Chapter 2Physical and MotorDevelopment ofChildren andAdolescents
I. Physical and Motor Development.
Children from higher socio-economic groups tend to be better nourished, and receivebetter prenatal and postnatal care, variations in height, weight and muscular dev’t are in their favor.
EARLY CHILDHOODHe will begin to communicate bymaking noises and imitatingsounds.Learning colors , basic mathconcepts and socialization skills ashe plays with other persons.Beginning to develop early readingskills.
MIDDLE CHILDHOODEnjoys practicing both motor and learning skillsto improve his abilities.GROSS MOTOR SKILLSThe large scale body movement skills such aswalking and running.Boys develop these skills slightly faster than dogirls, except for skills involving balance &precise movements.Girls to tend to develop fine motor skillsslightly faster than boys.
AdolescenceThe early signs of maturation is the adolescentgrowth spurt or a noticeable increase in height& weight.Female: usually begins bet. ages 10 and 14 andends by age 18.Male: usually begins bet. Ages 10 and 16, andends with 18.
MENARCHE- onset menstruation among girls NOCTURNAL EMISSIONS- (wet dreams) experience by the teen age boys a harmless release of semen during sleep.
II. Brain Development.
A. Early childhood Brain continues develop after birth. Itdoubles in weight after 6mos. at which time it weighs about half that of the adult brain.
B. Middle childhood95% of brain growth is reached by the time a child reaches the age of 9.The demand of the growth processes give way to changes in the brain metabolism.
C. Adolescence.Teenaged years , there are two major braingrowth spurts (1) occurring bet. ages 13 to 15. and the (2) beginning around age 17 and w/c continues into early childhood.
Environmental influences of dev’t of the brain. chronic malnutrition. Bad environments. Lateralization.- The corpus collosum , grows , and matures during the early childhood years at faster rate than in any other period of life.
III. Factors affecting development: 1. Maternal Nutrition. 2. Child Nutrition. 3. Early Nutrition.
Factors that Affect Growth 1. Genetic The role of DNA- inherited trait.- Use as a fairly accurate predictor of height. Predicting a child’s Height- the height of a child’s parents in inches can be used to predict height as an adult.
Delayed Growth Patterns- theproblem maybe delayed born aged. -Constitutional growth delay.Other factors affecting growth- a deficiency of growth hormones.
2. Nutrition. -contributes to good health throughout all phases in life.Carbohydrates- are the preferred source of energy for the body.Protein- important for appropriategrowth as well as immune function and mentainance of muscle.
Healthy Fats- is often given a bad rap.Breakfast- is the most important meal of the day. Dairy- is an essential mineral for bone development. B vitamins
3. Medical condition- kids and teens grow and go through puberty at different times.
4. Exercise- influences statural,hypertrophic and reparative growth.
5. Sleep- growth hormone issecreted during the night during specific sleep stages.
6. Emotional well-being.The key to a happy and healthy life.
IV. Exceptional Development: A. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES..The physically handicapped have impairments that are temporary or permanent such as: paralysis, stiffness or lack of motorcoordination of bones, muscles or joints so that they need special equipment or help in moving about Crippling disabilities include the following: Impairment of the bone and muscle systems which affects mobility and manual dexterity difficult and impossible as in the case of the amputees and those with severe fractures; Impairment of the nerve and muscle systems making mobility awkward and uncoordinated as in cerebral palsy; andDeformities or absence of body organs and systems necessary for mobility like in the case of the club-foot and paraplegics. It is evident that growth is affected by physical disabilities likeorthopedic handicaps, disfunction of the neuro-muscular system ,and congenital deformities. These are contributory factors in the making of the group of exceptional children called the crippled.
Causes of HandicapsA number of factors have been identified as cause ofcrippling handicaps, impairments, and disabilities. These are :
1. Prenatal factors . These are factors that affect normal development before and after conception virtually rasting up to the first trimester or the thirdtrimester of life . Specially these include the following: A. Genetic or chromosomal aberrations. This results from blood incompatibility of the husband and wife. There is a transfer of defective genes from parent to offspring.B. Prematurity. Birth of the fetus is usually earlier than the ninth month of pregnancy. C. Infection. This is caused by bacteria or virus on the fetus in the womb of the mother, the germs usually come from highly communicable diseases like rubellaand veneral diseases. The neonatal sepsis is caused by infection either directly from the mother or the outside environment like poorly sanitized delivery room, infected hospital gadgets, and many others.
