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  • 1. Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA) – Mundo do Trabalho: Arte, Inglês e Língua Portuguesa: 8o ano do Ensino Fundamental. São Paulo: Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência e Tecnologia (SDECT), 2013. il. (EJA – Mundo do Trabalho) Conteúdo: Caderno do Estudante. ISBN: 978-85-65278-57-7 (Impresso) 978-85-65278-64-5 (Digital) 1. Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA) – Ensino Fundamental 2. Artes – Estudo e ensino 3. Língua Inglesa – Estudo e ensino 4. Língua Portuguesa – Estudo e ensino I. Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência e Tecnologia II. Título III. Série. CDD: 372 FICHA CATALOGRÁFICA Sandra Aparecida Miquelin – CRB-8 / 6090 Tatiane Silva Massucato Arias – CRB-8 / 7262 A Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência e Tecnologia autoriza a reprodução do conteúdo do material de sua titularidade pelas demais secretarias do país, desde que mantida a integridade da obra e dos créditos, ressaltando que direitos autorais protegidos* deverão ser diretamente negociados com seus próprios titulares, sob pena de infração aos artigos da Lei no 9.610/98. *Constituem “direitos autorais protegidos” todas e quaisquer obras de terceiros reproduzidas neste material que não estejam em domínio público nos termos do artigo 41 da Lei de Direitos Autorais. Nos Cadernos do Programa de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA) – Mundo do Trabalho são indicados sites para o aprofundamento de conhecimentos, como fonte de consulta dos conteúdos apresentados e como referências bibliográficas. Todos esses endereços eletrônicos foram verificados. No entanto, como a internet é um meio dinâmico e sujeito a mudanças, a Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência e Tecnologia não garante que os sites indicados permaneçam acessíveis ou inalterados, após a data de consulta impressa neste material.
  • 2. Geraldo Alckmin Governador Luiz Carlos Quadrelli Secretário em Exercício Antonio Carlos Santa Izabel Chefe de Gabinete Juan Carlos Dans Sanchez Coordenador de Ensino Técnico, Tecnológico e Profissionalizante
  • 3. Fundação do Desenvolvimento Administrativo – Fundap Geraldo Biasoto Jr. Diretor Executivo Lais Cristina da Costa Manso Nabuco de Araújo Superintendente de Relações Institucionais e Projetos Especiais Coordenação Executiva do Projeto José Lucas Cordeiro Coordenação Técnica Impressos: Selma Venco Vídeos: Cristiane Ballerini Equipe técnica e pedagógica Ana Paula Lavos, Clélia La Laina, Dilma Fabri Marão Pichoneri, Emily Hozokawa Dias, Fernando Manzieri Heder, Jossélia Aparecida F. C. de Fontoura, Lais Schalch, Liliana Rolfsen Petrilli Segnini, Maria Helena de Castro Lima, Paula Marcia Ciacco da Silva Dias, Silvia Andrade da Silva Telles e Walkiria Rigolon Autores Arte: Eloise Guazzelli e Gisa Picosque. Ciências: Gustavo Isaac Killner. Geografia: Mait Bertollo. História: Fábio Luis Barbosa dos Santos. Inglês: Eduardo Portela. Língua Portuguesa: Claudio Bazzoni. Matemática: Antonio José Lopes. Trabalho: Maria Helena de Castro Lima e Selma Venco. Fundação Carlos Alberto Vanzolini Antonio Rafael Namur Muscat Presidente da Diretoria Executiva Hugo Tsugunobu Yoshida Yoshizaki Vice-presidente da Diretoria Executiva Gestão de Tecnologias aplicadas à Educação Direção da Área Guilherme Ary Plonski Coordenação Executiva do Projeto Angela Sprenger e Beatriz Scavazza Gestão do Portal Luiz Carlos Gonçalves, Sonia Akimoto e Wilder Rogério de Oliveira Gestão de Comunicação Ane do Valle Gestão Editorial Denise Blanes Equipe de Produção Assessoria pedagógica: Ghisleine Trigo Silveira Editorial: Adriana Ayami Takimoto, Airton Dantas de Araújo, Beatriz Chaves, Camila De Pieri Fernandes, Carla Fernanda Nascimento, Célia Maria Cassis, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame Santos, Gisele Gonçalves, Hugo Otávio Cruz Reis, Lívia Andersen França, Lucas Puntel Carrasco, Mainã Greeb Vicente, Patrícia Maciel Bomfim, Patrícia Pinheiro de Sant’Ana, Paulo Mendes e Tatiana Pavanelli Valsi Direitos autorais e iconografia: Aparecido Francisco, Beatriz Blay, Olívia Vieira da Silva Villa de Lima, Priscila Garofalo, Rita De Luca e Roberto Polacov Apoio à produção: Luiz Roberto Vital Pinto, Maria Regina Xavier de Brito, Valéria Aranha e Vanessa Leite Rios Projeto gráfico-editorial: R2 Editorial e Michelangelo Russo (Capa) CTP, Impressão e Acabamento Imprensa Oficial do Estado de São Paulo Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência e Tecnologia Coordenação Geral do Projeto Juan Carlos Dans Sanchez Equipe Técnica Cibele Rodrigues Silva e João Mota Jr. Concepção do programa e elaboração de conteúdos Gestão do processo de produção editorial
  • 4. Caro(a) estudante, É com grande satisfação que apresentamos os Cadernos do Estudante do Programa Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA) – Mundo do Trabalho, em aten- dimento a uma justa reivindicação dos educadores e da sociedade. A proposta é oferecer um material pedagógico de fácil compreensão, para complementar suas atuais necessidades de conhecimento. Sabemos quanto é difícil para quem trabalha ou procura um emprego se dedi- car aos estudos, principalmente quando se retorna à escola após algum tempo. O Programa nasceu da constatação de que os estudantes jovens e adultos têm experiências pessoais que devem ser consideradas no processo de aprendi- zagem em sala de aula. Trata-se de um conjunto de experiências, conhecimen- tos e convicções que se formou ao longo da vida. Dessa forma, procuramos respeitar a trajetória daqueles que apostaram na educação como o caminho para a conquista de um futuro melhor. Nos Cadernos e vídeos que fazem parte do seu material de estudo, você perceberá a nossa preocupação em estabelecer um diálogo com o universo do trabalho. Além disso, foi acrescentada ao currículo a disciplina Trabalho para tratar de questões relacionadas a esse tema. Nessa disciplina, você terá acesso a conteúdos que poderão auxiliá-lo na procura do primeiro ou de um novo emprego. Vai aprender a elaborar o seu currículo observando as diversas formas de seleção utilizadas pelas empresas. Compreenderá também os aspectos mais gerais do mundo do trabalho, como as causas do desemprego, os direitos trabalhistas e os dados relativos ao mercado de trabalho na região em que vive. Além disso, você conhecerá algumas estra- tégias que poderão ajudá-lo a abrir um negócio próprio, entre outros assuntos. Esperamos que neste Programa você conclua o Ensino Fundamental e, pos- teriormente, continue estudando e buscando conhecimentos importantes para seu desenvolvimento e para sua participação na sociedade. Afinal, o conheci- mento é o bem mais valioso que adquirimos na vida e o único que se acumula por toda a nossa existência. Bons estudos! Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência e Tecnologia
  • 5. Sumário Arte..........................................................................................................................................7 Unidade 1 A materialidade nas criações artísticas 9 Unidade 2 O corpo como suporte e matéria da arte 29 Unidade 3 Matéria e materiais inusitados na arte 45 Unidade 4 @rte e tecnologia: outros modos de materialidade 63 Inglês................................................................................................................................. 75 Unit 1 Food 77 Unit 2 The origins of work 91 Unit 3 Work safety 103 Unit 4 Common work issues 113 Língua Portuguesa.........................................................................................127 Unidade 1 Sentidos dentro e fora dos textos 129 Unidade 2 Fio de histórias... 153 Unidade 3 Cartas: seus autores e seus leitores 165 Unidade 4 Pesquisando o mundo em dicionários e enciclopédias 187 Unidade 5 O que fazem os poetas com as palavras? 203
  • 6. Caro(a) estudante, Aqui começa o seu estudo da disciplina Inglês do 8o ano do Programa EJA – Mundo do Trabalho. Neste Caderno, você terá oportunidade de enriquecer seu repertório de palavras em inglês, discutindo assuntos relevantes e de seu interesse que enfocam diferentes dimensões das relações de trabalho, inclusive do ponto de vista histórico. Verá também alguns eventos importantes para os traba- lhadores. O tema da Unidade 1 é alimentação e sua importância para uma vida sau- dável. Você aprenderá como a fome atinge populações no mundo, conhecerá os tipos de alimentos e as ocupações relacionadas à indústria alimentícia. Na Unidade 2, você estudará os primórdios do trabalho: desde a origem da palavra “trabalho” em português e em inglês até alguns aspectos sobre as transformações nas condições de trabalho, a partir da resistência e organização dos trabalhadores. Já na Unidade 3, o assunto é rotina e segurança no trabalho. Você poderá refletir sobre as práticas que reduzem riscos para a saúde e que contribuem para a integridade física e mental dos trabalhadores. Por fim, na Unidade 4, você vai se aprofundar nas questões relacionadas ao trabalho nos dias de hoje e seus principais desafios. Você terá a oportunidade de discutir alguns dos problemas mais comuns enfrentados pelo trabalhador contemporâneo. Bons estudos! 8 English
  • 7. Unit Nesta Unidade, você aprenderá inglês a partir de temas presentes em nosso cotidiano: a alimentação, a sua importância para os traba- lhadores e os problemas decorrentes da má alimentação. Conhecerá as causas da fome no mundo e também estudará alguns tipos de alimentos e a forma correta de prepará-los. Por fim, verá algumas ocupações e profissões relacionadas à indústria alimentícia. For starters • Qual é a importância da alimentação na rotina dos trabalhadores? E as consequências da falta ou da deficiência de alimentação? • Você acha que o número de pessoas que passam fome no mundo é alto? Por quê? • Como é o trabalho com alimentos? Há cuidados especiais? Quais? Activity 1 Lunch time! 1. Pair up with a classmate in order to do this reading activity. One of you will be Gláucia and the other will be Anderson. The teacher will choose some students to perform for the rest of the class. 1 Food ANDERSON — Hi, Gláucia! GLÁUCIA — Hey, Anderson! ANDERSON — Você já almoçou? GLÁUCIA — “Did you have lunch yet?” ANDERSON — Did you have lunch yet? GLÁUCIA — No, not yet. ANDERSON — Vamos comer algo? GLÁUCIA — Let’s... ANDERSON — Let’s eat something? GLÁUCIA — Yes, let’s have lunch! But in which restaurant? ANDERSON — Num restaurante limpo e barato, e com boa comida! In a clean and cheap restaurant with good food! GLÁUCIA — Alright! I totally agree with you! I am starving! ANDERSON — Starving? GLÁUCIA — Morrendo de fome! ANDERSON — Ok, so let’s go! 77
