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Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)
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Theenlightenment 100608081048-phpapp02 (Mr. Macale)

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  • 1. Th e Ag e ofRe a s o n &E n l ig h t e n B y : M s . S u s a n M . P o je r H o r a c e G r e e le y H S C ha ppa qua , NY
  • 2. A n O v e r v ie w o f t h e 18 c► P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y  >>>R e fo rm► In t e lle c t u a l H is t o r y N e w t o n ia n P h y s ic s  Reas on► C u lt u r a l H is t o r y In d iv id u a lis m► S o c ia l H is t o r y  In c r e a s e dL it e r a c y
  • 3. 18 c P o lit ic s► B R I T A I N – C o n s t it u t io n a lMona rc hy► F R A N C E  R o y a l A b s o lu t is m ( c u lt u r a l a n dr e lig io u s u n it y )► P R U S S IA , H A B S B U R GE M P IR E , R U S S IA  “ E n lig h t e n e dD e s p o t is m ”
  • 4. T h e O r ig in s o f E n lig h t e n m e n t ?► S C IE N T IF IC : B N e w to n ’ s s ys te m w a s s yn o n ym o u s w it h t h e e m p ir ic a l a n d a S c ie n t if ic la w s c o u ld b e t h e p r a c t ic a l. e xpre s s e d a s u n iv e r s a l m a t h e m a t ic a l a S c ie n c e a llo w e d f o r m u la s . a lt e r n a t iv e s t o b e im a g in e d in e v e r y t h in g f r o m p o lit ic s
  • 5. W illia m B la k e ’ s Ne wt o n , 17 9 5
  • 6. Th e R o ya l A c a d e m y o f S c ie n c e s , P a r is
  • 7. Z o o lo g y & B io lo g yA d is s e c t io n a t t h e R o y a l A c a d e m y, L o n d o n .
  • 8. C h e m is t r y L a b s & B o ta ny G a rd e ns
  • 9. N a t u r a l H is t o r y C o lle c t io n s ► C o c o a p la n t d r a w in g . ► S ir H a n s S lo a n e ( 16 6 0 -17 5 3 ) . ► C o lle c t e d f r o m J a m a ic a .
  • 10. N a t u r a l H is t o r y C o lle c t io n sJ a m e s P e t iv e r ’ s B e e t le s ( L o n d o n a p o th e c a r y)
  • 11. P r iv a t e C o lle c t io n s T h e O r ig in s o f M o d e r n Mus e ums .
  • 12. W o m e n & S c ie n c e The G e rma n a s tro no m er H e v e liu s & h is w if e e x a m in e the
  • 13. T h e O r ig in s o f► R E L I Gi g h tS : n m e n t ? E n l IO U e B p h y s ic o -t h e o lo g y –  a n a tte mp t ( in s p ir e d b y s c ie n c e ) t o e x p la in G o d ’ s P r o v id e n c e b y r e fp p o r tc o f ta h i s h s u e re n e o w r ar t i oi n anl a t u e ei g& o n o t o k n ” r r l i n, “ prrei m a r i l y t h r o u g h h i s f e b ib lic a l W o r d .
  • 14. T h e O r ig in s o f► E n lig h t e n m e n t ?R EB D G I O m S : L I e is U V T h e b e lie f in t h e e x is t e n c e o f a G o d o r s u p r e m e b e in g b u t a d e n ia l o f r e v e a le d r e lig io n , b a s in g t D e o s t s’ s a w l i e f o p ot i n t i n i ne s be no n he lig h t o f n a t u r e a n y p a r t ic u la r a nd re a s on. r e lig io n ; t h e y r e c o g n iz e d
  • 15. T h e O r ig in s o f► E Ln Gi gOh tSe: n m e n t ? RE I l I U u P a n t h e is m V T h e b e lie f t h a t G o d a nd na ture a re o ne a nd B G r a d u a lly , h ig h ly the s a me . e d u c a te d P ro te s ta nts & C a t h o lic s t h o u g h t more a bout G od’ s
  • 16. C e nte rs o f theE n lig h t e n m e n t
  • 17. T h e C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f t h e E n lig h t e n m e n t ► R a t io n a lis m  r e a s o n is t h e a r b it e r o f a ll t h in g s . ► C o s m o lo g y  a n e w c o n c e p t o f m a n , h is e x is t e n c e o n e a rth, & the p la c e o f t h e e a r t h in t h e u n iv e r s e .