D. Malnutritions. Insufficient intake of food nutrientsnecessary to sustain growth and development of the fetus andthe mother.E.Irradiation. Pertains to the exposure of the pregnant motherto radioactive elements like x-ray. Exposure of the mother alsoaffects the fetus.
F. Metabolic disturbances. Inability of the mother or the fetus to make use of food intake.G. Drug abuse. Entry of large quantities of medicines into the body thuseffecting the fetus. Thalidomide used by mothers has affected thousands of babies who were born without limbs and other extremities
2. Perinatal factors. These are factors causingcrippling conditions during the period of birth.a .birth injury. These are injuries suffered by the newborn baby. Injury to the spine will cause paralysis kernicterus. b. difficult labor. Hard and prolonged labor before the actual birth which interrupts the oxygen intake of the mother to uterus.c. hemorrhage. Profuse bleeding of the motherduring birth which might be caused by damage of the uterus.
3. Postnatal factors. These are factors causing crippling conditions after birth.a. infections. These are caused by illness like diphtheria, typhoid, meningitis, encephalomyclitis, and rickets in infants. b. tumor and abscess in the brain. They destroy the brain cells connected with movement thus impairing mobility. c. fractures and dislocations. These are destructions of mobility organs either through falls and other accidents causing bone fractures or dislocation.
d. tuberculosis of the bones. TB germs are likely toattack the bones of the very young causing crippling conditions.e. cerebrovascular injuries. These are injuries in the head region enough to cause brain damage.f. post-seizure or post-surgical complications. Theseare convulsions after the delivery of the baby which cause crippling conditions.g. arthritis, rheumatism. These are diseases affectingthe spinal column and muscles of locomotion at the back.
B. SENSORY IMPAIREMENTS1. Visual impairement.2. Blindness is the inability of the person to see anything.
2. Perinatal causes.a. Injury sustained during delivery.b. Anoxia or lack of oxygen due to prolonged labor.c. Heavy sedation due to overdose of anesthesia in twilight deliveries.d. Blockage of the infant’s respiratory passage.
3. Postnatal causes. a. Diseases , ailments and ther conditions. b. Accidents/trauma falls, head bumps , overexposure to high frequency sounds and extremely loud explosions.
4. Other causes.a. heredity.b. Prematurity.c. Malnutrition.d. Rh factor- blood incompatibility of parents.e. Overdosage of medecine.
Classification of Hearing Impaired Children.1. Acc. to age at onset of deafness.a. Congenitally deafb. Adventitiously deaf.
2. acc. to language development.a. Prelingually deafb. Postilingual deaf
3. Acc. to place of impairement.a. Conductive hearing loss.b. Sensory neutral hearing loss.c. Mixed hearing loss.
4. acc. to degree of hearing loss.a. slight.b. Mild .c. Moderate .d. Severe .e. Profound.
C. Learning Disabilities. The inability to listen well, processinformation readily, and inability to talk,read, write, spell, and even add numbers.Also referred to as perceptual handicaps,brain injury, brain dysfunction and the like.
The different types learning disabilities are:1. Dyslexia – reading2. Dysgraphia- writing3. Visual agnosia- sight4. Motor aphasia- speaking5. Dysathria- sttutering6. Auditory agnosia- hearing7. Olfactory agnosia- smelling8. Dyscalcula -math
D. Attention Deficit Hyperacivity Disorder (ADHD)Refers to a chronic biobehavioral thatinitially manifests in childhood & ischaracterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity,and or inattention.
Symptoms:Inattention:Fails to give close attention to detailsor makes careless mistakes inschoolwork.Difficulty sustaining attention in tasksor play activities.Often forgetful in daily activities.
Hyperactivity:Often talks excessively .Often has difficulty playing orengaging in leisure activities quietly.
Impulsivity:Often blurts out answers beforequestions have been completedOften has difficulty awaiting inhis/her turnOften interrupts or intrudes onothers
3 Principles of behavior therapy are:1. Set specific goals.2. Provide rewards & consenquences.3. Keep using the rewards and consequences.