  • 8. Fonte: WORLD Food Programme (WFP). What is hunger? Disponível em: <http://www.wfp.org/hunger/what-is>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2012. Keywords box according to de acordo com all over por todo average média body mass massa corporal daily diário lack of falta de to lead levar a, conduzir starvation inanição, fome extrema will vontade to decrease diminuir deprivation privação disease doença healthy saudável hunger fome 2. The following text is about hunger. Read it silently. You may use a dictionary and the “keywords box”. Candido Portinari. Retirantes, 1944. Óleo sobre tela, 190 cm x 180 cm. Coleção Museu de Arte de São Paulo Assis Chateaubriand, São Paulo (SP). 3. Talk to your partner about the text. What is it about? How much of the text could you understand? Did you find it easy or difficult? What is hunger? “Hunger” and “starvation” are terms used to indicate cases of malnutrition or food deprivation that affect people all over the world. In many regions, victims spend weeks and even months living with less food than recommended for a healthy life. According to World Food Programme (WFP) – Programa Mundial de Alimentação – the daily quantity of energy and protein that a person needs varies according to age, sex, body mass and practice of physical activity. An estimated average indicates that 2,100 calories a day are needed to live a normal and healthy life. To compensate for the lack of energy, the body starts to decrease its physical and mental activities. This way, a person suffering from hunger has more difficulty in concentrating and having initiatives for the daily activities. Children lose the will to play and study. Added to this, the lack of food debilitates the immune system; people suffering from hunger have more difficulties in fighting diseases. This may lead to death caused by common infections such as diarrhea. ImagemdoacervodoProjetoPortinari/ReproduçãoautorizadaporJoãoCandidoPortinari 78 English – Unit 1
  • 9. Time for citizenship A saúde e a alimentação são, entre outros, direitos sociais dos cidadãos brasileiros. Inúmeras normas legais e publicações foram editadas, a partir da Constituição Federal de 1988, para garantir a produção e a comercialização de alimentos mais segu- ros e, assim, proteger a saúde dos consumidores. Na primeira metade da década de 1990, o principal marco nessa direção foi a Primeira Conferência Nacional de Segurança Alimentar, em Brasília, em julho de 1994. Suas discussões pre- paratórias em todo o território nacional foram significativas e tornaram evidente que a concentração de renda e terra podia ser considerada o principal determinante da situação de fome e insegurança alimentar no Brasil. Em documento, o Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (Consea) de- monstrou a necessidade de assegurar saúde, nutrição e alimenta- ção a grupos vulneráveis; de garantir qualidade aos alimentos e de estimular práticas alimentares e de vida saudáveis. É importante manter-se bem informado sobre os efeitos de uma alimentação equilibrada para o bem-estar e a disposição geral – física e mental, seja para o trabalho ou para o lazer – e evitar comer lanches, salgados e doces gordurosos, que têm pouco valor nutricional. 4. Answer the following questions: a) According to the text, what is the definition of “hunger”? How do you feel when you see someone suffering from hungry? b) Why is healthy eating so important? Referência BRASIL. Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (Consea). Relatório Final: GT – Alimentação adequada e saudável. Brasília, DF, março 2007. Disponível em: <http://www4.planalto.gov.br/consea/documentos/alimenatacao-adequada-e-saudavel/ documento-final-alimentacao-adequada-e-saudavel>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2012. English – Unit 1 79
  • 10. Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger The Goal 1 established three targets, from 1990 to 2015, in order to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the world: Targets 1. Decrease by half the proportion of people who make less than 1 dollar a day. 2. Obtain decent work and full and productive employment for everyone. 3. Decrease by half the proportion of people suffering from hunger. Activity 2 Let’s talk about food safety 1. The teacher will read the following text out loud once or twice. Pay attention to his/her pronunciation. When he/she is finished, he/she will choose a volunteer student to read the text out loud. After a few sentences, another volunteer will continue reading. Pay attention to pronunciation corrections and explanations that the teacher will make during the activity. Símbolo da campanha da ONU para representar a primeira meta do milênio. Food safety According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), it is possible to say that there is a state of food safety when: [...] all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. From 1970 to 1997 (cf. WFP), with the aid of social programs in India and China, the number of people suffering from hunger decreased from 959 million to 791 million. But in the second half of the 1990’s, this number started to increase at a rate of almost 4 million a year in developing countries due to the new social and food crisis. Although the world produces more food each year, this does not seem to solve the problem. The UN estimated that 1,023 billion people suffered from hunger in 2009. This figure is still extremely high. In order to fight poverty and hunger, in 2010 the UN established eight goals called the “Millennium Development Goals”. The first of them is related to hunger: Referências FOOD and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Chapter 2. Food security: concepts and measurement. In: Trade reforms and food security. Disponível em: <http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2012. SHAH, Anup. Causes of hunger are related to poverty. Global issues, 3 out. 2010. Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. Disponível em: <http://www.globalissues.org/article/7/causes-of-hunger-are-related-to-poverty>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2012. UNITED Nations (UN). Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. We can end poverty 2015 – Millennium development goals. Nova Iorque, 20-22 set. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG_FS_1_EN.pdf>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2012. WORLD Food Programme (WFP). What is hunger? Disponível em: <http://www.wfp.org/hunger/what-is>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2012. What causes hunger? According to the Global Issues (2010), these are the most important causes of hunger all over the world: • [Lack of] land rights and ownership • Diversion of land use to non-productive use • Increasing emphasis on export-oriented agriculture • Inefficient agricultural practices • War • Famine • Drought • Overfishing • Poor crop yield • Lack of democracy and rights ©UnitedNations DevelopmentProgramme 80 English – Unit 1
  • 11. famine escassez genera- lizada de comida figure número full and productive employment emprego pleno e produtivo goal objetivo to increase aumentar to meet satisfazer overfishing pesca predatória ownership propriedade safety segurança to seem parecer target meta war guerra aid ajuda although embora crop yield rendimento de safra to decrease by half diminuir pela metade developing em desenvolvimento drought seca due to devido a each cada Keywords box 2. Answer the following questions about the text you have just read. a) What happened from 1970 to 1997? b) Read again about the causes of hunger in the world. Which of those causes do you think are associated with hunger in Brazil? English – Unit 1 81
  • 12. Did you know? As you read in the beginning of this Unit, according to the WFP, a person needs about 2,100 calories a day in order to have a normal and healthy life. Take a look at the pictures with the approximate amount of calories present in a single portion of some foods. It is not only the lack of calories which causes problems; calories abuse can also be harmful for a person’s health. Some of the problems related to obesity are heart disease, stroke, diabetes and certain types of cancer (cf. UN). Referências FAAC Unesp. Tabela de calorias dos alimentos mais servidos em nossa mesa. Disponível em: <http://www.faac.unesp.br/pesquisa/nos/bom_ apetite/tabelas/cal_ali.htm>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. UN News Centre. Worldwide overweight and obesity problem ‘staggering’ – UN Health Agency. Disponível em: <http://www.un.org/apps/news/story. asp?NewsID=15937&Cr=health&Cr1>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Atelier de Cartographie de Sciences Po. Disponível em: <http://cartographie.sciences-po.fr/fr/ malnutrition-et-ins-curit-alimentaire-2010>. Acesso em: 24 out. 2012. Tradução: Renée Zicman. 1 can of soda = 137 cal. 1 slice of mozzarella pizza = 304 cal. 1 bread roll = 135 cal. 1 cheese salad sandwich = 738 cal. 3. Study the map. What continents suffer from hunger the most? ©SciencesPo ©OleksiyMark/123RF ©Jacek/Kino ©ValentynVolkov/123RF ©JaimieDuplass/123RF 82 English – Unit 1
  • 13. Types of food Coffee Milk Yogurt Fruits Breakfast Lunch/Dinner Did you know? A palavra “pasta” chegou ao inglês diretamente do italiano. Como no idioma original, ela designa todos os tipos de macarrão – espaguete, nhoque, capelete etc. Aliás, no inglês, esses nomes permanecem também com a grafia italiana: spaghetti, gnocchi e cappelletti. ©AnatolyTiplyashin/123RF Cereal ©DanielOertelt/123RF Pizza ©livfriis-larsen/Alamy/Diomedia Pasta ©OlgaMiltsova/123RF French fries (potatoes) ©KhengHoToh/123RF Salad ©RamonGrossoDolarea/123RF Vegetables ©Jabiru/123RF Fried egg ©DenisKhveshchenik/123RF Beans ©FernandoFavoretto/CriarImagem Cheese ©PedroRubens/AbrilImagens Juice ©VladimirVoronin/123RF ©EmotiveImages/Easypix ©Mexrix/123RF ©FernandoFavoretto/CriarImagem Grilled bread ©PauloSavala Rice ©RicardoMachado/Sambaphoto Steak ©AndreyStarostin/123RF Soup ©IldiPapp/123RF English – Unit 1 83