  • 18. T h e C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f t h e E n lig h t e n m e n t 1. S c i e n t i f i c M e t h o d  M a t h e m a t ic a l a n a ly s is  E x p e r im e n t a t io n  In d u c t iv e r e a s o n in g .  U t ilit a r ia n is m  t h e g re a te s t g o o d fo r the g re a te s t nu mb e r.  T o l e r a n c e  No o p in io n is
  • 19. T h e C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f t h e E n lig h t e n m e n t 1. O p t i m i s m & S e l f - C o n f id e n c e  T h e b e lie f t h a t m a n is in t r in s ic a lly g o o d .  T h e b e lie f in s o c ia l prog re s s . 2. F r e e d o m  O f t h o u g h t a n d e x p r e s s io n .  B r in g lib e r t y t o a ll m e n ( m o d e r n b a t t le a g a in s t
  • 20. T h e C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f t h e E n lig h t e n m e n t 1. L e g a l R e f o r m s  J u s t ic e , k in d n e s s , a n d c h a r it y  n o t o r t u r e o r in d is c r im in a n t in c a r c e r a t io n .  D u e p r o c e s s o f la w . 2. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m  W r it t e n c o n s t it u t io n s  lis t in g c it iz e n s , r ig h t s .
  • 21. T h e “ E n lig h t e n e d ”I n d i v i d u a l  T h e P h il o s o p h e► N o t r e a lly o r ig in a l t h in k e r s a s a w h o le , b u t w e r e g r e a t p u b lic is t s o f t h e n e w t h in k in g  C H A N G E & PROGRES S !
  • 22. Th e “ G r e a t D e b a te ” Reas on T r a d it io n s & L o g ic a nd S u p e r s t it io n s r a t io n a n o s t a lg ia lis m fo r th e e m p ir i pas t c is m o r g a n iz e t o le r a n d c e r e lig io n s s k e p ti ir r a t io n a li
  • 23. M a r q u is d e C o n d o r c e t ( 17 4 3 - 17 9 4 ) ►Pr og r e s s of t h e Hu ma n M in d , 17 9 4  An e x p e c t a t io n o f u n iv e r s a l h a p p in e s s .  E ve ry in d iv id u a l g u id e d b y r e a s o n c o u ld e n jo y t r u e
  • 24. J o h n L o c k e ( 16 3 2 - 17 0 4 )►Let t er on T o l e r a t io n , 16 8 9► T wo T r e a t is e s o f Go v e r n me n t , 16 9 0► S o me Th o u g h t s C o n c e r n in g
  • 25. J ohn Loc ke ’ s P h ilo s o p h y ( I)► T h e in d iv id u a l m u s t b e c o m e a “ r a t io n a l c re a tu re .”► V ir t u e c a n b e le a r n e d a n d p r a c t ic e d .► H u m a n b e in g s p o s s e s s f r e e w ill.  t h e y s h o u ld b e p r e p a r e d f o r fr e e d o m .  o b e d ie n c e s h o u ld b e o u t o f c o n v ic t io n , no t o u t o f fe a r.
  • 26. J ohn Loc ke ’ s P h ilo s o p h y ( II)► T h e r e a r e c e r t a in n a t u r a l r ig h t s t h a t a r e e n d o w e d b y G o d t o a ll h u m a n b e in g s .  l if e , l ib e r t y , p r o p e r t y !► T h e d o c t r in e o f t h e D iv in e R ig h t o f K in g s w a s nons e ns e .
