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Ch 9 PowerPoint

Ch 9 PowerPoint



Outline of the text for Chapter 9

Outline of the text for Chapter 9



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    Ch 9 PowerPoint Ch 9 PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9 Rhythm and Blues and Rock and Roll 1945-1960
    • “Rhythm and Blues” – R&B  Early1940s race record market expanded  1949 – term “rhythm and blues” caught on  New chart on Billboard
    • Changing Audience  WWII mixed soldiers – common experience – shared music  Post-war recovery = prosperity  TV -1946 (6000) 1950 (2 million)  Took over radio’s role as primary source for entertainment  What’s on TV?
    • Radio redefined  Programming recorded music  Pop and alternative
    • Records – 78s – LPs – 45s  Recording was not simply a version of the song – it was the song  Notion of covers was new  Rise of Independent labels
    • Change in Ensembles  WWII signaled end of Swing Era  Less demand/high costs for big bands  Need for small ensembles
    • Jump Bands  Strong beat  Shuffle rhythm  Stripped down swing band • Rhythm section • 2-3 horns • Vocals  Sounds of R&B
    • Example: “Choo Choo Ch’Boogie” – Louis Jordan 1946  Roles of musicians clearly defined  Clear Hierarchy • Bass – walks • Drummer – shuffles • Guitar/piano – keeps beat • Horn – riffs
    • Formula of Jump Bands  Upbeat lyrics  Repeated riffs  Shuffle rhythm  Chorus-based blues form  “Jump!”
    • Electric Blues  Darker sound  Free-for-all  Little influence on later African-American styles  Influence on 60s/70s rock.
    • Latin influence on Rock and Roll  Bo Diddley (1928 – 2008)  Incorporated maracas for rhythm  Known for “Bo Diddley Rhythm”
    • Example: “Bo Diddley” (1955) Clave rhythm = Bo Diddley Rhythm
    • Rock and Roll Early 1950s Another term for R&B Alan Freed - DJ in Cleveland Playing black songs to white audiences
    • Much of Rock and Roll from mid 1950s was: R&B White takes on R&B Elvis’ hits
    • Rock and Roll and R&B diverged  R&B remained popular among African- Americans  Rock and Roll had a more assertive beat and became more popular among white teens
    • Boogie Woogie  Loud, boisterous  Born out of necessity  Piano
    • Example: “Roll’Em Pete” (1936)  Pete Johnson and Big Joe Williams  Shuffle in Left Hand  Riffs in Right Hand  Eight beat rhythm  Roll on Brother
    • Rockabilly  “Country man’s song with a black man’s rhythm”: Carl Perkins  Developed in the south  Blues form
    • Example: “Blue Suede Shoes – Carl Perkins -1955  One for the money….
    • Bill Haley (1925-1981)  “Rock Around the Clock” 1954  Popularized in the film The Blackboard Jungle  First “hit” associated with Rock and Roll  What’s all the fuss, Doris?
    • Example: “Rock Around the Clock” 1954 Like a jump band, light voice More like rockabilly than Rock and Roll
    • Elvis (1935-1977)  Essentially rockabilly  Able to adapt to any style/material and still sound like himself  Memphis 1953 – demo for his mom’s birthday  1st hit for Sun Records 1954 “That’s All Right” – cover tune
    • Elvis Gave Rock and Roll a Sound and Look  Immediately set the style apart from anything before  He was cool to teens and evil to adults  His look and moves propelled him to stardom  Within a year several #1 hits  Ed Sullivan Show  Became the symbol of Rock and Roll
    • Elvis was essentially the Rock and Roll star in mid 50s  Except for his hits, Rock and Roll represented only a modest segment of the pop industry.  Top selling albums during this period were mostly soundtracks from Broadway shows and films.  Elvis was the most important commercial presence in Rock and Roll.  Records sales of the time indicate that besides Elvis, top artists were Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, Andy Williams, Johnny Mathis, Pat Boone, The Platters
    • Musically significant part of his career lasted only 3 years 1958 he was drafted After his discharge his music changed
    • Elvis’ Importance He blended the various influences, Country, blues, and R&B He was the symbol of Rock and Roll Elvis was the most important commercial presence in Rock and Roll. He set Rock and Roll apart from anything before
    • Example:
    • What he didn’t do: He did not write his songs He did not copy the beat used by many late 50s R&R bands These concepts prevented his music from influencing rock and roll that followed
    • Little Richard (b. 1932) Richard Penniman  Product of vaudeville shows  2 biggest contributions:  1. Clear, locked in rhythm  2. Vocal sound that was as outrageous as his appearance.  Tutti Frutti
    • Example:  Lyrics become meaningless, an excuse for his voice  Many have followed his example – Mick Jagger, Prince, Jimi, Elton, KISS
    • True Architect of Rock and Roll  Songs captured the newly emerging teen spirit  Voice lighter, more transparent than Muddy or Elvis – neither bluesy nor sweet  Overdubbing added depth to the song during solos  He adapted the standard boogie-woogie LH pattern from piano to guitar – straight 8ths  Lead guitar lines are radically new
    • Example: “Johnny B. Goode” (1958)  Putall the pieces together  3 main influences on Rock and Roll come together • Instrumentation from blues • 8 beat rhythm from boogie-woogie • Rock beat – 8 evenly spaced sounds – no shuffle • Blues-based verse/chorus from R&B
    • Rock&Roll: The Second Generation
    • Buddy Holly (1936-1959)  Collaborated with Norman Petty • Created new sounds • Echo/reverb  His imagination took R&R to a new level
    • Example: “Not Fade Away” (1957)  Rock and Roll was primarily dance music – begin with a clear, strong beat  Holly’s take on “Bo Diddley” rhythm  Holly writes songs for everyman – geek, not the hero  New direction – Music created just for listening
    • Fall of Rock and Roll Elvis drafted in 1958 Little Richard became a preacher Jerry Lee Lewis – scandal Buddy Holly died in a plane crash 1959 Chuck Berry arrested and jailed Alan Freed – Payola scandal
    • Ray Charles (1930-2004)  More than any other artist, he was responsible for the synthesis of blues and gospel  His singing was more from uninhibited holiness churches  Eclectic – fused blues, gospel, R&B, jazz – also Latin, country, pop • “What’d I Say?” – Latin influence – hit song • “I Got a Woman” – gospel • “Georgia” – pop
    • The Shirelles  Formed in 1958  Women’s point of view  Hey baby…
    • Example: “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?” (1960) – written by Carol King  Music written and performed by women  Song also helped close the gap between black/white – written by white woman, produced by black man, white- sounding strings, black singers  Message of song is colorblind – all teens could relate  Preview of changes to come in the 1960s
    • Change in attitude was underway in the 1960s  Possible because mainstream pop culture, or at least the audience for pop song could accept this kind of straight talk  The look of the group was designed to cut across racial boundaries – appeal to the widest audience – current hairstyles, prom dresses/evening gowns