  • 14. Top tips O documentário Supersizeme – Adietado palhaço (Supersizeme, direção de Morgan Spurlock, 2004) expõe os males que a alimentação desequilibrada pode causar. Nele, o diretor do filme registra os efeitos físicos e mentais que 30 dias seguidos de alimentação fast-food causam nele mesmo. Em um mês ele ganha 11 quilos, vê seu colesterol aumentar e desenvolve problemas de humor. Outro documentário interessante sobre o tema é Comida S/A (Food, Inc., direção de Robert Kenner, 2008). O filme mostra de onde realmente vêm e como são feitos os alimentos encontrados nas prateleiras dos supermercados. A conclusão é preocupante: a indústria alimentícia é responsável por maus-tratos a animais e mesmo a funcionários, destruição do ambiente e produção de comida pouco ou nada saudável. Mind map Diagram used to indicate and visualize linked information. It is a common tool for classification and organization of several items in a certain list. Activity 3 What do you eat? Consider what you have learned about eating habits and answer the following questions with a classmate. 1. What is healthy eating habits? What about healthy food? 2. What is junk food? 3. What are the types of food you eat every day? Are they healthy or not? Activity 4 Mind map The topics discussed in this Unit could be arranged in mind maps, like: “types of food” or “hunger”. A good mind map should have many branches and be clear. Look at the following mind map of types of food: Types of food Vegetables Fruits Meats Drinks Dairies tomato lettuce 84 English – Unit 1
  • 15. 1. In groups, develop your mind map. Add three or four more examples of types of food. 2. Show your production to the teacher and check if it is correct. 3. Present your production to the whole class. Activity 5 The cheapest healthy eating plate Analyze the following diagram of a healthy eating plate developed by the Harvard School of Public Health. In groups, produce a healthy eating plate with food available in your neighborhood markets or street markets. Choose the cheapest ingredients. Make a list with them and share with the class your recipe and how much you spent. You may use the dictionary and talk to your teacher in order to do this activity. ©HarvardUniversity English – Unit 1 85
  • 16. Activity 6 Preparing food in a healthy way 1. Read the following text. Hygienic food preparation The steps suggested by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – Anvisa) in order to prepare food hygienically are: Wash your hands properly It is utterly necessary to wash your hands thoroughly and correctly before and after manipulating raw food (red meat, chicken, fish and unwashed vegetables). Wash your hands correctly: • wet your hands in running water; • rub the palm and the back of your hands with soap; • rub your fingernails and between your fingers for at least 15 seconds; • rinse with running water, making sure all soap is gone; • dry hands with paper towel or another efficient drying system; • rub your hand with antiseptic. Cook all food Food must be well-cooked in a temperature of at least 70 ˚C in order to kill all microbes. Make sure red meat and chicken are not raw inside. The juice of these meats must be clear and not rosy. Make sure all foods have changed color and texture while cooking; the internal parts of the food must also reach 70 ˚C. Avoid cross-contamination Avoid the contact between raw food and cooked food. Wash all utensils (knives, forks, spoons, plates, bowls etc.) used during raw food preparation before using them on cooked food. This procedure is necessary because raw food may transmit microbes to ready-to-eat food through utensils. This type of microbe transmission is called cross-contamination. An example of cross-contamination is cutting raw chicken and using the same knife (without washing it) to slice cooked meat. ©ZhangXiangyang/123RF ©AleRuaro/PulsarImagens ©FernandoFavoretto/CriarImagem 86 English – Unit 1
  • 17. Use oil correctly Pay attention to changes in odor, flavor, color and foam formation when using oils and fats in cooking: these are signs that they must be replaced immediately. Oils form toxic substances when used for long periods, besides giving unpleasant taste and odor to food. Overused oil also produces a lot of smoke. Frozen food Frozen and refrigerated food must not stay out of the freezer for too long. In case you prepare food that goes into the fridge or freezer, make sure to tag them with: • name of the food; • date in which food was prepared; • expiration date. Do not let food defrost in ambient weather. Microbes rapidly multiply in room temperature. Preferably, use a microwave if you need to prepare the food immediately or leave it in the fridge until defrosting is complete. Meat should defrost inside recipients because its juice might contaminate other foods with microbes. Fonte: ANVISA. Cartilha sobre boas práticas para serviços de alimentação. 3. ed. Brasília: Anvisa, 2004. Disponível em: <http://www.anvisa.gov.br/divulga/public/alimentos/cartilha_gicra_final.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Tradução: Eduardo Portela. Keywords box to avoid evitar ambient weather temperatura ambiente besides além de cross-contamination contaminação cruzada to defrost descongelar to dry secar expiration date data de vencimento fat gordura foam espuma frozen congelado to leave deixar meat carne must deve overused usado muitas vezes raw cru to reach alcançar to rinse enxaguar rosy de coloração rosada to rub esfregar running water água corrente smoke fumaça soap sabão to tag etiquetar, rotular thoroughly completamente utensil utensílio utterly absolutamente to wet molhar ©JoãoPrudente/PulsarImagens ©Diomedia English – Unit 1 87
  • 18. 2. Answer the questions about the text you have just read. a) When is it especially necessary to wash your hands? b) Why must food be cooked at 70 ˚C? c) What is cross-contamination? d) What are the signs that the oil has been overused? e) What do we have to do before putting food into the freezer? 3. Read the text Hygienic food preparation again and write a short paragraph based on it using your own words. Then show your production to the teacher and check if it is correct. If you want, present your production to the whole class. 88 English – Unit 1
  • 19. Food and professions Depending on the goals you want to achieve in your professional life, you may find many food-related professions to follow a career. Read the chart below to know some of them. baker fish farmer chef cook bartender restaurant manager beekeeper hot dog vendor butcher ice cream taster cake designer kitchen assistant coffee shop owner nutritionist dishwasher pizza chef restaurant owner sommelier Activity 7 Guessing game With the teacher’s mediation, you are going to play a guessing game. First, one volunteer will choose a profession from the list above without telling the classmates. The rest of the class will ask “yes or no questions” (questions to which the answer can only be “yes” or “no”) until somebody finds out the profession chosen by the volunteer. You studied Nesta Unidade, você estudou diversos temas relacionados com comida e alimentação, como a importância dos alimentos para uma vida saudável e os problemas causados por sua falta ou seu excesso. Também discutiu sobre os diferentes tipos de comida e a forma correta de manuseá-los, bem como sobre al- guns dos profissionais que trabalham direta ou indiretamente com os alimentos. English – Unit 1 89
  • 20. Think about it Em sua família, há pessoas com excesso de peso ou obesas? Elas apresentam alguma doença relacionada com a obesidade? O que pode ser feito, além de adquirir hábitos alimentares mais saudáveis, para combater esse transtorno sem precisar recorrer a medicamentos? E você? Quando se alimenta, você se preocupa em ingerir uma refeição saudável ou prefere junk food? 90 English – Unit 1
  • 21. Unit Há diversas maneiras de denominar o trabalho; labor e labuta são alguns dos exemplos. A palavra “trabalho” vem do latim tripalium, que significa, literalmente, “três paus” (tri- = três; pallium = paus). Original- mente, o termo tripalium refe- ria-se a um instrumento de ferro com três pontas, utilizado para bater e esfiapar o trigo ou as espigas de milho. Depois, come- çou a ser utilizado para indicar um instrumento de tortura de escravos. Desse termo derivou-se o verbo do latim vulgar tripaliare, que significa “torturar”. Nesta Unidade, você verá que, desde os primeiros registros sobre sua origem, o trabalho se transformou, passando pela escravidão, pelas lutas e revoluções históricas de homens e mulheres que assegu- raram aos profissionais de hoje melhores condições e direitos traba- lhistas. Por meio de textos, diálogos e debates, você poderá ampliar seu vocabulário em inglês sobre o tema. For starters Converse com seus colegas sobre as seguintes questões: • Em sua opinião, o que é trabalho? • Como as relações de trabalho modificaram-se ao longo da história? Como elas são hoje em dia? • Faça uma lista com as palavras que você associa ao trabalho. As origens das palavras“trabalho”,“work”e“labor” 2 The origins of work Latim vulgar O latim falado pela plebe da sociedade do antigo Império Romano. ©JoãoPirolla Trabalho 6o ano – Unidade 1 91
  • 22. Em inglês, as palavras “work” e “labor” são usadas para designar trabalho. A origem da palavra “work” é indo-europeia, werk, que significa um feito, ação, procedimento, negócio ou fortificação mili- tar. Já a palavra “labor” tem sua origem no francês antigo e significa o esforço físico do corpo humano. Uma das formas mais antigas de trabalho é também uma das mais desumanas e cruéis: o trabalho escravo. No trabalho escravo, as pes- soas eram tratadas como mercadorias e, como tais, podiam ser com- pradas e vendidas. Gustave Boulanger. Mercado de escravos romano, século XIX. Xilogravura após pintura. Como em muitos outros lugares do mundo, o Brasil também sofreu com a escravidão. Tal sistema deixou marcas que ainda hoje se refletem em alguns aspectos das relações de trabalho, como as condições desumanas dos empregados nos canaviais de São Paulo, ou a exploração do trabalho dos imigrantes ilegais. ©Interfoto/Latinstock 92 English – Unit 2
