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Agua2009 J Rubiano
 

Agua2009 J Rubiano

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An approach to look at institutions performance in the Andes Region, the Environmental Institutional Index

An approach to look at institutions performance in the Andes Region, the Environmental Institutional Index

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    Agua2009 J Rubiano Agua2009 J Rubiano Presentation Transcript

    • ASPECTOS BIOFISICOS 5/20 10/20 ASPECTOS DE INFRAESTRUCTURA 15/20 ASPECTOS SOCIALES 20/20
    • WP4 Instituciones •Índice de Ambiente Institucional •Estructura institucional e intervenciones para la gestión de los recursos hídricos en cuatro países de la región Andina.
    • El ambiente Institucional como un indicador para orientar intervenciones estratégicas en recursos hídricos. Jorge Rubiano1, James Garcia2 y Tatiana Gutierrez3 1. Kings College London, jerubiano@gmail.com , 2. CIAT, 3. UAO
    • Cuál es el mejor suelo para mis semillas? 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008
    • ANTECEDENTES • Estudio sobre “Scaling up” realizado para el CPWF.
    • Qué condiciona el éxito de un proyecto en términos de su diseminación e impacto más alla del sitio piloto de trabajo? • What makes a project successful in terms of dissemination and scaling up?
    • Propósito del “Scaling up” • Incrementar de manera eficiente el impacto social y económico de un proyecto obtenido en una escala pequeña a un área de mayor magnitud • To efficiently increase the socioeconomic impact of a project from a small to a large scale of coverage” (Hancock et al. 2003)
    • Projects Basin 8- Improving Water Productivity in Karkheh Karkheh 17- IWRM for Improved Rural Livelihoods Limpopo Andes 20- SCALES Nile Indo- 23-Research Management for Sustainable livelihoods Ganges 24- Livelihood resilience in dry areas Karkheh 25- Companion modeling and water dynamics Mekong 40- Integrating Governance and Modeling Volta Nile 46-Small multipurpose reservoir ensemble planning Limpopo Sao Francisco
    • Conclusiones • A supportive environment for project development seems to be the most crucial factor that warrants scaling up. • Rather than biophysical, institutional scale dependency seems to be the most critical for the studied water projects • Institutional scale dependency was found rarely used as the criteria for site selection. • Indicators, planning of monitoring and evaluation methods seems to be the more objective way to trace implementation and success of scaling up activities. • Budget figures for scaling up activities averaged 17% of total budgets (capacity building, institutional reform, networking strengthening, multi- media dissemination) • The importance of partnerships as a strategy to scale up research is contradictory
    • Contenido • Introducción al concepto de institución • La Institucionalidad en los países Andinos
    • Sistemas de reglas sociales Definición y prevalentes que establecidas estructuran las relaciones sociales (Hodgson, 2006), ej: lenguaje, leyes, firmas y otras organizaciones.
    • Cómo las instituciones estructuran las relaciones sociales?
    • Las instituciones no solo restringen o estimulan comportamientos particulares
    • también moldean las aspiraciones de sus agentes
    • Las reglas no son la antítesis de la libertad Delacroix
    • La única forma de observar las instituciones es a través del comportamiento manifiesto (Hodgson, 2006).
    • Cómo observar el comportamiento a nivel Nacional
    • Tenencia de Tierra y Derechos de Propiedad http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/status-of-land-tenure-and-property-rights-2005
    • 4,E+07 1400000,0 Tenencia de la Tierra en Colombia - 2001 (Subdireccion de Catastro) 3,E+07 1200000,0 Superficie has Propietarios 3,E+07 1000000,0 2,E+07 800000,0 has 2,E+07 600000,0 1,E+07 400000,0 5,E+06 200000,0 0,E+00 0,0
    • 70 Peru 1961 60 % 60 50 Has Peru 1972 50 % Has 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 <1 1 - 5 5 - 20 20 - 100 - 500 - 1000 - > 2500 <1 1 - 5 5 - 20 20 - 100 - 500 - 1000 > 100 500 1000 2500 100 500 1000 - 2500 2500 60 Peru 1994 50 % Has % Predios 40 30 20 10 0 <1 1-5 5 - 20 20 - 100 100 - 500 - 1000 - > 2500 500 1000 2500
    • 50 45 Ecuador 1954 45 Ecuador 1974 40 40 superficie 35 superfici 35 e upa 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 40 35 Ecuador 2000 superficie 30 upa 25 20 15 10 5 0
    • ECONOMIA (WTO) 4.E+09 1E+10 BOLIVIA ECUADOR 9E+09 4.E+09 8E+09 3.E+09 7E+09 3.E+09 6E+09 1E+10 2.E+09 5E+09 AG Agricultural products Agricultural products 4E+09 2.E+09 9E+09 0.55 EXPORTS 3E+09 1.E+09 MI Fuels and mining products 2E+09 Fuels and mining products 5.E+08 1E+09 8E+09 MA Manufactures 0.E+00 0 Manufactures 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000 AG Agricultural products 7E+09 Agricultural products 1.8E+10 PERU 3E+10 0.50 IMPORTS COLOMBIA 1.6E+10 MI Fuels and mining products 2.5E+10 6E+09 Fuels and mining products 1.4E+10 1.2E+10 2E+10 Millions USD MA Manufactures Manufactures 1E+10 5E+09 1.5E+10 8E+09 6E+09 1E+10 4E+09 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 4E+09 5E+09 IN THE ANDEAN REGION 1980 – 2007 2E+09 3E+09 0 0 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000
