Ch 8 PP
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Ch 8 PP



Powerpoint outline for Chapter 8 in The Beat Goes On: Popular Music in America

Powerpoint outline for Chapter 8 in The Beat Goes On: Popular Music in America



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Ch 8 PP Ch 8 PP Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 8Latin Music in the U.S.
  • First Half of 20th Century
    Latin music = any Spanish sounding music
    Music for dancing
    Originated in US (musicians within the Hispanic culture)
    Outside Latin community (non-Hispanic musicians)
    Using Latin elements
  • Slave trade brought Africans to US, Caribbean and Brazil
    Unlike southern slaves, Latin/Caribbean kept their culture
    Slaves in southern US were not allowed to have drums
    Mixture of culture/religion/more rhythmic texture/percussion instr.
  • Latin elements in American pop music3 Phases
    Exotic novelties – up to 1940
    Hybrid/transformed styles – grew out of interpretations 1930-50
    Part of the fabric of pop music – 1950s onward
  • First Stage: Exotic Novelty
    Latin dance music/rhythm entered US by Cuban habanera
    This is one of the first recorded instances of African influence on European music
  • 1st Dance Fad
    Tango was first dance fad
    Irene and Vernon Castle
  • Don Azpiazu (1930)
    “El Manisero” (the Peanut Vendor)
    Similarities to swing/sweet touched off widespread enthusiasm for Latin music
  • 2nd Latin Dance Fad
    Rumba grew out of “son”
    “Son” – most characteristic style of Afro-Cuban music
    Rural song/dance form with African/Hispanic elements
    Rumba – simplified for social dancing
    Cuban radio – live performers – allowed Afro-Cuban to perform
  • Clave rhythm
    Is to Cuban music what back-beat is to rock
  • Second Stage Hybrids and Transformations
    By 1930s Latin influence was prominent in pop music
  • Xavier Cugat (1900-1990)
    Helped establish a commercial Latin style
    Latin music’s Paul Whiteman
    Musicians wore ridiculous uniforms, campy routines, entertainment
  • “Begin the Beguine” (1935)
    Written by Cole Porter
    Latin rhythm
    Very long song
    Sophisticated melodic construction
    Percussion give a Latin flavor
  • Latin generated transformations
    Development of a Latin district
    Consequence of Spanish-American War
    Uptown Latin style for Latinos
    More African sounding
    Heavier percussion
    Dense, complex rhythms
  • 3rd Latin Dance Fad: Mambo
    First to develop on US soil
    Merged authentic Afro-Cuban son with big-band horns and riffs.
    Mambo caught on with non-Latin audience 1940s
    As the mambo entered the mainstream, it watered down
  • Mambo thrived
    Rumba was not as popular
    Reason: Presence of a stable, enthusiastic US audience for Afro-Cuban music
    1930 was too small to support it
  • Tito Puente – “Mambo King”
    Appealed to Latin audiences
    Heavy brass, full Cuban rhythm section
  • “Complicacion” (1958)
    Successful blend of American and Afro-Cuban elements
    Chachacha became more popular dance than mambo – simpler, slower
  • 1959 Castro assumed leadership in Cuba
    US/Cuba severed ties
    Music/musicians not able to come to US
    Ideas, influences stopped
  • Bossa nova
    Brazilian slang for “something new and different”
    Emerged in Rio 1950s as sophisticated alternative to samba
  • Antonio Carlos Jobim and Joao Gilberto
    Blended harmonic sophistication of west coast jazz with Brazilian rhythms
    Bossa craze peaked during the 1960s
    Lasted only a few years
  • “Girl From Ipanema”
    Landmark recording 1963 Gilberto and Stan Getz
    Cool, flat, low-pitched voice
    Complex offbeat rhythms
  • Tango
    Dance from Argentina
    Was first dance craze in US
    Buenos Aires is to tango what New Orleans is to jazz
    Music grew in low-life areas
    Bandoneon – accordion from Germany – signature sound
  • Tango became first Latin dance to achieve a permanent place in American pop music
  • Astor Piazzolla ( 1921-1992)
    Born in Argentina grew up in NYC
    Studied in Paris
    Stretched the boundaries of tango
  • “Oblivion”
    Bass is heart-beat of tango – remains constant
    Emotional quality similar to the blues – vocal like expression
  • Tejano Music
    Parallels country music
    Unlike Cuban music
    Seldom has percussion complex rhythms
    Characteristic sounds
    Accordion bajosexto
    Oversized 12- string
    Influenced by Germans – polkas
  • “En elcielo no hay cerveza” (“In Heaven, There is No beer”)
    Flaco Jimenez
    Traditional tejano styles mixed with modern elements
    Fun loving party song
    Contemporary instr. elecgtr/bass