  • 27. Im m a n u e l K a n t ( 17 2 4 - 18 0 4 )► C r it iq u e o f Pur e R e a s o n , 17 8 1► “ W h a t is E n lig h t e n m e n t ? ” , 17 8 4► M e t a p h y s ic a l F o u n d a t io n s
  • 28. K a n t ’ s P h ilo s o p h y► Da r e t o K n o w!► H e in t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a lis m  s o m e t h in g s a r e k n o w n b y me tho d s o the r tha n e m p ir ic a lly .  T h e b e lie f in t h e e x is t e n c e o f a n o n -r a t io n a l w a y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h in g s . T h e e x is t e n c e o f n e it h e r t im e n o r s p a c e is d e t e r m in e d b y e m p ir ic a l
  • 29. T h o m a s P a i n e ( 17 3 7 - 18 0 9 ) ► C o mmo n Sens e, 17 7 6 ► T h e R ig h t s o f Ma n , 17 9 1
  • 30. T h e A m e r ic a n “ P h il o s o p h e s ” J ohn Tho m a s Ada ms Ben J e ffe rs o( 17 4 5 - 18 F r a n k lin n 26) ( 17 0 6 - 17 9 ( 17 4 3 - 18 …. . . …l i f e , lib e r t y , 0) a n d t 2 6e) h
  • 31. V o l t a i r e ( 17 12 - 17 7 8 )►AKA  F r a n c o is M a r ie A ro ue t.► Es s ay on t he C u s t o ms a n d S p ir it o f Na t io n s , 17 5 6► C a n d id e , 17 5 9
  • 32. V o lt a ir e ’ s “ W is d o m ” ( I) ► E v e r y ma n is g u il t y o f a l l t he g ood he d id n ’t d o . ► Go d is a c o me d ia n p l a y in g t o a n a u d ie n c e t o o a f r a id t o l a u g h . ► I f Go d d id n o t e x is t , it wo u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o in v e n t h im. ► I t is d a n g e r o u s t o b e r ig h t wh e n t h e
  • 33. V o lt a ir e ’ s “ W is d o m ” ( II)► J u d g e o f a ma n b y h isq u e s t io n s r a t h e r t h a n b y h is a n s we r s .► M e n a r e e q u a l ; it is n o tb ir t h , b u t v ir t u e t h a t ma k e s t h e d if f e r e n c e .► P r e j u d ic e is o p in io n wit h o u tj u d g me n t .► T h e wa y t o b e c o me b o r in g ist o s ay e v e r y t h in g .
  • 34. D a v i d H u m e ( 17 11- 17 7 6 ) ► T h e Na t u r a l His t o r y o f R e l ig io n [ ] [ [ ( 17 5 5 ] ) . ► B e lie f in G o d re s te d on s u p e r s t it io n a nd fe a r
  • 35. E d w a r d G ib b o n ( 17 3 7 - 17 9 4 )► T he D ecline and F all of the R oman E mpire (6 volumes), 1787. H e p o in t e d o u t p r o b le m s w it h c o nte mp o ra ry E n g la n d a n d t r ie d
  • 36. Th e B a r o n d eM o n t e s q u i e u ( 16 8 9 - 17 5 5 ) ► P e r s ia n Let t er s , 17 2 1 ► On t h e S p ir it o f L a ws , 17 5 8
  • 37. M o n t e s q u ie u ’ s P h ilo s o p h y► Th r e e typ e s o f g o ve rnme nt:  M o n a r c h y.  R e p u b lic .  D e s p o t is m . A s e p a r a t io n o f p o lit ic a l p o w e r s e ns u re d fre e d o m a nd lib e r t y .
  • 38. J ean J ac quesR o u s s e a u ( 17 12 - 17 7 8 ) ►A Dis c o u r s e on t he S c ie n c e s a n d Ar t s , 17 5 0 ► E mil e , 1 7 6 2 . ► T h e S o c ia l
  • 39. R o u s s e a u ’ s P h ilo s o p h y ( I) ► Q u e s t io n  D o e s p r o g r e s s in t h e a r t s a n d s c i e n c e sO c o r r e s p o n d N ! w it h p r o g r e s s in m o r a lit y ?  A s c iv iliz a t io n s p r o g r e s s , the y m o ve a w a y fro m m o r a lit y .  S c ie n c e & a r t r a is e d a r t if ic ia l b a r r ie r s b e t w e e n p e o p le a n d t h e ir n a t u r a l
  • 40. R o u s s e a u ’ s P h ilo s o p h y ( II)  V ir t u e e x is t s in t h e ” s t a t e o f n a t u r e , ” b u t lo s t in “ s o c ie t y . ”  G o ve rnme nt mus t p r e s e r v e “ v ir t u e ” a n d ” lib e r t y . ”  M a n is b o r n f r e e , y e t e v e r y wh e r e h e is in c h a in s .  The c o nc e p t o f the ” N o b le S a v a g e . ”  L ib e r t y , E q u a l it y ,
  • 41. R o u s s e a u ’ s P h ilo s o p h y ( III) ► I n T h e S o c ia l C o n t r a c t :  T h e r ig h t k in d o f p o lit ic a l o r d e r c o u ld m a k e p e o p le t r u ly m o r a l a n d f r e e .  In d iv id u a l m o r a l f r e e d o m c o u ld b e a c h ie v e d o n ly b y le a r n in g t o s u b je c t o n e ’ s in d iv id u a l in t e r e s t s t o t h e “ G e n e r a l W ill. ”  In d iv id u a ls d id t h is b y e n t e r in g in t o a s o c ia l c o n t r a c t n o t w it h t h e ir r u le r s , b u t w it h e a c h o t h e r .