  • 23. Johann Moritz Rugendas. Mercado de Negros, 1827-35. Litogravura colorida integrante da obra Viagem Pitoresca ao Brasil. Neste 8o ano, você vai estudar como as condições de trabalho mudaram à medida que homens e mulheres lutaram para garantir seus direitos e impedir os abusos da exploração do homem pelo homem. Activity 1 A little bit of history 1. Read the following text in silence. Use the “keywords box” to learn new words and understand the text. The teacher will be walking around the classroom to help you. 2. After you have read and understood the text, the teacher will choose a volunteer student to read the text out loud. After a few sentences, another volunteer will continue reading. Pay attention to pronunciation corrections and explanations that the teacher will make during the activity. FundaçãoBibliotecaNacional English – Unit 2 93
  • 24. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The world factbook. Disponível em: <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ the-world-factbook/docs/refmaps.html>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Mantida a grafia original. Quilombo of Palmares and the struggle of the black people in Brazil Quilombo is a word originated from the peoples of Bantu language, who inhabited the region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. It is a place where fugitive slaves could live free from the oppression of slave work. Political Africa 94 English – Unit 2
  • 25. The name “Palmares” comes from the vegetation found in the region: palm trees of several types. Historians indicate that Quilombo of Palmares was established around 1597, when a group of approximately 40 slaves escaped during the night from a sugar cane mill in the captaincy of Pernambuco, in an area now located in the State of Alagoas. Professor Kabengele Munanga, an anthropologist specialized in Afro-Brazilian culture, asserts that quilombos are of African origin; they were a social and military organization to fight against enemies and for self-protection: The quilombo was run by a warrior among warriors, an intransigent chief inserted in the strictness of military discipline. The content of the Brazilian quilombo makes it, without a doubt, a copy of the African quilombo. Antônio Parreiras. Zumbi (detalhe), 1927. Óleo sobre tela, 115,3 cm x 87,4 cm. Museu Antônio Parreiras, Niterói (RJ). Keywords box to insert/inserted inserir/inserido leader chefe, líder mill engenho, moinho self-protection autoproteção several vários slave/slavery escravo/escravidão strictness rigor, severidade struggle against luta contra warrior guerreiro to assert afirmar, insistir awareness consciência black people população negra content conteúdo doubt dúvida to establish/established estabelecer/estabelecido to fight lutar, brigar to find/found encontrar, encontrado to inhabit/inhabited habitar/habitavam inhumane desumano Referências GENNARI, Emilio. Em busca da liberdade: traço das lutas escravas no Brasil. São Paulo: Expressão Popular, 2008. MUNANGA, Kabengele. Origem e histórico do Quilombo na África. Revista USP – Dossiê Povo Negro, 300 anos. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo, dez./fev. 95/96. Disponível em: <http://www.usp.br/revistausp/28/04-kabe.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Tradução: Eduardo Portela. VILELA, Túlio. O Quilombo dos Palmares: verdades e mitos sobre o quilombo e Zumbi. UOL Educação, 8 ago. 2005. Disponível em: <http://educacao.uol.com.br/historia-brasil/quilombo-dos-palmares-verdades-e-mitos-sobre-o-quilombo-e-zumbi.jhtm>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. The leader of Quilombo of Palmares was Zumbi. He was killed by government troops on November 20th , 1695. For this reason, the “Zumbi and Black Awareness National Day” (“Dia Nacional do Zumbi e da Consciência Negra”) is celebrated as a holiday in Brazil. The resistance of the black people against slavery was one of the first and most important struggles against inhumane work conditions. ©AcervoIconographia/Reminiscências English – Unit 2 95
  • 26. 3. According to the text, answer the following questions with the assistance of your teacher: a) What was a quilombo? b) Who lived in quilombos? c) Who was Zumbi? Activity 2 Working conditions in the beginning of the twentieth century 1. Based on your previous knowledge, answer the following questions in pairs: a) What were the work conditions in England about 100 years ago? b) In your opinion, have these work conditions changed with time? What were these changes? Point out positive and negative aspects of these changes. c) What is the role of workers in the demands for better work conditions? Trabalho 8o ano – Unidade 3 96 English – Unit 2
  • 27. 2. Now read the following text. It contains some answers to the questions previously raised. The Uprising of the 20,000 Mulheres em manifestação de greve feita no início do século XX. In the beginning of the twentieth century, many migrants moved to the United States of America searching for the “American dream”. However, work conditions were not what one would call a dream. In New York City, around 30,000 women worked in the shirtwaist industry as seamstresses, most of them were migrants from Italy and Eastern Europe. Work was hard and wages were low. Women and children worked up to 70 hours a week. On November 22nd , 1909, around 20,000 women decided to cross their arms and go on strike for better conditions. This was the largest strike by women in the USA until the women’s strike for equality in 1970. The strike lasted 13 weeks and many women were arrested and sent to prison for many days. Besides the support of trade unions, the movement received donations from rich women of New York City who supported their cause. After spreading to other cities like Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia, and mobilizing over 40,000 workers, 339 companies signed agreements with the workers. Only 13 companies, among them the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, did not come to any agreement with their workers. A foto, de 1960, apresenta as condições e organização do trabalho comuns à época. strike greve support apoio trade union sindicato twentieth century século XX uprising levante wage salário after spreading após se espalhar agreement acordo “American dream” “sonho americano” among them entre eles to arrest/arrested prender/presos beginning início, começo to come chegar to go on strike entrar em greve however no entanto low baixo over mais de seamstress costureira to search/ searching procurar, buscar/ procurando, buscando shirtwaist vestido cuja parte de cima era uma camisa to sign/signed assinar/assinaram Keywords box Fonte: GONZÁLES, Ana Isabel Alvarez. Origens e a comemoração do Dia Internacional das Mulheres. São Paulo: Expressão Popular, 2010, p. 40-47.BibliotecadoCongressoAmericano,Washington,EUA ©akg-images/Album/Latinstock English – Unit 2 97
  • 28. 3. With your teacher’s assistance compare your answers given in Exercise 1 with the information in the text The Uprising of the 20,000. 4. Now answer the following questions in groups. a) How many people worked in the shirtwaist industry in New York City? b) How many hours a week did a seamstress use to work? c) What other precarious conditions could you identify in the text? d) What was the Uprising of the 20,000? e) Would you join the movement if you were a worker at that time? Why? 98 English – Unit 2
  • 29. Activity 3 Verbs and nouns Verbs are the “backbone” of a language. In English, they are important because many words can be verbs and nouns. For example, the word “fish” means both the animal and the act of fishing. However, not all words fit into this rule, so pay special attention to the nouns which are different from the verbs. Complete and expand the following chart: Verb (present) Past Past Participle Future Noun to fish = pescar fished fished will fish fish = peixe to originate = originar originated originated will originate origin = origem to inhabit = will habitation = to live = viver will life = vida to establish = estabelecer will establishment = estabelecimento toescape=escapar,fugir will escape = fuga to locate = localizar located located will local = local = especializar specialized will specialty = to assert = afirmar will assertion = to serve = served will service = to fight = brigar fought fought will fight = to kill = assassinar will killing = to celebrate = will celebration = to group = will group = grupo to place = colocar will place = to work = will work = to doubt = will doubt = dúvida to be = ser, estar was/were been will be being = ser (human being = ser humano) English – Unit 2 99
  • 30. Activity 4 What did you learn? 1. Read the following dialogue between Anderson and Gláucia: ANDERSON — Hey, Gláucia, how are you doing? GLÁUCIA — I’m great! How about you? ANDERSON — I’m great, too! Yesterday, I had a very interesting class. GLÁUCIA — Really? And what was this class about? ANDERSON — Well, it was about work! GLÁUCIA — About work? That doesn’t sound very interesting. Não me parece tão interessante assim. ANDERSON — But it was! It really was! Acredite em mim. GLÁUCIA — “Believe me...” ANDERSON — Believe me. GLÁUCIA — Well, what did you learn that was so interesting? ANDERSON — I learned that... I learned that... Gláucia, como eu digo, “se hoje temos condições decentes de trabalho”? GLÁUCIA — “Decent work conditions.” ANDERSON — Decent work conditions. GLÁUCIA — “If today we have...” ANDERSON — If today we have... GLÁUCIA — “If today we have decent work conditions...” ANDERSON — Thanks, Gláucia. Now I got it! If today we have decent work conditions, it’s because of workers and their struggle. GLÁUCIA — Interesting! Tell me more! What else did you learn? 2. Write with your own words a short paragraph about what you have learned so far in this Unit. Use your glossary, dictionary and ask the teacher for some help. 100 English – Unit 2
