-size rule:
    • If the city has 1 million people
    • -the town will have 500,000 (1/2 the size),
    • -the village will have 333,333 (1/3 the size),
    • -and the hamlet will have 250,000 people.
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. Walter Christaller Location Theory
    • Christaller’s central place theory tends not hold in countries that have unitary systems of government or those that have gone through extended periods as colonies.
    • They have primate cities .
  • 27. Christaller’s assumptions:
    • A broad, flat plain
    • No physical barriers
    • Even soil fertility
    • A uniform transportatin network
    • A constant “range” in all directions for the sale of any good.
  • 28. How are cities organized?
    • Traditional models of urban structure:
  • 29. How are cities organized?
    • The Concentric Zone Model reflects the walking-horsecar era--early 20th century.
  • 30. How are cities organized?
    • The Sector Model reflects the influence of transportation corridors.
  • 31. How are cities organized?
    • The Multiple Nuclei Model reflects the influence of the automobile on suburbanization.
  • 32. Present-day United States metropolitan area.
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. The Galactic City
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Social Geography of American and Canadian Cities
  • 41.  
  • 42. Edge Cities are urban areas that have developed on the fringes of established metropolitan areas.
    • Edge cities have their own shopping and employment bases.
  • 43. Redlining occurs when lenders refuse to approve of loans within risky neighborhoods.
    • Contributed to “ghettoization” when funds were not available for upkeep.
    • Eventually, property values would decline and developers could convert land usage for their profit.
  • 44. Blockbusting occurred when property in a white neighborhood was offered to an African American at a low price.
    • White flight led to properties changing hands--profitable for real estate agents.
    • Property values declined and land use was converted to more profitable tenements.
  • 45. Basic and Non-basic sectors
    • Basic sector products or services of an urban economy are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community.
    • Nonbasic sector jobs supply an urban area’s resident population with goods and services that have no “export” implication.
  • 46. Multiplier Effect
    • In urban geography, this refers to the expected addition of nonbasic workers to a city’s employment base that accompanies new basic sector employment.
    • For cities over 1 million, each job in the basic sector will add two jobs in the nonbasic sector.
  • 47.
    • These maps reflect a time when cities had more functional specialization.
    • As agglomeration occurs and urban economies become more diversified, they lose their functinal specialization.

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