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    Ch14 Ch14 Presentation Transcript

    • Political Culture and the Evolving State Chapter 14
    • Concept of Territoriality
      • Humans have the need to belong to larger group that controls its own piece of the earth.
      • Some believe that humans are territorial animals, motivated by the same instinct that affects animals.
      • Others believe that territoriality is a cultural strategy used to assure control of resources.
      • Protection of home and family.
    • The ultimate territorial creation is an independent country . (193 altogether)
      • .
    • A Nation is a group of people with a common ancestry--regardless of whether the group controls its own territory.
    • A state is the same thing as a country.
      • These are states (as opposed to States--political divisions within countries).
    • The term nation-state applies if a nation’s homeland corresponds to a state’s territory .
    • A stateless nation is a cultural unit that has no country.
    • A multinational state includes more than one ethnic/cultural group.
    • The Rise of Nation-States
      • Under feudalism
      • --multi-ethnic empires ruled by a monarch
      • --power relationships were hierarchical
      • (lords, monarch, pope)
      • --boundaries were not fixed
    • The Rise of Nation-States
      • Changes in military technology (guns and cannon) made the feudal manor less defensible.
      • Defense needed to be based on maneuverability--required a territorially larger state.
    • The Rise of Nation States
      • Early 1500s--decline in papal authority with Reformation
      • 1648-- Peace of Westphalia (30 Years’ War)
      • --ended period of religious wars
      • --created a system that depended on a balance of power based on clearly-defined, centrally-controlled, independent entities that recognized each other’s sovereignty and territory.
    • The ideal of the nation-state
      • Dates from the French Revolution
      • Sovereignty rests with the nation--the people.
        • Loyalty was to the state, not the monarch.
      • Each nation should have its own sovereign territory.
    • Europe controlled much of the world and defined the ground rules of the emerging international state system.
      • Japan remodeled itself in the mid-19th century.
      • At the end of the colonial period, newly-liberated peoples created “nation-states” on the European model. (With differing degrees of success.)
    • Characteristics of states and implications for governance
    • Size
      • Large--access to natural resources and large population base, but can be difficult to administer.
    • Size
      • Small--can be a disadvantage, but it is difficult to generalize. (W. Africa vs. Singapore)
    • Shape
      • Afghanistan is a prorupt state.
    • Relative location can be a blessing or a curse.
      • Can benefit greatly if close to resources, harbor sites, proximity to friendly nations, accessibility.
      • Landlocked countries can face challenges.
    • Enclaves and Exclaves
      • Exclaves are “outliers.”
      • An enclave is an area within a state that belongs to another state.
    • Boundaries
      • Definition--legal description
      • Delimitation--drawn on the map
      • Demarcation--physically marked on the ground
    • Definitional boundary disputes
      • focus on legal language
    • Locational Boundary Disputes
      • focus on delimitation or demarcation of border
    • Operational Boundary Disputes
      • focus on how the boundary should function
    • Allocational Boundary Disputes
      • focus on resources.