  • 31. Activity 5 The Russian Revolution 1. Read the following text. Cartaz de propaganda da Revolução Russa de 1917, convocando trabalhadores de outros países para se envolver na revolução. An example of workers’ struggle: the Russian Revolution Did you know? The International Women’s Day In the early 1900’s, at the time of the Industrial Revolution, the women’s salary was considered a complement to the men’s salary. The historical struggle of working women began before the Russian Revolution. In fact, the episode of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company was only one among others when female workers demanded social rights similar to those of male citizens. In 1909, the National Women’s Day (NWD) was celebrated for the first time in the United States. In 1910, Clara Zetkin, a leader and German worker, proposed an International Women’s Day. Later, the United Nations (UN) proposed an “International Women’s Year” between March 8th , 1975 and March 8th , 1976. Finally, in 1977, March 8th was designated the International Women’s Day (IWD), a date that is now celebrated yearly in many countries around the world as a global day of recognition and celebration of women’s rights. Fonte: ABOUT International Women’s Day (8 March). International Women’s Day website. Disponível em: <http://www. internationalwomensday. com/about.asp>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. One of the most important and relevant episodes in the history of workers’ struggle is the Russian Revolution. This revolution happened mainly because of centuries of oppression suffered by workers who lived in a serfdom system, but there were other causes which also contributed to this historical event. The serfdom system had its origins in the 11th century, and was very similar to slavery. The main difference between slavery and serfdom was that in serfdom, landowners did not “own” a serf. In serfdom, serfs worked for the landowner and could not move to a different location. They had to work the land for the landowner and pay him tributes. In 1861, the Tsar – similar to a king – abolished the serfdom system and the Russian Industrial Revolution began. Russia industrialized very rapidly and, as a result, cities were growing as never before. The average number of people living in a single apartment was 16, with approximately six people per room. There was no running water, and trash was accumulated in the streets. In the fields, even though serfdom had been abolished, peasants still had to pay tributes to the State and many revolts related to land ownership happened around this period. In 1914, the Tsar sent millions of Russians to fight in the World War I. As a consequence, Russian women became responsible for much of the work done by men, as they watched their children, husbands and fathers die in the war. The lack of food and the cold russian winter turned the situation even more despairing. Alexandra Kollontai, a writer and revolutionary leader described the beginning of this historical event: Hunger, cold and trials of war broke the patience of the women workers and the peasant women of Russia. In 1917, on the 8th of March (23rd of February), on Working Women’s Day, they came out boldly in the streets of Petrograd. The women – some were workers, some were wives of soldiers – demanded “Bread for our children” and “The return of our husbands from the trenches”. Referências FIGES, Orlando. A tragédia de um povo: a Revolução Russa 1891-1924. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1999, p. 159. KOLLONTAI, Alexandra. International Women’s Day. Tradução: Alix Holt. Disponível em: <www.marxists.org/archive/kollonta/1920/womens-day.htm>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. ©Album/Latinstock História 8o ano – Unidade 1 English – Unit 2 101
  • 32. Keywords box to abolish/abolished abolir/aboliu to become/ became tornar-se/ tornou-se boldly corajosamente bread pão to break/ broke the patience acabar/acabou com a paciência children filhos, crianças to demand/ demanded demandar, exigir/ demandaram, exigiram despairing desesperador even more ainda mais to grow/ growing crescer/ crescendo to happen/ happened acontecer/ aconteceu husband marido landowner proprietário de terra mainly principalmente own possuir, ter peasant campesino, camponês serf servo serfdom servidão trench trincheira trial provação winter inverno wife/wives esposa/esposas 2. Read more about the Russian Revolution in Portuguese or in English. Write a small report about your findings in English. Make sure to add information about the impacts (positive and negative) in the life of Russian workers after the revolution. You studied Nesta Unidade, você aprendeu sobre as origens do trabalho e suas formas mais precárias. Conheceu a história de resistência da população negra que, lutando contra a escravidão, vivia nos quilombos. Pôde ainda refletir sobre as condições de trabalho no início do século XX, ao discutir sobre um episódio de luta de trabalhadoras da indús- tria têxtil estadunidense e a Rússia revolucionária. Ao longo desta Unidade, você também teve oportunidade de ampliar seu repertório de palavras e conhecer novas estruturas e frases em inglês. Think about it Escravidão, servidão e trabalho infantil são formas extremas de exploração. Apesar das mudanças e conquistas de direitos sociais vinculados ao trabalho, ainda é possível encontrar trabalho infantil e formas similares à escravidão no Brasil e em outros países. • Em sua opinião, por que isso ainda acontece? • Você tem conhecimento sobre a ocorrência de algumas dessas formas ilegais de trabalho? Se sim, que medidas tomaria – com base nas leis – para denunciar esse fato? • Quais são os instrumentos disponíveis à sociedade para conter e acabar com esses proble- mas que infelizmente ainda persistem em nosso País? 102 English – Unit 2
  • 33. Unit Time for citizenship Nesta Unidade, você verá a importância de procedimentos que visam à segurança no local de trabalho. Por meio de textos, diálogos e debates, conhecerá mais sobre os Equipamentos de Proteção Indivi- dual (EPIs) e sobre as lesões que esses equipamentos previnem. Outro tema será a Comissão Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes (CIPA), seus objetivos e funcionamento. Todos esses assuntos trabalhados em inglês possibilitarão a você ampliar seus conhecimentos do idioma. For starters Em duplas, conversem sobre os seguintes temas: • Quais são os riscos existentes em seu trabalho? O que é ter segu- rança no trabalho? • Quais são os instrumentos (ou meios) existentes para a prevenção de riscos no trabalho? 3 Work safety Trabalho 8o ano – Unidade 3 Desde a Revolução Industrial, em fins do século XIX, o caminho percorrido pelos trabalhadores, no mundo todo, foi marcado pelas lutas da classe operária organizada em reconhecimento de seus direitos sociais, igualdade, justiça e conquista da cidadania plena. Essas lutas resultaram na conquista de direitos, como o de fazer greve, de reunir-se em sindicatos e de regulamentar a jornada de trabalho. Os empregadores passaram, por força da lei, a providenciar condições de trabalho mais favoráveis e mais seguras, por exemplo, o fornecimento de EPIs. Entretanto, a insegurança física e a insalubridade do ambiente de trabalho nem sempre são compensadas pelos equipamentos de segurança. É preciso reconhe- cer também que muitos trabalhadores se recusam a usar tais equipamentos – baseando-se, muitas vezes, em certo sentimento de coragem e virilidade para enfrentar o trabalho –, mes- mo sabendo que estão prejudicando sua saúde e integridade física. Outro agravante é que, por inúmeras razões, entre as quais o receio de perder o emprego, o próprio empregado deixa de reconhecer que o ambiente insalubre prejudica sua saúde e segurança, preferindo atribuir a si próprio a responsabilidade pelos acidentes ou doenças laborais. 103
  • 34. The routine of Sadie Frowne Sadie Frowne came with her family from Poland to work in the United States of America. She worked as a seamstress in a factory in Brooklyn, New York City. She was approximately 16 years old when she described to a reporter of The Independent magazine her work routine in 1902. Keywords box as soon as tão logo, assim que at least pelo menos behind atrás, atrasado beside ao lado to bind something up colocar atadura finger dedo garment vestuário, roupa to hurt doer needle agulha over again mais uma vez, novamente piece of cotton pedaço de algodão to save/saved economizar/ economizado stint tarefa com prazo limitado, quota swift veloz, ágil through através within dentro de A foto, de 1910, mostra crianças entre 5 e 12 anos trabalhando como costureiras em Nova Iorque, nos Estados Unidos. Activity 1 Silent reading 1. Read the following text in silence. Use the “keywords box” to learn new words and to understand the text. The teacher will be walking around the classroom to help you. At seven o’clock we all sit down to our machines and the boss brings to each one the pile of work that he or she is to finish during the day, what they call in English their “stint”. This pile is put down beside the machine and as soon as a garment is done it is laid on the other side of the machine. Sometimes the work is not all finished by six o’clock, and then the one who is behind must work overtime. The machines go like mad all day, because the faster you work the more money you get. Sometimes in my haste I get my finger caught and the needle goes right through it. It goes so quick, though, that it does not hurt much. I bind the finger up with a piece of cotton and go on working. We all have accidents like that. All the time we are working the boss walks around examining the finished garments and making us do them over again if they are not just right. So we have to be careful as well as swift. But I am getting so good at the work that within a year I will be making $7 a week, and then I can save at least $4.50 a week. I have over $200 saved now. Referência FROWNE, Sadie. Days and dreams. Kheel Center/Universidade de Cornell, EUA. Disponível em: <http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/ trianglefire/primary/testimonials/ootss_SadieFrowne.html>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. ©akg-images/Album/Latinstock Mulheres costureiras trabalhando em fábrica do início do século XX, sob vigilância do supervisor. ©Hulton-DeutschCollection/Corbis/Latinstock 104 English – Unit 3
  • 35. 2. Answer the following questions about the text you have just read. a) Who was Sadie Frowne? b) How many hours a day did she use to work? c) What kinds of accident happened where she worked? d) Do you agree with the system “the more you work the more money you get”? Why? Activity 2 Reading out loud 1. The teacher will read the following text out loud once or twice. Pay attention to his/her pronunciation. After reading, the teacher will choose a volunteer student to read the text out loud. Few sentences later, another volunteer will continue reading. Pay attention to pronunciation corrections and explanations that the teacher will make during the activity. English – Unit 3 105
