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Ch18

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 18 Traditional Livelihoods of Rural Peoples
    • 2. Categories of Economic Activity 1. Harvest or extraction 2. “Value added” industries 3. “Service-sector” industries 4. “White-collar” information services 5. High-level decision making
    • 3. Locational Factors for Primary Economic Activities --must be located close to the resource.
    • 4. Locational Factors for Secondary Economic Activities --needs to be accessible to the resource, a source of energy, the market, and an appropriate labor force.
    • 5. Why is Detroit located where it is?
    • 6. Locational Factors for Tertiary Economic Activities --Proximity to the market is the most important locational factor for tertiary activities.
    • 7.  
    • 8. Locational Factors for Quaternary Economic Activities --Access to good telecommunications infrastructure and a suitable work force is important.
    • 9. Locational Factors for Quinary Economic Activities --Quinary economic activities tend to cluster. Research Triangle Park, NC
    • 10.  
    • 11. The sectors of the economy are tied together by its infrastrcture
    • 12.  
    • 13. The Geography of Agriculture
      • Why study agriculture?
        • Much of earth’s land surface is dedicated to agriculture
        • Only 2% of Americans are engaged in farming, but half of all families in LDCs depend on farming to sustain them.
        • Agriculture is a major contributor to environmental change.
    • 14. The First Agricultural Revolution
      • Occurred in the Fertile Crescent perhaps as early as 12,000 years ago.
    • 15.  
    • 16.
      • Domestication of plants and animals probably emerged as an extension of food gathering activities of hunting and gathering societies.
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20. Intensive vs.Extensive Agriculture
      • Intensive agriculture uses much labor and capital to increase productivity per unit of land.
      • Extensive agriculture expends less labor and capital per unit of land.
    • 21. Systems of Agricultural Production
      • Subsistence agriculture is practiced by families and villages when they raise only enough animals and crops to feed themselves. There is very little trade.
      • Commercial agriculture produces goods for sale in the city or on the international market.
    • 22. Types of Subsistence Agriculture
      • Shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture is a type of subsistence farming found in tropical rain forest areas.
      • Also called slash-and-burn or milpa.
    • 23. Types of Subsistence Agriculture
      • Pastoral nomadism is a form of extensive subsistence agriculture.
      • Animal herds are moved from one forage area to another in a cyclical pattern of migration.
      Wodaabe of The Sahara Tibetan herdsmen
    • 24. Types of Subsistence Agriculture
      • Transhumance is a form of pastoral nomadism wherein stock is moved to the lowlands in the winter and to the highlands in the summer (vertical nomadism).
    • 25. Types of Subsistence Agriculture
      • Problems faced by subsistence agriculturalists:
        • Soil quality is often marginal.
        • They generally lack the tools and technology that developed countries have had for nearly 100 years.
        • It is difficult for them to accumulate the capital that would allow for an improvement in the standard of living.
        • Poor countries must often turn to cash crops for export, leaving them without the food production needed to sustain their own population.
    • 26. Second Agricultural Revolution
      • Began in the late Middle Ages and included changes that brought more efficiency to farming during the 17th and 18th centuries.
    • 27. Second Agricultural Revolution
      • Open fields were enclosed by fences, hedges, walls.
      • Crop rotation replaced the practice of fallowing fields.
      • Seeds and breeding stock were improved.
      • Farming implements were improved--the use of the heavy plow meant marginal lands could now be cultivated.
      • Horse collar improved--horses replaced oxen for plowing.
    • 28. Effect of the Industrial Revolution
      • The advances of the Second Agricultural Revolution were sustained.
      • Tractors and new farm machines were introduced.
      • Commercial farming was extended--colonial production was needed to supply factories and feed new urban populations in the core.
    • 29. Third Agricultural Revolution
      • Intensive mechanization
      • The use of biotechnology (genetic engineering of higher-yielding crop strains)
      • A blending of primary (production), secondary (processing), and tertiary (marketing) sectors in a new vertical organization of agriculture.
    • 30. The Von Thünen Model
    • 31. Von Thünen’s basic premises:
      • Farmers select crops to cultivate and animals to raise based on market location.
      • This decision is based on two factors (together called “ land rent ”):
        • The cost of the land
        • The cost of transporting goods to market
      • Farms located closer to the market select crops with higher transportation costs while more distant farms select crops that can be transported less expensively.
    • 32. Agricultural Location
    • 33. Von Thünen’s assumptions:
      • That the terrain is flat
      • That there are no barriers to transportation to the market
      • That soils and other environmental conditions are the same everywhere
      • That social customs and government policies do not influence the attractiveness of certain products.
      • That everyone is trying to maximize profits
    • 34. Small, suburban market One main highway Grid highway network
    • 35.  
    • 36. Agricultural Location
        • More intense use of land nearer the market
        • Less intense use of land further from the market
    • 37. … applying von Thunen’s basic assumptions … von Thunen’s model with Variations in climate factored in--the north is colder than the South.
    • 38.  
    • 39. Market gardens are close to urban centers.
    • 40.  
    • 41.  
    • 42.  
    • 43.  
    • 44.  
    • 45.  
    • 46. Agricultural Productivity in the U.S. Corn for grain 3 118.7 1989-1992 34 39.4 1950-1959 108 26.1 1935-1939 Hours of labor/ 100 bushels Bushels/Acre
    • 47. Agricultural Productivity in the U.S. Cotton 5 650 1989-1992 107 296 1950-1959 209 226 1935-1939 Hours of labor/ 500# bale Pounds/acre
    • 48. Agricultural Productivity in the U.S. Wheat 7 36.5 1989-1992 27 17.3 1950-1959 67 13.2 1935-1939 Hours labor/ 100 bushels Pounds/acre
    • 49.
      • In 1870, half of the U.S. population was directly employed in agriculture.
      • As of 2006, less than 1% of the U.S. population is employed in agriculture.
        • Not because we are producing less, but because new technologies have reduced the amount of labor required.
    • 50.  
    • 51.
      • What type of agricultural activity is depicted in each of the slides?
    • 52. Cattle Grazing Labor intensive vs. capital intensive? Intensive vs extensive land use? Commercial vs. subsistence? Sedentary vs. nomadic?
    • 53. Wheat Labor intensive vs. capital intensive? Intensive vs extensive land use? Commercial vs. subsistence? Sedentary vs. nomadic?
    • 54. Rice Labor intensive vs. capital intensive? Intensive vs extensive land use? Commercial vs. subsistence? Sedentary vs. nomadic
    • 55. Bananas
      • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
      • Intensive vs extensive land use?
      • Commercial vs. subsistence?
      • Sedentary vs. nomadic?
    • 56. Vegetables
      • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
      • Intensive vs extensive land use?
      • Commercial vs. subsistence?
      • Sedentary vs. nomadic?
    • 57. Fishing
      • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
      • Intensive vs extensive land use?
      • Commercial vs. subsistence?
      • Sedentary vs. nomadic?
    • 58. Pigs Feed Lot
      • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
      • Intensive vs extensive land use?
      • Commercial vs. subsistence?
      • Sedentary vs. nomadic?

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