  • 42. R o u s s e a u ’ s P h ilo s o p h y ( IV )► P e o p le w o u ld b e m o s t f r e e a nd mora l unde r a r e p u b lic a n f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t w it h d ir e c t d e m o c r a c y.► H o w e v e r , t h e in d iv id u a l c o u ld b e “ f o r c e d t o b e fre e ” b y the te rm s o f the s o c ia l c o n t r a c t .  H e p r o v id e d n o le g a l p r o t e c t io n s f o r in d iv id u a l r ig h t s .
  • 43. P o p u l a r iz i ng t heE n l ig h t e n
  • 44. A P a r is ia n S a lo n
  • 45. M a d a m e G e o f f r in ’ s S a lo n
  • 46. T h e S a l o n n ie r e s Ma da me Ma da me G e o f f r in M a d e m o is e ll S uza nne( 16 9 9 - 17 7 7 ) e Nec ker J u lie d e ( 17 3 9 - 17 9 4 ) L e s p in a s s e
  • 47. O t h e r F e m a le S a lo n s► W e a lt h y J e w is h w o m e n c r e a t e d n in e o f t h e f o u r t e e n s a lo n s in B e r lin .► In W a r s a w , P r in c e s s Z o f ia C z a r to r ys k a g a th e r e d a ro u nd he r the re fo rm le a d e r s o f P o la n d - L it h u a n ia .► M id d le -c la s s w o m e n in L o n d o n u s e d t h e ir s a lo n s
  • 48. F e m a l e P h il o s o p h e s► E m ilie d u C h a t a le t , a F r e n c h n o b le w o m a n ( 17 0 6 - 17 4 9 ) .► W r o t e e x t e n s iv e ly a b o u t t h e m a t h e m a t ic s a n d p h y s ic s o f G o t t f r ie d W ilh e lm v o n L e b n it z a n d Is a a c N e w t o n .► H e r lo v e r , V o lt a ir e , le a r n e d m u c h o f h is s c ie n c e f r o m he r.
  • 49. D e n is D id e r o t ( 17 13 - 17 l 8l 4t )h in g s ►A mu s t b e e x a min e d , debat ed, in v e s t ig a t e d wit h o u t e x c e p t io n a n d wit h o u t r e g a r d f o r a n y o n e ’s f e e l in g s . ► W e wil l s p e a k
  • 50. D i d e r o t ’ s E n c y c l o p é d ie
  • 51. T h e E n c y c l o p é d ie► C o mp l e t e c y c l e o f k n o wl e d g e … … ...… …… c hange t he gener al wa y o f t h in k in g .► 2 8 v o lu m e s .► A lp h a b e t ic a l, c r o s s - re fe re n c e d , illu s t r a t e d .
  • 52. P a g e s f r o m D id e r o t ’ s E n c y c l o p e d ie
  • 53. P a g e s f r o m D id e r o t ’ s E n c y c l o p e d ie
  • 54. P a g e s f r o m D id e r o t ’ s E n c y c l o p e d ie
  • 55. S u b s c r ip t io n s t oD i d e r o t ’ s E n c y c l o p e d ie
  • 56. T h e “ R e p u b lic o f L e tte rs ”► U R B A N –  g a t h e r in g o f e lit e s in t h e c it ie s . ( s a lo n s )► U R B A N E – c o s m o p o lit a n , w o r ld ly  m u s ic , a r t , lit e r a t u r e , p o lit ic s  re a d ne w s p a p e rs & the
  • 57. R e a d in g D u r in g t h e► L i t e r a lc g :h t e n m e n t En iy  8 0 % % % o /o f o r m e n ; 6 0 o /o w ome n.►B o o k s w e r e e x p e n s iv e ( o n e d a y’ s w a g e s ) .►M a n y r e a d e r s f o r e a c h b o o k ( 2 0 : 1)  n o v e ls , p la y s & o t h e r lit e r a t u r e .