  • 36. 8 continuous tables - total number of sewing machines: 240 Fire Escape N.Y.U.-AmericanBookCo.Bldg. Toiletroom Cloakroom Freight Elev. Elev. Elev.Elev. 4tablescontainingarowofsewingmachinesoneachside Doublerowofchairsbetweentables GreeneStreet Washington Place Plan of ninth floor Long tables allowed owners to employ 240 people in a relatively small area resulting in the rapid transmission of illnesses and leaving little space for moving safely. The tragedy happened in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, located in a 10-story building. The building did not have enough exits and the doors were locked so that workers would not “steal” materials or leave the factory without authorization. The image on the left shows the plant of the ninth floor, one of the three floors occupied by the factory. Observe that the total number of sewing machines on ninth floor was 240, but 260 workers were working on this floor when the fire started. The wooden floors, doors and window- -frames contributed to the fire; the material was allowed in this type of building at the time. The inspector of the New York City Department of Buildings detected that the building only had two access stairs, when it should have three. The owners of the factory were taken to court and were absolved of any charge by a jury comprised only by men – since women were not allowed to be members of a jury in the State of New York. Workers assemblies and trade unions organized big rallies so that the death of these workers would not be in vain. Fontes: GONZÁLES, Ana Isabel Alvarez. As origens e a comemoração do Dia Internacional das Mulheres. São Paulo: Expressão Popular, 2010, p. 29-40. ILR Cornell. Triangle Fire. Disponível em: <http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_ id=744&sec_id=3#screen>. Acesso em: 10 dez. 2012. The fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company Only one year after the Uprising of the 20,000, a huge fire ended the lives of 143 workers: 13 men, 123 women, and seven unidentified bodies. The women were aged between 16 and 24, most of them foreigners who did not speak English very well and panicked when they could not understand the warnings and exit signs in the building. Parte externa do prédio da Triangle Shirtwaist Company no incêndio de 1911. Parte interna do prédio da Triangle Shirtwaist Company após incêndio de 1911. ©AssociatedPress/GlowImages IlustraçãoHudsonCalasans ©AssociatedPress/GlowImages 106 English – Unit 3
  • 37. 2. Answer the following questions in your own words: a) What happened in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company? b) Was it safe to work in this building? Why? c) Make a list of things/actions that could have prevented this terrible accident. Top Tips Para saber mais sobre o grande incêndio na Triangle Shirtwaist Company, você pode assistir ao sétimo episódio – Cidades – do premiado documentário América: a saga dos EUA (America: the story of us, episódio Cities, produção de Nutopia, 2010). A série já foi transmitida no Brasil por um canal de TV a cabo, e você pode encontrar mais informações sobre ela na internet. Os próprios idealizadores do programa disponibilizaram em seu site um guia para o sétimo episódio, que pode servir de ajuda para entender melhor o incêndio e praticar a sua leitura em língua inglesa. O guia está disponível em: <http://www.history. com/images/media/ pdf/America_Episode7_ guide_FIN.pdf> (acesso em: 23 out. 2012). access stair escada de acesso to allow/allowed permitir/permitido charge acusação, encargo to comprise/comprised formar/formado court tribunal door porta enough suficiente fire fogo, incêndio floor piso, andar foreigner estrangeiro jury júri to lock/locked trancar/trancado owner dono sewing machine máquina de costura should deveria to show mostrar since já que to steal roubar window- -frame moldura de janela without sem wooden de madeira Keywords box English – Unit 3 107
  • 38. Activity 3 Let’s think about safety at work 1. In groups, read silently the article below. Respiratory protection Respirators and dust masks are indicated to prevent inhalation of harmful substances such as dust particles, vapors or gases. This type of equipment is necessary to protect the workers’ respiratory system and to avoid chemicals from reaching the bloodstream. Preventing occupational diseases Occupational diseases are those that happen as a result of work. They can be identified because they are usually linked to certain occupations. Bank workers, for example, are often vulnerable to repetitive strain injury, while eye strains happen more to welders. Occupational diseases can and should be avoided. The correct use of personal protective equipment and the adoption of safety procedures are important means for workers’ health and safety. Hearing protection Earmuffs and earplugs are a proper way of hearing protection. Construction workers or any worker using noisy machinery should wear hearing protection to prevent hearing loss. Hand protection Gloves are the most common equipment used to prevent hand injuries or electric shock. Leather gloves are used in apiculture to prevent the beekeeper from getting stung. Leather gloves are also used by welders to protect their hands from high temperatures and sparks. Rubber gloves are used in dishwashing to protect the hand from the chemicals contained in detergents. Nurses, doctors and surgeons also wear a type of rubber gloves called medical gloves in order to prevent contamination among patients and health care workers. Helmets and hard hats are used especially in construction sites to prevent injuries from falling objects. Besides that, helmets are also used to prevent shock injuries and to protect workers from bad weather conditions. Head protection Safety glasses and face shields (or welding shields) protect the eyes from threats such as chemicals, particles, wind, light and heat. They are fundamental to prevent visual injuries such as eye strain and irritation. ©ImageSource/GettyImages©Pshenichka/123RF ©3dfoto/123RF ©Stillfx/123RF ©DenisIachimovschi/123RF Eye protection ©Hypermania2/123RF ©EldredLim/123RF ©ViktorKosev/123RF©GevorgGevorgyan/123RF 108 English – Unit 3
  • 39. Workers exposed to the impacts of big machinery, or to the splash of chemicals, or molten hot materials, should wear adequate clothing to prevent injuries. There are many types of body protection outfits; the most common ones are made of thick wool. Firefighters often use protective clothing made of a fabric known as “ripstop”, resistant to fire, ripping and tearing. Safety belts and harness are used to prevent workers from falling from high places. Foot protection Foot protection is necessary to prevent accidents caused by stepping on sharp objects or slipping on wet floors. The most common equipment for foot protection are boots, that also protect from heat and cold. They are usually made of rubber or leather, and many of them are reinforced with iron plates inside. Ergonomics Ergonomics is a field of study aimed at designing equipment that fits the human body. This field is very important for preventing occupational diseases, especially back, neck and limb strains. See the picture for an example of a workstation that is ergonomically adequate for workers who sit at a desk and use the computer all day long. Regulagem da altura do assento Linha de visão horizontal na postura ereta Ângulo formado entre o braço e antebraço próximo a 900 Regulagem da altura do assento Ajuste do encosto Campo de visão para leitura do vídeoRegulagem do ângulo vertical do monitor (antirreflexo) Regulagem da altura do monitor Apoio para os pés Apoio do punho Apoio do braço Fonte: RIO Grande do Sul (Estado). Ministério Público do Trabalho do Rio Grande do Sul. Segurança do trabalho na construção civil. NR 18. Caxias do Sul: MPT-RS, 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.prt4.mpt.gov.br/pastas/publicacoes/imagens/campanhas/ seguranca_constrcivil/cartilhnr18.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. to aim at/aimed at objetivar/com o objetivo de to avoid/avoided evitar/evitado to design projetar disease doença ergonomics ergonomia eye strain lesão ocular field área, campo to fit encaixar, caber limb membro (perna ou braço) often geralmente neck pescoço repetitive strain injury lesão por esforço repetitivo thick wool lã grossa welder soldador Keywords box Body protection ©PauloSavala©HudsonCalasans ©lammeyer/123RF English – Unit 3 109
  • 40. 2. Pick two of the topics presented in the text, and discuss them in your group. Share with your group any additional information you might have. • I work as a/an ________________________________________. In my work I wear ____________________________ in order to prevent ______________________________. • I wear _________________________________ in order to ______________________________. • I should wear ________________________ in order to ___________________________. • Hearing protection • Head protection • Respiratory protection • Eye protection • Hand protection • Foot protection • Body protection • Ergonomics 3. Share the conclusions of your group with the rest of your classmates. Make sure to mention any additional information from the discussion. Try to do this activity in English, but you may use Portuguese. Here are some examples: In this job, ear protections are necessary because the noise of the machines is too loud. In this job, hand protection is necessary to prevent burning from the chemicals we use. 4. Write a short paragraph about the equipment you use – or should use – in your workplace. Use the examples below and the “keywords box” in order to complete this activity. 110 English – Unit 3
