Jerose A. Cervantes BSEDII-MATHEMATICSAssignment: Types of Curriculum Operating in SchoolsAllan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools:1. Recommended curriculum - proposed by scholars and professional organizations2. Written curriculum - appears in school, district, division or country documents3. Taught curriculum - what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom and schools4. Supported curriculum - resources-textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials which support and help in theimplementation of the curriculum5. Assessed curriculum - that which is tested and evaluated6. Learned curriculum - what the students actually learn and what is measured7. Hidden curriculum - the unintended curriculumSource: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al. Lorimar Pub., 2008) Major Foundations of CurriculumPhilosophical Foundations of Curriculum:Philosophy provides educators, teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing andevaluating curriculum in school.I helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how studentsshould learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision-making, philosophy provides the startingpoint and will be used for the succeeding decision-making.The following four educational philosophies relate to curriculum:1. Perennialism. The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary analysis and considers curriculum asconstant.2. Essentialism. The essential skills of the 3 Rs and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math and ForeignLanguage is the focus of the curriculum.3. Progressivism. The curriculum is focused on students interest, human problems and affairs. The subjects areinterdisciplinary, integrative and interactive.4. Reconstructionism. The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trends and issues of national andinternational interests. Some Legal Bases of Philippine EducationEDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863: The decree provided for the establishment of primary school for boys and girls ineach town of the country.ACT NO. 74 OF 1901: Enacted into law by the Philippine Commission, the Act created the Department of PublicInstruction, laid the foundations of the public school system in the Philippines, provided for the establishment of thePhilippine Normal School in Manila and made English as the medium of instruction. (In 1949, the Philippine NormalSchool was made a teachers college by virtue of RA 416 and, in 1991, it became a full-pledge university by virtue ofRA 7168.)ACT NO. 1870 OF 1908: The law served as the legal basis for the creation of the University of the Philippines.VOCATIONAL ACT OF1927: Also known as Act No. 3377, the Vocational Act as amended by other acts laid thefoundations of vocational education in public schools and made provisions for its support.EDUCATION ACT OF 1940: Also known as Commonwealth Act No. 586, the Education Act laid the foundations for thepresent six-year elementary course and made provisions for its support.REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1947: The Act placed public and private schools under the supervision and control of theBureau of Public and Private Schools.
REPUBLIC ACT 5250 OF 1966: The Act provided the legal basis for the implementation of a ten-year teacher educationprogram in special education.DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO. 25 OF 1974: Popularly known as theBilingual Education Program of 1974, the Order required the use of English as medium of instruction for science andmathematics subjects and the use of Filipino as medium of instruction for all other subjects in the elementary andhigh school levels.PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1006 OF 1976: The Decree was a legal and formal recognition of teachers asprofessionals and teaching as a profession.REPUBLIC ACT NO. 5698: The Act created the Legal Education Board whose task was to regulate and improve thequality of law schools in the Philippines in order to stop the increasing number of examinees who fail to pass the barexaminations given every year.REPUBLIC ACT 6655 OF 1988: Popularly known as the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, the Act created asystem of free education in public high schools.DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO. 49 OF 1992: This Order serves as theguideline for the selection of honor students in all public and private high schools. All these schools were required tochoose one (1) "valedictorian" and one (1) "salutatorian," and to set the limit of the number of "honorable mention"to one percent of the graduating students. The "eligibility requirements" for becoming an honor student are thefollowing: 1) No grade below 80 in any subject and no failing grade in any subject in the first two curriculum years;2) Completed third and fourth year studies in the same secondary school; 3) Completed the high school curriculumwithin the prescribed year; 4) Active membership in two clubs during the third and fourth years in high school; and5) Conformed to school rules and policies.DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO. 1 OF 1994: This Order increased thenumber of school days to 200 days (42 calendar weeks) inclusive of examination days for public and private schools.