  • 58. A n In c r e a s e in R e a d in g
  • 59. A n In c r e a s e in R e a d in g
  • 60. “ Mus t Read” B ooks of t h e T im e
  • 61. “E n l ig h t enedDe s p o t is
  • 62. F r e d e r ic k t h e G r e a t o f P r u s s i a ( r . 17 4 0 - 17 8 6 ) ► 17 12 - – 17 8 6 . ► S uc c eeded h is f a t h e r , F r e d e r ic k W illia m I ( t h e “ S o ld ie r K in g ” ) . ► He s aw
  • 63. C a t h e r in e t h e G r e a t ( r . 17 6 2 - 17 9 6 )► G e rma nP r in c e s s S o p h ieF r ie d e r ik e A ug us teof
  • 64. R e fo rm e r? OR D e s p o t? 17 6 7 : C a t h e r i n e s u m m o n s t h e L e g is la t iv e C o m m is s io n . 17 6 8 - 17 7 4 : R u s s o - T u r k i s h Wa r. 17 7 1- 17 7 5 : P u g a c h e v R e b e llio n is s u p p r e s s e d . 17 7 2 : F i r s t p a r t i t i o n o f P o la n d . 17 8 5 : C h a r t e r o f
  • 65. R e fo rm e r? OR D e s p o t?
  • 66. T h e P a r t it io n s o f P o la n d - 17 7 2 - 17 9 3 -
  • 67. R u s s ia n E x p a n s io n is m i n t h e L a t e 18 c
  • 68. J o s e p h II o f A u s t r ia ( r . 17 6 5 - 17 9 0 ) ► 17 4 1 -– 17 9 0 . ► H is mo the r w a s M a r ia The re s a .
  • 69. H a b s b u r g F a m ily C re s t
  • 70. J o s e p h II, H o ly R o m a n E mpe ror 17 7 2 : F i r s t p a r t i t i o n o fP o la n d .17 7 8 - 17 7 9 : H e f a i l e d t o a n n e xB a v a r ia t o A u s t r ia n la n d s . 17 8 1: D e c l a r e d t h e T o l e r a t i o nP a te nt. 17 8 1: A b o l i t i o n o f s e r f d o ma n d fe u d a l d u e s . 17 8 5 : H e f a i l e d t o e x c h a n g et h e A u s t r ia N e t h e r la n d s f o r B a v a r ia .
  • 71. J o s e p h II o f A u s t r ia
  • 72. Th e L e g a c y o f th e E n lig h t e n m e n t ?1. T h e d e m o c r a t i c r e v o lu t io n s b e g u n in A m e r i c a i n 17 7 6 a n d c o n t in u e d in A m s t e r d a m , B r u s s e ls , a n d e s p e c ia lly in P a r is in t h e la t e1. R e 8 o rsm ,p d e m v e r y c y , a n d 17 f 0 , u t e o c r a r ee sutb lr c agno s mr n md n te o n W p e in ive ha e b e p le e d i re ve . t h a c d e f e rn s iv o c a b l y o n the We s te rn a g e nd a .
  • 73. Th e L e g a c y o f th e E n lig h t e n m e n t ?1. N e w f o r m s o f c i v i l s o c i e t y a r o s e – -- c lu b s , s a lo n s , f r a t e r n a ls , p r iv a t e a c a d e m ie s , le n d in g lib r a r ie s , a n de 19 c c o n s e r v a t i v e s p r o f e s s i o n a l /s c i e n t i f i c b l a m n id a tt ifo n s t.h e m o d e r n org a e z i or “ e g a lit a r ia n d is e a s e ” ( o nc e re fo rm e rs b e g a n t o c r it ic iz e e s t a b lis h e d
  • 74. Th e L e g a c y o f th e E n lig h t e n m e n t ?e It e s t a b lis h e d a m a t e r ia lis t ic t r a d it io n b a s e d o n a n e t h ic a l s y s t e m d e r iv e d s o le ly f r o m a n a t u r a lis t ic a c c o unt o f the huma nu T h e o r e t ic a lly e n d o w e d c o n d it io n ( t h e “ R e lig io n w fi tN af tuul l e ” v)i.l a n d l e g a l o h rc i r ig h t s , t h e in d iv id u a l h a d c o m e in t o e x is t e n c e a s a p o lit ic a l a n d s o c ia l f o r c e

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