  • 41. Activity 4 The health and safety committee 1. Read the following dialogue between Anderson and Gláucia: ANDERSON — Hi, Gláucia! How are you doing? GLÁUCIA — Hey, Anderson, I’m fine thanks and you? ANDERSON — Great! Eu quero te apresentar um amigo. GLÁUCIA — You want to introduce me to a friend? ANDERSON — Yes, I want to introduce you to a friend, Carlos. GLÁUCIA — And who is Carlos? ANDERSON — Carlos is a janitor. GLÁUCIA — Alright. ANDERSON — And he is from CIPA. GLÁUCIA — CIPA? I am sorry, Anderson, but I don’t know what CIPA is. ANDERSON — CIPA means Comissão Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes. GLÁUCIA — Oh! I know what you are talking about! In English we call it the Health and Safety Committee, Comitê de Saúde e Segurança. ANDERSON — Really? I think this committee is very important. GLÁUCIA — And why do you think this committee is so important? ANDERSON — Para prevenir acidentes. GLÁUCIA — “To prevent accidents.” ANDERSON — To prevent accidents... e para preservar a saúde do trabalhador. GLÁUCIA — “And to preserve the worker’s health.” ANDERSON — And to preserve the worker’s health. GLÁUCIA — Yes, I agree with you! But where is Carlos? ANDERSON — He is over there talking to that group of people. Ele está sempre muito ocupado. GLÁUCIA — “He’s always very busy.” ANDERSON — He’s always very busy, but I will call him! GLÁUCIA — Ok! I’d really like to meet him! 2. Use the available means to discover more about safety in Brazilian companies. For this activity, you can search for the term in Portuguese (CIPA – Comissão Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes) or English (Health and Safety Committee). After researching, answer the following questions in English: a) What are the goals of this committee? English – Unit 3 111
  • 42. You studied Nesta Unidade, você aprendeu sobre segurança no trabalho. Discutiu como os Equipamentos de Proteção Individual (EPIs) são importantes para a prevenção dos mais diversos acidentes e doenças ocupacionais. Você ainda pesquisou os meios à dispo- sição dos trabalhadores para garantir um ambiente de trabalho mais seguro, como a Comissão Interna de Prevenção de Aciden- tes (CIPA). E o mais importante: você estudou todo esse conteú- do em inglês, conhecendo novas palavras e frases, expandindo o seu repertório no idioma. Think about it Pense na sua trajetória profissional ou na das pessoas com quem convive. • Você conhece alguém que já sofreu acidentes de trabalho? Por que isso aconteceu? • Por que isso ainda acontece? O trabalhador é sempre culpado pelo que acontece quando sofre um acidente de trabalho? • Quais são os direitos do trabalhador acidentado? b) How does it work? What kind of events does the CIPA promote? c) What companies should have the committee? d) Who can be a member of the committee? 112 English – Unit 3
  • 43. Unit Na Unidade anterior, você teve a oportunidade de aprender inglês, refletindo sobre os riscos físicos relacionados com o exercício de certas ocupações. Agora, a ideia é tratar de aspectos vinculados às relações de trabalho (organização, condições, desigualdades etc.) que podem representar riscos psicológicos, chegando mesmo a ocasionar dano e sofrimento para os profissionais. A análise dessas relações também vai considerar os contextos de trabalho precário e de trabalho decente. For starters Conversem em duplas: • O que você entende por divisão do trabalho? • Como ela acontece no local onde você trabalha? • Quais são as vantagens e as desvantagens dessa divisão? Activity 1 The division of work 1. Read the following text in silence. Use the “keywords box” to learn new words and to understand the text. The teacher will also be available to help you. 4 Common work issues Karl Marx (1818-1883), filósofo e pensador alemão. Émile Durkheim (1858- 1917), sociólogo francês. The division of work The division of work aims to increase production and reduce costs. With that, the production of goods becomes faster and cheaper. Many theorists studied this subject. Learn more about two of them. For the French sociologist Émile Durkheim the division of work is responsible for social integration. According to him, society works as a biological body, in which each organ executes its function totally dependent on the others. It is the difference and interdependence among individuals that keep them integrated and cohesive, producing what Durkheim named “social solidarity”. For Karl Marx, a German philosopher and social thinker, the division of work causes essentially what he calls the “alienation” of workers in the productive system. Before Industrial Revolution, workers decided when, how and what to produce; with industrialization, they can no longer identify themselves with the product being made, since they execute only a small part of the work process. According to Marx, the division of work turns labor into a meaningless activity for the worker. ©akg-images/Album/Latinstock©Diomedia 113
  • 44. 2. Answer the following questions in your own words: a) What keeps society together according to Émile Durkheim? Trabalho 7o ano – Unidade 2 Geografia 8o ano – Unidade 1 Linha de produção do modelo fordista no início do século XX, em Michigan, nos Estados Unidos. Keywords box assembly line linha de montagem to assemble/assembled montar/montado cheap/cheaper barato/mais barato cohesive coeso consumption consumo conveyor belt esteira rolante goods mercadoria, produto fast/faster rápido/mais rápido meaningless sem sentido themselves eles mesmos, elas mesmas theorist teórico thinker pensador to turn something into tornar, transformar algo em The division of work in the auto industry Henry Ford invented a system of production for the assembly lines of vehicles known as Fordism. In this system, cars were assembled in conveyor belts that transported auto parts to the workers’ location. Employees had a simple specific training because each one executed small functions. Ford’s objective was to produce cheap cars and turn them into mass consumption items. ©HultonCollection/GettyImages 114 English – Unit 4
  • 45. b) What is the problem with the division of work according to Karl Marx? c) What was the objective of the Fordist system? Activity 2 Work issues 1. Pair up with a classmate in order to do this reading activity. One of you will be Gláucia and the other will be Dolores. You can look up new words in the “keywords box” at the end of the text. The teacher will choose some students to perform for the rest of the class. GLÁUCIA — Hi, Dolores, how are you doing? DOLORES — I’m fine, thank you. How about you? GLÁUCIA — Ok. Tell me, have you already found a job? DOLORES — No, not yet. You know, it’s much harder finding a job when you are a foreigner… GLÁUCIA — Yes, I’ve been there, remember? DOLORES — Of course, my friend. Those were difficult days we lived in Royal Cleaning Agency. It was not easy working there, especially for us, foreign women. GLÁUCIA — Not easy, indeed! But it was nice that we were able to organize and have some of our requests answered. DOLORES — I still remember our endless meetings to discuss the problems we had at work. They were always so interesting and productive. GLÁUCIA — And after our meetings all the girls would go out and have fun. So many memories… Keywords box endless interminável indeed de fato, sem dúvida meeting encontro, reunião our nosso, nossa request pedido, solicitação English – Unit 4 115
  • 46. 2. Talk to a classmate and answer the following questions: a) Did Dolores find a job yet? b) Why is finding a job harder for Dolores? c) Did Dolores and Gláucia like to work in Royal Cleaning Agency? Why? d) Did they have any of their requests answered? How? Top tips Que tal assistir a Pão e rosas (Bread and roses, direção de Ken Loach, 2000)? O filme retrata a dura realidade de homens e mulheres que vão trabalhar ilegalmente nos Estados Unidos. Retrata também como os trabalhadores foram capazes de contornar, ainda que parcialmente, a situação. 116 English – Unit 4
  • 47. Activity 3 Thinking about work issues 1. In groups, make a list of common problems in workplaces. The teacher will be walking around the classroom to help you. 2. Now, the teacher will choose a volunteer student to read the following text out loud. After a few sentences, another volunteer will continue reading. Pay attention to pronunciation corrections and explanations that the teacher will make during the activity. Time for citizenship Entre os direitos sociais do trabalhador assegurados na lei, ressaltam-se a proteção e a justiça contra o assédio, seja sexual ou moral. No entanto, em ambos os casos, nem sempre o agressor é denunciado. No assédio sexual, a vítima, geralmente mulher, sente-se insegura, envergonhada e dominada pelo agressor. Já no assédio moral, nem sempre a vítima reconhece ou consegue comprovar o assédio, o que torna a denúncia ainda mais rara. Esse tipo de violência psicológica, que se caracteriza pela exposição do trabalhador a situações humilhantes, frequentes e prolongadas, pode acarretar sérios danos à saúde física e mental, levando o profissional agredido até mesmo a pedir demissão do emprego. A conquista de um ambiente de trabalho ausente de riscos e violência, tanto para a saú- de como para a segurança e o bem-estar, é uma luta permanente. Ela só é possível na medi- da em que os trabalhadores conhecem os direitos que garantem a dignidade e o respeito necessários ao convívio saudável e a plena cidadania e, principalmente, exigem que esses direitos lhes sejam assegurados. Referência BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Assédio – violência e sofrimento no ambiente de trabalho: Assédio moral. Brasília, DF: Editora do Ministério da Saúde, 2008. Disponível em: <http://iah.iec.pa.gov.br/iah/fulltext/pc/monografias/ms/violdomsex/violencia_sofrimento_ trabalho_assedio_moral.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. English – Unit 4 117
