MainTakeaways: The difference between rider and elephant, the importance of habits, andhow to instill LASTING change anywhere you go
An ExamplePeople with the large buckets ate 53 percent more popcorn than people with the medium size. Bigger container = more eating. Imagine that someone showed you the data from the popcorn-eating study but didn’t mention the bucket sizes. A public-health expert, studying that data alongside you, would likely get very worried about the Gluttons. We need to motivate these people to adopt healthier snacking behaviors! Let’s find ways to show them the health hazards of eating so much! But wait a second. If you want people to eat less popcorn, the solution is pretty simple: Give them smaller buckets. You don’t have to worry about their knowledge or their attitudes.
Change You can see how easy it would be to turn an easy change problem (shrinking people’sbuckets) into a hard change problem (convincing people to think differently).And that’s the first surprise about change: What looks like a people problem is often a situation problem.
Rider vs. Elephant (from Happiness Hypothesis) If you’re contemplating a change, the Elephant is the one who gets things done. To make progresstoward a goal, whether it’s noble or crass, requires the energy and drive of the Elephant. And this strength is the mirror image of the Rider’s greatweakness: spinning his wheels. The Rider tends to overanalyze and overthink things.The Rider provides the planning and direction, and the Elephant provides the energy.
Rider vs. Elephant When the Elephant really wants something, the Rider can be trusted to find rationalizations for it.The Rider has his own issues. He’s a navel-gazer, an analyzer, a wheel-spinner. If the Rider isn’t sure exactly what direction to go, he tends to lead the Elephant in circles. To change behavior, you’ve got to direct theRider, motivate the Elephant, and shape the Path. If you can do all three at once, dramatic change can happen
Mental Muscle When people try to change things, they’re usually tinkering with behaviors that have become automatic, and changing those behaviors requires careful supervision by the Rider. The bigger the change you’re suggesting, the more it will sap people’s self-control. And when people exhaust their self-control, what they’re exhausting are the mental muscles needed to think creatively, tofocus, to inhibit their impulses, and to persist in theface of frustration or failure. In other words, they’re exhausting precisely the mental muscles needed to make a big change.
What’s Working Big problem, small solution. This is a theme you will see again and again. Big problems are rarely solved with commensurately big solutions. Instead, they are mostoften solved by a sequence of small solutions, sometimes over weeks, sometimes over decades.“What’s working, and how can we do more of it?” Sounds simple, doesn’t it? Yet, in the real world, this obvious question is almost never asked. Instead, the question we ask is more problem focused: “What’s broken, and how do we fix it?”
“Bad is Stronger than Good.” Exhibit A: People who were shown photos of bad and good events spent longer viewing the bad ones. Exhibit B: When people learn badstuff about someone else, it’s stickier than good stuff. People pay closer attention to the badstuff, reflect on it more, remember it longer, and weigh it more heavily in assessing the person overall.
Staying On Path To spark movement in a new direction, you need to provide crystal-clear guidance. That’s why scripting is important - you’ve got to think about the specific behavior that you’d want to see in a tough moment. We want a goal that can be tackled in months or years, not decades. We want what we might call adestination postcard - a vivid picture from the near-term future that shows what could be possible. You have to back up your destination postcard with a good behavioral script. That’s a recipe for success.
Being Positive Positive illusion: Our brains are positive illusion factories: Only 2percent of high school seniors believe their leadership skills are below average. A full 25 percent of people believe they’re in the top 1 percent in their ability to get along with others.Positive emotions are designed to “broaden and build” our repertoireof thoughts and actions. Joy, for example, makes us want to play. Play doesn’t have a script, it broadens the kinds of things we consider doing. We become willing to fool around, to explore or invent new activities. And because joy encourages us to play, we are building resources and skills. The positive emotion of interest broadens what we want to investigate. When we’re interested, we want to get involved, to learnnew things, to tackle new experiences. We become more open to newideas. The positive emotion of pride, experienced when we achieve a personal goal, broadens the kinds of tasks we contemplate for the future, encouraging us to pursue even bigger goals.
Motivation People find it more motivating to be partlyfinished with a longer journey than to be at the starting gate of a shorter one. One way to motivate action, then, is to makepeople feel as though they’re already closer to the finish line than they might have thought. That sense of progress is critical, because the Elephant in us is easily demoralized.
Identity Because identities are central to the way people make decisions, any change effort that violates someone’s identity is likely doomed to failure.(That’s why it’s so clumsy when people instinctively reach for “incentives” to change other people’s behavior.) So the question is this: How can youmake your change a matter of identity rather than a matter of consequences? Identity is going to play a role in nearly every change situation. Even yours.
Expect to Fail The Elephant really, really hates to fail. This presents a difficulty for you when you are trying to change or when you’re trying to lead change. You know that you or your audience will fail, and you know that the failure will trigger the “flight” instinct. How do you keep the Elephant motivatedwhen it faces a long, treacherous road? The answer may sound strange: You need to create theexpectation of failure - not the failure of the mission itself, but failure en route. This notion takes us intoa fascinating area of research that is likely to change the way you view the world.
