Ch 9 PowerPoint

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Ch 9 PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Rhythm and Blues and Rock and Roll 1945-1960
  2. 2. “Rhythm and Blues” – R&B  Early1940s race record market expanded  1949 – term “rhythm and blues” caught on  New chart on Billboard
  3. 3. Changing Audience  WWII mixed soldiers – common experience – shared music  Post-war recovery = prosperity  TV -1946 (6000) 1950 (2 million)  Took over radio’s role as primary source for entertainment  What’s on TV?
  4. 4. Radio redefined  Programming recorded music  Pop and alternative
  5. 5. Records – 78s – LPs – 45s  Recording was not simply a version of the song – it was the song  Notion of covers was new  Rise of Independent labels
  6. 6. Change in Ensembles  WWII signaled end of Swing Era  Less demand/high costs for big bands  Need for small ensembles
  7. 7. Jump Bands  Strong beat  Shuffle rhythm  Stripped down swing band • Rhythm section • 2-3 horns • Vocals  Sounds of R&B
  8. 8. Example: “Choo Choo Ch’Boogie” – Louis Jordan 1946  Roles of musicians clearly defined  Clear Hierarchy • Bass – walks • Drummer – shuffles • Guitar/piano – keeps beat • Horn – riffs
  9. 9. Formula of Jump Bands  Upbeat lyrics  Repeated riffs  Shuffle rhythm  Chorus-based blues form  “Jump!”
  10. 10. Electric Blues  Darker sound  Free-for-all  Little influence on later African-American styles  Influence on 60s/70s rock.
  11. 11. Latin influence on Rock and Roll  Bo Diddley (1928 – 2008)  Incorporated maracas for rhythm  Known for “Bo Diddley Rhythm”
  12. 12. Example: “Bo Diddley” (1955) Clave rhythm = Bo Diddley Rhythm
  13. 13. Rock and Roll Early 1950s Another term for R&B Alan Freed - DJ in Cleveland Playing black songs to white audiences
  14. 14. Much of Rock and Roll from mid 1950s was: R&B White takes on R&B Elvis’ hits
  15. 15. Rock and Roll and R&B diverged  R&B remained popular among African- Americans  Rock and Roll had a more assertive beat and became more popular among white teens
  16. 16. Boogie Woogie  Loud, boisterous  Born out of necessity  Piano
  17. 17. Example: “Roll’Em Pete” (1936)  Pete Johnson and Big Joe Williams  Shuffle in Left Hand  Riffs in Right Hand  Eight beat rhythm  Roll on Brother
  18. 18. Rockabilly  “Country man’s song with a black man’s rhythm”: Carl Perkins  Developed in the south  Blues form
  19. 19. Example: “Blue Suede Shoes – Carl Perkins -1955  One for the money….
  20. 20. Bill Haley (1925-1981)  “Rock Around the Clock” 1954  Popularized in the film The Blackboard Jungle  First “hit” associated with Rock and Roll  What’s all the fuss, Doris?
  21. 21. Example: “Rock Around the Clock” 1954 Like a jump band, light voice More like rockabilly than Rock and Roll
  22. 22. Elvis (1935-1977)  Essentially rockabilly  Able to adapt to any style/material and still sound like himself  Memphis 1953 – demo for his mom’s birthday  1st hit for Sun Records 1954 “That’s All Right” – cover tune
  23. 23. Elvis Gave Rock and Roll a Sound and Look  Immediately set the style apart from anything before  He was cool to teens and evil to adults  His look and moves propelled him to stardom  Within a year several #1 hits  Ed Sullivan Show  Became the symbol of Rock and Roll
  24. 24. Elvis was essentially the Rock and Roll star in mid 50s  Except for his hits, Rock and Roll represented only a modest segment of the pop industry.  Top selling albums during this period were mostly soundtracks from Broadway shows and films.  Elvis was the most important commercial presence in Rock and Roll.  Records sales of the time indicate that besides Elvis, top artists were Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, Andy Williams, Johnny Mathis, Pat Boone, The Platters
  25. 25. Musically significant part of his career lasted only 3 years 1958 he was drafted After his discharge his music changed
  26. 26. Elvis’ Importance He blended the various influences, Country, blues, and R&B He was the symbol of Rock and Roll Elvis was the most important commercial presence in Rock and Roll. He set Rock and Roll apart from anything before
  27. 27. Example:
  28. 28. What he didn’t do: He did not write his songs He did not copy the beat used by many late 50s R&R bands These concepts prevented his music from influencing rock and roll that followed
  29. 29. Little Richard (b. 1932) Richard Penniman  Product of vaudeville shows  2 biggest contributions:  1. Clear, locked in rhythm  2. Vocal sound that was as outrageous as his appearance.  Tutti Frutti
  30. 30. Example:  Lyrics become meaningless, an excuse for his voice  Many have followed his example – Mick Jagger, Prince, Jimi, Elton, KISS
  31. 31. True Architect of Rock and Roll  Songs captured the newly emerging teen spirit  Voice lighter, more transparent than Muddy or Elvis – neither bluesy nor sweet  Overdubbing added depth to the song during solos  He adapted the standard boogie-woogie LH pattern from piano to guitar – straight 8ths  Lead guitar lines are radically new
  32. 32. Example: “Johnny B. Goode” (1958)  Putall the pieces together  3 main influences on Rock and Roll come together • Instrumentation from blues • 8 beat rhythm from boogie-woogie • Rock beat – 8 evenly spaced sounds – no shuffle • Blues-based verse/chorus from R&B
  33. 33. Rock&Roll: The Second Generation
  34. 34. Buddy Holly (1936-1959)  Collaborated with Norman Petty • Created new sounds • Echo/reverb  His imagination took R&R to a new level
  35. 35. Example: “Not Fade Away” (1957)  Rock and Roll was primarily dance music – begin with a clear, strong beat  Holly’s take on “Bo Diddley” rhythm  Holly writes songs for everyman – geek, not the hero  New direction – Music created just for listening
  36. 36. Fall of Rock and Roll Elvis drafted in 1958 Little Richard became a preacher Jerry Lee Lewis – scandal Buddy Holly died in a plane crash 1959 Chuck Berry arrested and jailed Alan Freed – Payola scandal
  37. 37. Ray Charles (1930-2004)  More than any other artist, he was responsible for the synthesis of blues and gospel  His singing was more from uninhibited holiness churches  Eclectic – fused blues, gospel, R&B, jazz – also Latin, country, pop • “What’d I Say?” – Latin influence – hit song • “I Got a Woman” – gospel • “Georgia” – pop
  38. 38. The Shirelles  Formed in 1958  Women’s point of view  Hey baby…
  39. 39. Example: “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?” (1960) – written by Carol King  Music written and performed by women  Song also helped close the gap between black/white – written by white woman, produced by black man, white- sounding strings, black singers  Message of song is colorblind – all teens could relate  Preview of changes to come in the 1960s
  40. 40. Change in attitude was underway in the 1960s  Possible because mainstream pop culture, or at least the audience for pop song could accept this kind of straight talk  The look of the group was designed to cut across racial boundaries – appeal to the widest audience – current hairstyles, prom dresses/evening gowns

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