    • Agriculture in the Economy Agriculture as a % of GDP 35 30 25 Bolivia Brazil 20 % Colombia 15 Ecuador 10 Peru 5 0 % of workforce in agriculture 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 70 Year 60 50 Bolivia 40 Brazil % Colombia 30 Ecuador 20 Peru 10 0 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 Year
    • Cómo integrar lo observado a nivel Nacional 100,0 External Intervention 90,0 Factionalized Elites 80,0 Security Apparatus 70,0 Human Rights 60,0 Public Services Delegitimization of the 50,0 State Economic Decline 40,0 Uneven Economic 30,0 Development Human Flight 20,0 Group Grievance 10,0 Refugees and IDPs 0,0 Demographic Pressures Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru
    • Public and private debt in the Andes 50 000.0 45 000.0 40 000.0 35 000.0 Millones de dólares 30 000.0 BOLIVIA 25 000.0 COLOMBIA ECUADOR 20 000.0 PERU 15 000.0 10 000.0 5 000.0 0.0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Fuente, Ministerios de Hacienda de cada país
    • • Salud • Educacion • Servicios • Participación Comunidades • Derechos de propiedad • Derechos Humanos • Eficiencia Agencias • Capacidad Técnica Regionales • Credibilidad Institucional • Transparencia • Inversion Estatal - Privada Ministerios y oficinas de planeación • Políticas • Economia • Relaciones Internacionales
    • Ministerio del Ambiente , Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial Politicas del Gobierno del orden Corporaciones Regionales Instituciones de Desarrollo CARs Departamental AcuerdosCentral Internacionales Organismos no Instituciones del Gubernamentales orden Municipal Juntas de Juntas de Asociaciones Acción de Productores Agua Comunal
    • Colombia
    • Ecuador Peru Bolivia
    • Como es el comportamiento manifiesto de las instituciones a escalas internas de cada país? COUNTRY NO. OF ADMIN NO OF UNITS PROVINCES COLOMBIA 1128 33 ECUADOR 1000 25 PERU 1814 25 BOLIVIA 316 9
    • Nivel de frecuencia de las variables 140 120 100 80 Canton 60 Depto 40 Municipal 20 0 Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru
    • 80 70 Tematica de la 60 Variable y su nivel 50 administrativo 40 Municipal Depto Canton 30 20 10 0
    • PORCENTAJE DE POBLACION CON CONEXIÓN A TUBERIA DE ACUEDUCTO
    • INDICE DE AMBIENTE INSTITUCIONAL Variables consideradas •Sociales Medidas de Pobreza (UBN and Poverty lines), Estado actual de la educación, salud (Chronic and Total Malnutrition), demografia, infraestructura de servicios públicos, inversión en componentes sociales y no sociales (including potable water and irrigation) •Económicas Consumo Per capita, infraestructura financiera. •Políticas Desplazamiento, muertes violentas
    • IEI-Col = ∑ (A+B+C+D+E)/5 A = No_Finance_Institutions B = Total_enrolled_Students (2005) Composed representation of C = Health_Investment (2006) D = Potable_Water_Investment (2006) key characteristics of E = Total_displaced_People_received (2001-2007) IEI-Ecu ∑ (2(A+B)+C+D+E)/5 A = Iliteracy_rate B = Unsatisfied_Basic_Needs C = Global_malnutrition_in_kids<5 D = %_Poor_below_PovLine E = %_poor_below_extreme_PovLine IEI-Per = ∑ {(A+B+C+D+E+F) – (G+H+I)}/5 Social A = No_kids_primary_school_completed B = No_kids_primary_school_finished_on_time C = No_educated_kids_between_4&5 D = No_educated_kids_between_12&16 E = No_young_Secondary_School_completed F = No_young_Secondary_School_finished_on_time G = Malnutrition_rate (1999) H = pople_no_electricity I = Adult_Iliteracy_rate (2005) IEI-Bol = ∑ (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)/5 A = Education_Units Economic Political B = No_of_teaching_rooms C = Human_Development_Index (2001) E = PerCapita_compsumption_USD-Year (2001)Institutional D = Yearly_Average_expenditure F = Social_Investments_USD (2006) Environment Index G = Non_Social_Invest_USD (2006) H = No_Finance_Institutions Tough conditions, High : 9.4 bigger effort * Less difficult Low : -2.4 * Standardize for the four countries, main capitals excluded
    • INDICE DE AMBIENTE INSTITUCIONAL PARA COLOMBIA IEI-Col = ∑ (A+B+C+D+E)/5 A = No_Finance_Institutions B = Total_enrolled_Students (2005) C = Health_Investment (2006) D = Potable_Water_Investment (2006) E = Total_displaced_People_received (2001-2007)
    • 4,0000 4,0000 3,0000 3,0000 2,0000 2,0000 1,0000 1,0000 0,0000 0,0000 iai iai -1,0000 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 -1,0000 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 -2,0000 -2,0000 -3,0000 -3,0000 -4,0000 -4,0000 T_Anf T_desg Tasa de Analfabetismo Tasa de Desigualdad 4,0000 4,0000 3,0000 3,0000 2,0000 2,0000 1,0000 1,0000 0,0000 iai 0,0000 iai -1,0000 0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 -1,0000 0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0 120,0 -2,0000 -2,0000 -3,0000 -3,0000 -4,0000 -4,0000 epooper_p T_nbi % de Poblacion pobre bajo la linea de pobreza extrema Necesidades Básicas Insatisffechas RELACION ENTRE EL IAI Y ALGUNAS DE LAS VARIABLES USADAS Y NO EN SU CALCULO, ECUADOR
    • GRACIAS