DEFENITION OF A HOSPITAL
• A modern hospital is an institution, which possesses
adequate accommodation and well qualified and
experienced personnel to provide services of
curative,restorative,preventive and promotive
character of the highest quality possible to all people
regardless of race,colour,creed or economic status. It
conducts educational and training programmes for the
health personnel, particularly required for patient care
and hospital services. It also conducts research
assisting the advancement of medical services,
hospital services and programmes of health
THE CHANGING ROLE OF HOSPITAL
The role of hospitals has changed, with emphasis
• Curative to preventive.
• In-patient care to out-patient and home care.
• Acute to chronic illness.
• Tertiary and secondary to primary health care.
The important factors that have led to the changing
role and functions of the hospital are:
• Expansion of clientele from dying and destitute to all
classes of people.
• Improved socio-economic status.
• Increased health awareness.
• Government’s duty to provide comprehensive health
• Improved transportation and communication services.
• Rapid advances in medical science and technology.
• Increase in population leading to increase in demand for
• Reorientation of health care delivery system with an
emphasis on primary health care
FUNCTIONS OFA HOSPITAL
1. INTRA-MURAL FUNCTIONS
Care of emergencies
Antenatal and postnatal services.
Well baby clinics and immunisation schedule.
Family welfare services.
Control of communicable diseases.
Medical : Undergraduate, post-graduate and post-
Nursing education :Undergraduate, post-graduate and
CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITALS
Hospitals can be classified in many ways.
1. According to OWNERSHIP / CONTROL
• Public hospitals
• Voluntary (Charitable) hospitals
• Private hospitals
• Corporate hospitals
2. According to CLINICAL SPECIALITIES
3. According to LENGTH OF STAY
4. According to TEACHING or NON-TEACHING
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A HOSPITAL
• Trained and competent professionals in adequate
• The entire necessary infrastructure to facilitate
smooth functioning of the hospital.
• An efficient organisation so that each member of the
hospital is able to extend the best services to the
• A holistic approach
• An atmosphere conducive to staff, self and
professional growth by arranging regular in-service
PLANNING OF THE HOSPITAL
1. Planning of the hospital should include :
• A survey for needs of the hospital in an area and
availability of land and basic amenities like
• Availability of adequate funds for construction,
operation and maintenance .
• Scope for expansion to keep pace with changing
medical and social patterns.
• Appropriate distribution of beds,e.g. medical,
surgical and paediatric as per sex ratio-male:female
2. Regional Planning
• Factors influencing Hospital Utilisation
Availability of hospital beds
Service coverage and bed distribution
Age of the population
Means of communication
Morbidity and mortality rate
Availability of extra-mural medical services
Supply of Physicians
Existence of proprietary hospitals
Hospital’s physical layout and internal organisation
Methods of payment for hospital services
Medical customs and social patterns
Research and Training
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