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Ch18
 

Ch18

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Ch18 Ch18 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 18 Traditional Livelihoods of Rural Peoples
  • Categories of Economic Activity 1. Harvest or extraction 2. “Value added” industries 3. “Service-sector” industries 4. “White-collar” information services 5. High-level decision making
  • Locational Factors for Primary Economic Activities --must be located close to the resource.
  • Locational Factors for Secondary Economic Activities --needs to be accessible to the resource, a source of energy, the market, and an appropriate labor force.
  • Why is Detroit located where it is?
  • Locational Factors for Tertiary Economic Activities --Proximity to the market is the most important locational factor for tertiary activities.
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  • Locational Factors for Quaternary Economic Activities --Access to good telecommunications infrastructure and a suitable work force is important.
  • Locational Factors for Quinary Economic Activities --Quinary economic activities tend to cluster. Research Triangle Park, NC
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  • The sectors of the economy are tied together by its infrastrcture
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  • The Geography of Agriculture
    • Why study agriculture?
      • Much of earth’s land surface is dedicated to agriculture
      • Only 2% of Americans are engaged in farming, but half of all families in LDCs depend on farming to sustain them.
      • Agriculture is a major contributor to environmental change.
  • The First Agricultural Revolution
    • Occurred in the Fertile Crescent perhaps as early as 12,000 years ago.
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    • Domestication of plants and animals probably emerged as an extension of food gathering activities of hunting and gathering societies.
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  • Intensive vs.Extensive Agriculture
    • Intensive agriculture uses much labor and capital to increase productivity per unit of land.
    • Extensive agriculture expends less labor and capital per unit of land.
  • Systems of Agricultural Production
    • Subsistence agriculture is practiced by families and villages when they raise only enough animals and crops to feed themselves. There is very little trade.
    • Commercial agriculture produces goods for sale in the city or on the international market.
  • Types of Subsistence Agriculture
    • Shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture is a type of subsistence farming found in tropical rain forest areas.
    • Also called slash-and-burn or milpa.
  • Types of Subsistence Agriculture
    • Pastoral nomadism is a form of extensive subsistence agriculture.
    • Animal herds are moved from one forage area to another in a cyclical pattern of migration.
    Wodaabe of The Sahara Tibetan herdsmen
  • Types of Subsistence Agriculture
    • Transhumance is a form of pastoral nomadism wherein stock is moved to the lowlands in the winter and to the highlands in the summer (vertical nomadism).
  • Types of Subsistence Agriculture
    • Problems faced by subsistence agriculturalists:
      • Soil quality is often marginal.
      • They generally lack the tools and technology that developed countries have had for nearly 100 years.
      • It is difficult for them to accumulate the capital that would allow for an improvement in the standard of living.
      • Poor countries must often turn to cash crops for export, leaving them without the food production needed to sustain their own population.
  • Second Agricultural Revolution
    • Began in the late Middle Ages and included changes that brought more efficiency to farming during the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Second Agricultural Revolution
    • Open fields were enclosed by fences, hedges, walls.
    • Crop rotation replaced the practice of fallowing fields.
    • Seeds and breeding stock were improved.
    • Farming implements were improved--the use of the heavy plow meant marginal lands could now be cultivated.
    • Horse collar improved--horses replaced oxen for plowing.
  • Effect of the Industrial Revolution
    • The advances of the Second Agricultural Revolution were sustained.
    • Tractors and new farm machines were introduced.
    • Commercial farming was extended--colonial production was needed to supply factories and feed new urban populations in the core.
  • Third Agricultural Revolution
    • Intensive mechanization
    • The use of biotechnology (genetic engineering of higher-yielding crop strains)
    • A blending of primary (production), secondary (processing), and tertiary (marketing) sectors in a new vertical organization of agriculture.
  • The Von Thünen Model
  • Von Thünen’s basic premises:
    • Farmers select crops to cultivate and animals to raise based on market location.
    • This decision is based on two factors (together called “ land rent ”):
      • The cost of the land
      • The cost of transporting goods to market
    • Farms located closer to the market select crops with higher transportation costs while more distant farms select crops that can be transported less expensively.
  • Agricultural Location
  • Von Thünen’s assumptions:
    • That the terrain is flat
    • That there are no barriers to transportation to the market
    • That soils and other environmental conditions are the same everywhere
    • That social customs and government policies do not influence the attractiveness of certain products.
    • That everyone is trying to maximize profits
  • Small, suburban market One main highway Grid highway network
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  • Agricultural Location
      • More intense use of land nearer the market
      • Less intense use of land further from the market
  • … applying von Thunen’s basic assumptions … von Thunen’s model with Variations in climate factored in--the north is colder than the South.
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  • Market gardens are close to urban centers.
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  • Agricultural Productivity in the U.S. Corn for grain 3 118.7 1989-1992 34 39.4 1950-1959 108 26.1 1935-1939 Hours of labor/ 100 bushels Bushels/Acre
  • Agricultural Productivity in the U.S. Cotton 5 650 1989-1992 107 296 1950-1959 209 226 1935-1939 Hours of labor/ 500# bale Pounds/acre
  • Agricultural Productivity in the U.S. Wheat 7 36.5 1989-1992 27 17.3 1950-1959 67 13.2 1935-1939 Hours labor/ 100 bushels Pounds/acre
    • In 1870, half of the U.S. population was directly employed in agriculture.
    • As of 2006, less than 1% of the U.S. population is employed in agriculture.
      • Not because we are producing less, but because new technologies have reduced the amount of labor required.
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    • What type of agricultural activity is depicted in each of the slides?
  • Cattle Grazing Labor intensive vs. capital intensive? Intensive vs extensive land use? Commercial vs. subsistence? Sedentary vs. nomadic?
  • Wheat Labor intensive vs. capital intensive? Intensive vs extensive land use? Commercial vs. subsistence? Sedentary vs. nomadic?
  • Rice Labor intensive vs. capital intensive? Intensive vs extensive land use? Commercial vs. subsistence? Sedentary vs. nomadic
  • Bananas
    • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
    • Intensive vs extensive land use?
    • Commercial vs. subsistence?
    • Sedentary vs. nomadic?
  • Vegetables
    • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
    • Intensive vs extensive land use?
    • Commercial vs. subsistence?
    • Sedentary vs. nomadic?
  • Fishing
    • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
    • Intensive vs extensive land use?
    • Commercial vs. subsistence?
    • Sedentary vs. nomadic?
  • Pigs Feed Lot
    • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive?
    • Intensive vs extensive land use?
    • Commercial vs. subsistence?
    • Sedentary vs. nomadic?