(This department order is similar to RA 7791 which increased the number of school days from 185 to 200 days.DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO. 37 OF 1994: The Order required all gradeVI elementary students to take the National Elementary Assessment Test (NEAT) that is given on the 13th Tuesdayfollowing the opening of the school year. The assessment test consists of a battery of tests of the multiple choice type.There are four subject areas: English, mathematics, science and heograpiya/kasaysayan/sibika(geography/history/civics).DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO. 38 OF 1994: The Order required all seniorhigh school students to take the National Secondary Assessment Test (NSAT) that is given on the 13th Fridayfollowing the opening of the school year, or three days after the NEAT has been given. The assessment test consists ofa battery of tests and there are four subject areas: English and Filipino proficiencies, mathematics, vocationalaptitude and science & technology. (The test is not a requirement for college admission.)REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7731: The Act abolished the National College Entrance Examinations or NCEE to give themarginalized students a greater chance to gain access to college education.REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7722: Also known as the Higher Education Act of 1994, the Act created the Commission on HigherEducation (CHED) whose main task is to regulate and develop tertiary education in the Philippines.REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7796: Also known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act (TESDA) of 1994, theActs objective was to provide relevant and quality technical education that is accessible to all and to create theagency that will manage technical education and skills development in the Philippines.REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7836 OF 1994: Known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994, the Act made itmandatory for people pursuing a career in teaching to take the licensure examinations that are administered andregulated by the Professional Regulatory Commission.DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (DEPED) ORDER NO. 34 OF 2001: The Order required all public elementary and highschool students to read at least one book in the vernacular and one book in English per year before they can bepromoted to the next higher level.
REFERENCESBooks:"Foundations Of Education II," San Mateo, Rosalinda A. and Maura G. Tangco, 1997"Foundations Of Education II," 2nd Ed. San Mateo, Rosalinda A. and Maura G. Tangco, 2003"Foundations Of Education II," 2005 Reprint, Tulio, Doris, 1999"The Constitutions Of The Philippines," Anvil Publishing Inc., 2005"The Constitution Of The Philippines Explained," Revised Ed., 2000 Reprint, Nolledo, Jose N., 1992Website: Department of Education, Philippines, 2010 VersionAIMS:The Curriculum For elementary education:-) The Elementary Curriculum For elementary education, the aims are:(a) to provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential to personal development andnecessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu;(b) to provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in andjust demands of society and to prepare him/her for constructive and effective involvement;(c) to promote and intensify the child’s knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people towhich he/she belongs; and(d) to promote work experiences which develop the child’s orientation to the world of work and creativity and preparehim/her to engage in honest and gainful work. The regional level basic education aims and objectives reflect those atthe national level, but are modified to suit local conditions and concerns The Secondary Curriculum The overall curriculum aims are the same three for each subject both in Primary and in Secondary education. Thisappears at the start of the Citizenship programme of study. It states that the curriculum aims to enable all youngpeople to become: successful learners who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society.Citizenship is therefore at the heart of the curriculum. Its purpose is to empower young people with the skills,knowledge and conviction to participate in democratic and public life. Citizenship builds students’ sense of agency:their belief that they can effectively exercise political power in the world around them. To achieve this, there is anemphasis on key processes – the skills that enable young people to think critically, express informed opinions, andtake effective action. Citizenship now has an attainment target on an eight-level scale. This gives citizenship paritywith all other foundation subjects and provides a clear basis for assessment.The College Curriculum The Colleges General Education Curriculum for its part has two broad objectives. It seeks to develop in yousome general skills or approaches to knowledge and to engage you in the intellectual work of the disciplines in avariety of fields across the arts and sciences.In following this curriculum, you will be guided by two kinds of degree requirements corresponding to these twoobjectives. One deals with foundational approaches, the other with specific disciplines and fields of knowledge. Withinany given course, these two—an approach and a field of study—are integral to one another. An approach is learned by
practice in relation to a field of knowledge: your ability to use a foreign language is developed through learning aboutthe culture in which the language is rooted; understanding a work of art is acquired by learning how to write aboutit—that is, by learning how to use words to describe, compare, question and argue about works of art and thecontexts in which they were created and are appreciated; you learn how to analyze quantitative data by thinkingabout what data mean for our knowledge of natural or social phenomena we observe. Some courses, however, givepriority to developing skills and approaches, while others give priority to the field under investigation.