  • 48. A delicate issue: harassment and discrimination in the workplace There are situations to which workers of all sectors must pay attention because they may cause severe injuries to the victims, such as stress, depression, decrease in productivity and even more serious problems. Sexual harassment Sexual harassment is an unethical behavior which consists in constraining the victim (mostly women) through constant flirtation and insinuations. The objective of the harasser is to obtain advantages or sexual favors. Sexual harassment is a crime according to the Brazilian Constitution; it is punished with the incarceration of the harasser for one to two years. Moral harassment Moral harassment, also known as “workplace bullying”, consists in exposing a worker to humiliating and embarrassing situations. Usually, it is the repetition of humiliating acts against a specific worker, but even a single act may constitute moral harassment. These acts of humiliation can be verbal, gestural or attitudinal; they may cause psychic and physical injury. The main objective of harassers or bullies is to destabilize their victims or force them to quit. Harassers’ potential victims are Afro-descendant women and men, homosexuals and physically challenged workers. Afro-descendant women are the most affected by this practice. This kind of harassment usually happens when the victim resists and frustrates an attempt of sexual harassment. Moral harassment is an unethical and violent practice. The first step to stop it is to recognize and identify the attitudes and actions of the harasser. Discrimination There are several forms of discrimination. The most common discriminative acts include prejudice towards ethnic background, race, nationality, gender, sexuality, age, abilities, beliefs and religion. For example, in case of gender discrimination, married or pregnant women, as well as mothers, are less likely to get promotions. The usual argument of offender is that the employee will not be able to dedicate herself fully to work because of her child. Another way of discrimination against women involves wage inequality; in many companies women earn less money than men even though they perform the exact same tasks. Inadequate tasking People have different skills and abilities. If a worker is getting a workload beyond what he or she can manage, he or she will likely suffer from stress and other psychic and physical injuries. On the other hand, to remove someone’s task or to leave them without any work at all may also constitute moral harassment; the strategy of the harasser, in these cases, is to demoralize their victims by suggesting that he or she is not necessary to the company. Referências BRASIL. Ministério do Trabalho. Assédio moral e sexual no trabalho. Brasília, DF, 2010. Disponível em: <http://portal.mte.gov.br/data/files/8A7C812D32B088C70132D9AAB506149C/ AssedioMoralnoTrabalho.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. SINDICATO Nacional dos Servidores do Ministério Público da União. Cartilha sobre assédio moral. Brasília, DF: Sinasempu, 2005/2007. Disponível em:<http://www.prt5.mpt.gov.br/cartilhas/ assediomoral-sinasempu.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. 118 English – Unit 4
  • 49. 3. After reading the text, compare the problems you listed in Exercise 1 and the problems mentioned in the text. Are they the same? Share your findings with the rest of the class. 4. Now, take a look at the following chart. Observe some of the most common problems faced by workers in general and especially women in the workplace: Keywords box advantage vantagem attempt tentativa to be able to ser capaz de behavior comportamento, conduta belief crença, fé beyond além to constrain coagir, constranger flirtation flerte harassment assédio injury dano, lesão married casado prejudice preconceito to quit demitir-se, desistir to recognize reconhecer to suffer/will suffer sofrer/sofrerá task tarefa, trabalho towards com relação a workload carga de trabalho moral harassment sexual harassment discrimination inadequate tasking In groups, choose a topic, analyze it and discuss the following questions: • What is it? • What are its main characteristics? • When and where does it happen? • How does it happen? • Who are the most affected? • How do affected people react? English – Unit 4 119
  • 50. 5. Get together in groups. Read the situations, analyze them and identify the kind of harassment or discrimination that is being practiced. In addition, talk about possible solutions to each case. • You notice that your manager is not including a member of your team in staff meetings and it is well known to everybody that the manager does not like this person. • A coworker is spreading gossip or false and malicious rumors about a person with intent to cause the person harm. • Your boss is giving a job promotion to a woman who has been involved with him in an office romance. • A staff member does not want to sit next to a person because of his sexual orientation. • A female coworker makes a mistake in her work and the boss tells her off in front of her colleagues. 6. Discrimination, moral and sexual harassment are not exclusive to workplaces. They may also happen at school and at home. a) Has any of the above situations ever happened to someone you know and care about? If yes, and if you wish, can you describe it? b) What could you do in case any of the above situations happened to someone you know and care about? 120 English – Unit 4
  • 51. outsourced terceirizado to retain reter salesperson vendedor seasonal sazonal Activity 4 Precarious and decent work 1. Read the following text and then answer the questions. Fonte: INTERNATIONAL Labor Organization (ILO). Decent work. Disponível em: <http://www.ilo.org/ global/topics/decent-work/lang-en/index.htm>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Precarious work Observe the following list. It contains some modalities of work which can be considered precarious. Agency work The worker is not hired directly by the company to which he or she is going to provide services. The worker is hired by an employment agency which intermediates the contract and retains part of the worker’s salary. Seasonal work It is the work done during certain periods of the year. Examples of seasonal work in Brazil are salespersons hired in the end of the year to meet the demand on holidays, especially Christmas. After the season is over, workers are out of jobs again. Casual or on-call work People only work when called by the “employer”. They never know when they will work and more important, do not know if they will have work. Outsourcing In order to cut costs with legislation related to hiring employees directly, companies employ outside workers from suppliers. For this reason, outsourced (contracted out) workers have fewer benefits and lower salaries than regular workers performing the exact same tasks. Decent work Everybody aspires and deserves to have a decent job. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), in order to be called “decent”, a work should guarantee: • fair salaries; • safety in the workplace; • social protection for the worker’s family; • possibility for personal development and social integration; • freedom for workers to express their concerns; • freedom for workers to organize and participate in decisions which affect them; • equal opportunities and equal treatment for both men and women. Keywords box concern preocupação fair justo for both para ambos to hire/hired contratar/contratado to intermediate intermediar English – Unit 4 121
  • 52. 2. Answer the following questions about the text you have just read: a) Why is agency work considered precarious? b) What about casual work? Why is it considered precarious? c) In your own words, define “decent work”. 122 English – Unit 4
  • 53. 1. Analyze the following graph. Then answer the questions. womenmen 1,741.41 1,808.39 1,857.63 1,519.07 1,076.04 1,500.46 1,065.90 1,524.27 1,084.59 1,590.77 1,122.61 1,643.43 1,158.89 1,696.82 1,204.97 1,259.19 1,308.06 1,343.81 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Fonte: IBGE. Pesquisa mensal de emprego (PME), 8 mar. 2012. Disponível em: <http://www.ibge.gov.br/ home/estatistica/indicadores/trabalhoerendimento/pme_nova/Mulher_Mercado_Trabalho_Perg_ Resp_2012.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Tradução de: Eduardo Portela. a) What could you observe in this graph? b) Why do you think this happens? c) Do you think this situation could change? How? Activity 5 Gender inequalities in the world of work The following graphs present the results of the Monthly Survey on Employment, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) in six Brazilian metropolitan regions, including São Paulo. Average income of the work of employees, by sex (in reais, prices from December 2011) – 2003-2011 ©R2Editorial English – Unit 4 123
  • 54. 2. Analyze this other graph. Then answer the questions. 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 womenmen 10.1 9.1 7.8 8.2 7.4 6.1 6.5 5.2 4.7 15.2 14.4 12.4 12.2 11.6 10.0 9.9 8.5 7.5 Fonte: IBGE. Pesquisa mensal de emprego (PME), 8 mar. 2012. Disponível em: <http://www.ibge.gov.br/ home/estatistica/indicadores/trabalhoerendimento/pme_nova/Mulher_Mercado_Trabalho_Perg_ Resp_2012.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Tradução de: Eduardo Portela. a) What happened to unemployment rates during 2003 and 2011? b) In your opinion, what are the reasons for this change in unemployment rates? c) Who has the highest unemployment rates, men or women? And the lowest? Why do you think this difference exists? Unemployment rates of workers by sex (%) – 2003-2011 ©R2Editorial 124 English – Unit 4
  • 55. Activity 6 Race inequalities in the world of work 1. Observe the graph below. 345.91 mixed raceindigenous white 496.04 1,020.00 asians 994.22 black 539.96 2. Answer the questions in your own words. a) What is the graph about? In 2010, what part of the population earned the highest salary? And the lowest one? b) In your opinion, what factors contribute to this scenario? c) What policies would you develop to change this situation? Fonte: IBGE. Pessoas de 10 anos ou mais de idade, total e com rendimento, e valor do rendimento nominal médio e mediano mensal das pessoas de 10 anos ou mais de idade, total e com rendimento, segundo o sexo e a cor ou raça – Brasil, 2010. Censo 2010. Disponível em: <ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Censos/ Censo_Demografico_2010/ Resultados_do_Universo/ Resultados_preliminares_ sobre_Rendimentos/tabelas_ pdf/tab1_3_7.pdf>. Acesso em: 23 out. 2012. Tradução de: Eduardo Portela. Average income per month in reais, 2010 ©R2Editorial English – Unit 4 125
  • 56. Think about it Quem é prejudicado com o assédio moral? As testemunhas de casos de assédio no trabalho também estão expostas e sofrem com os danos dessa prática? Você acha que há diferença de produtividade entre empresas em que casos de assédio são comuns e empresas que contam com um ambiente saudável? You studied In this Unit, you have studied several sentences, structures and words in English through the reading of texts related to the division of work and its consequences. You had the chance to discuss some of the most common issues that afflict men and women in their workplaces. You also noticed some differences between precarious and decent work and analyzed some graphs about existing inequalities in the labor market. During the holidays, you can review all the content learned throughout the year. Take the opportunity to look through your glossaries and activities as well as reread the texts. 126 English – Unit 4