Have a Growth MindsetPeople who have a growth mindset believe that abilities are like muscles - they can be built up with practice. Withconcerted effort, you can make yourself better at writing or managing or listening to your spouse. With a growthmindset, you tend to accept more challenges despite the risk of failure.You’re more inclined to accept criticism, because ultimately it makes you better. You may not be as good as others right now, but you’re thinking long-term, in a tortoise-versus-hare kind of way. A growth mindset compliment praises effort rather than natural skill: “I’m proud of how hard you worked on thatproject!” “I could tell you listened to your coach’s comments - you really had your elbow under those jump shots today.”
The IDEO Team Notice what team leaders at IDEO are doing with the peaks-and-valley visual: They are creating the expectation of failure.They are telling team members not to trust that initial flush of good feeling at the beginning of the project, because what comes next is hardship and toil and frustration. Yet, strangely enough, when they deliver this warning, it comes across as optimistic. That’s the paradox of the growth mindset. Although it seems to draw attention to failure, and in factencourages us to seek out failure, it is unflaggingly optimistic. We will struggle, we will fail, we will be knocked down - butthroughout, we’ll get better, and we’ll succeed in the end. The growth mindset, then, is a buffer against defeatism. It reframes failure as a natural part of the change process. And that’s critical, because people will persevere only if they perceive falling down as learning rather than as failing.
Example: Students Coming In Late Shape the Path.1. Tweak the environment. Lock the door when thebell rings so latecomers are stuck in the hallway.2. Build habits. Start having a daily quiz with one ortwo quick questions at the beginning of every class.If Robby and Kent aren’t present to take thequiz, they’ll fail.3. Rally the herd. Post a class “on-time” record onthe wall. Maybe when Robby and Kent see thatthey’re the only students violating the social normto be on time, they’ll change their ways.
Example: Students Coming In Late4. Build habits. Set a policy that the last student in his or her seat everyday will be asked to answer the first question.5. Rally the herd. Find a way to let Robby and Kent know that the otherstudents dislike what they’re doing (as they almost certainly do). Oftentroublemakers have the illusion that their defiant behavior makesthem folk heroes. They can be deflated quickly by frank peer feedback.6. Tweak the environment. Do what Bart Millar actually did: He boughta used couch and put it right at the front of the classroom. It wasimmediately obvious that this couch was the cool place to sit -students could slouch and relax instead of sitting at a dorky desk.Suddenly Robby and Kent started getting to class early every day sothey could “get a good seat.” They were volunteering to sit at the frontof the classroom. Genius.
Why are Habits so Important?They are, in essence, behavioral autopilot. They allow lots of good behaviors to happen without the Rider taking charge. Remember that the Rider’s self-control isexhaustible, so it’s a huge plus if some positive things can happen “free” on autopilot. To change yourself or other people, you’ve got to change habits.Leaders who can instill habits that reinforce their teams’ goals are essentially making progress for free. They’ve changed behavior in a way that doesn’t draw down the Rider’s reserves of self-control.
More on Habits Action triggers can have a profound power to motivate people to dothe things they know they need to do. Peter Gollwitzer argues that the value of action triggers resides in the fact that we are preloading adecision. Dropping off Anna at school triggers the next action, going to the gym. There’s no cycle of conscious deliberation. By preloading the decision, we conserve the Rider’s self-control.When people predecide, they “pass the control of their behavior on to the environment.” Gollwitzer says that action triggers “protect goals from tempting distractions, bad habits, or competing goals.” Habits will form inevitably, whether they’re formed intentionally or not. You’ve probably created lots of team habits unwittingly. If your staff meetings always start out with genial small talk, then you’vecreated a habit. You’ve designed your meeting autopilot to yield a few minutes of warm-up small talk. The hard question for a leader is not how to form habits but which habits to encourage.
Checklists Checklists educate people about what’s best, showing them the ironclad right way to do something. (Thatmeans that checklists are effective at directing the Rider.) People fear checklists because they see them asdehumanizing - maybe because they associate them with the exhaustive checklists that allow inexperienced teenagers to operate fast-food chains successfully. They think if something is simple enough to be put in a checklist, a monkey can do it. Well, if that’s true, grab a pilot’s checklist and try your luck with a 747. Checklists simply make big screwups less likely.
MainTakeaways• DIRECT the Rider• SCRIPT THE CRITICAL MOVES – Don’t think big picture, think in terms of specific behaviors.• POINT TO THE DESTINATION – Change is easier when you know where you’re going and why it’s worth it.• MOTIVATE the Elephant• FIND THE FEELING – Knowing something isn’t enough to cause change. Make people feel something.• SHRINK THE CHANGE – Break down the change until it no longer spooks the Elephant.
MainTakeaways• GROW YOUR PEOPLE – Cultivate a sense of identity and instill the growth mindset.• SHAPE the Path• TWEAK THE ENVIRONMENT – When the situation changes, the behavior changes. So change the situation.• BUILD HABITS – When behavior is habitual, it’s “free” - it doesn’t tax the Rider. Look for ways to encourage habits.• RALLY THE HERD – Behavior is contagious. Help it spread.
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Switch by Dan & Chip Heath• Get it on Amazon• Rated 4.7/5 Stars by 283 Reviews