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Ch.2 Ch.2 Presentation Transcript

  • Definition of Culture
    • Culture is a group’s way of life, including the shared system of social meanings, values, and relations that is transmitted between generations.
    • Culture can be seen as “learned behavior.”
  • Cultural Geography is concerned with…
    • … how place affects culture.
    • … how culture affects place.
    • … the distributions of culture
    • groups and reasons for those distributions.
  • Culture Traits
    • … are single elements of normal practice in culture.
    • … include beliefs, institutions, language, and technology.
  • A culture complex is a group of interrelated culture traits related to one aspect of a culture or society.
  • A Culture Region
    • …is an area that shares common culture traits.
  • A Culture Realm…
    • …is a group of culture regions that share a common culture system.
  • Cultural landscape refers to the distinct imprint of a culture on the land.
    • .
  • Each group of inhabitants leaves their distinctive imprint on the landscape in a process of “sequent occupance.”
  • Sequent occupance--imprint of communism in Germany .
  • Indian imprint on New Mexico landscape
  • Spanish influence in New Mexico
  • Territorial Influence In New Mexico
  • A culture hearth is a region where cultural traits such as religion and agriculture develop.
  • Cultural Diffusion
    • …is the process of spreading an idea or an innovation from one area to another
  • Expansion Diffusion…
    • …occurs where contact causes cultural traits to be adopted (often through conquest or trade).
  • Expansion diffusion example:
    • The Spanish converted the Indians of Middle America to Roman Catholicism in the 16th and 17th Centuries.
  • Expansion diffusion example:
    • McDonald’s restaurants can be found in many locations around the world.
  • Relocation Diffusion…
    • … is a result of migration.
  • Relocation diffusion example
    • German migrants to Fredericksburg, Texas brought their culture with them.
  • Relocation diffusion example
    • It is common to find mosques in many American communities today.
  • Stimulus diffusion occurs when a specific trait is rejected, but the underlying idea is accepted. Siberians rejected cattle herding, but adopted reindeer herding instead.
  • Acculturation
    • …is the process by which a culture is substantially changed through interaction with another more powerful culture.
  • Transculturation occurs when strong cultures interact with each other and each acts as both a source and adopter .
  • Some things inhibit diffusion Time-Distance decay Cultural restraints
  • Perceptual regions exist in our imaginations. What is “the South?” Where is it?
  • Percent who say each state is Southern “All in all.”
  • Where kudzu grows
  • Acres of cotton cultivation
  • Lynchings--1900-1930
  • Support for third-party or unpopular major-party presidential candidates
  • Concentrations of poor, rural black Southerners
  • Housing units without complete plumbing
  • Illiteracy rates
  • Active dentists per 1000 residents
  • High burglary rates
  • Members of Baptist Churches
  • Birthplaces of country music notables
  • States mentioned in country music lyrics
  • Ratio of homicides to suicides
  • No state law against sex discrimination in 1972
  • Low percentage of white women employed in traditionally white male occupations in 1985
  • Colleges and universities that publish sports magazines
  • Chapters of the Kappa Alpha Order in 1988
  • “ Dixie” listings as percentage of “American” listings in telephone directories ca. 1975
  • Average scores on”Index of Southern Preference”
  • “ Southern Living” readers as a percentage of white population