AGROCLIMATIC VARIATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES

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AGROCLIMATIC VARIATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES

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  • AGROCLIMATIC VARIATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES

    1. 1. AGROCLIMATIC VARIATION AND INFERTILITY IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO JEROME.A ©Jerome A
    2. 2. INFERTILITY STATUS (C) JEROME A
    3. 3. INFERTILITY INFERTILITY • reduced or irregular reproductive function of an animal • also implies delayed or irregular production of annual live calf LEADS TO ECONOMIC LOSS BY •Widening of dry period •Reduced calving rate •Reduced lactation during lifespan (Agarwal and Tomer, 2003) ECONOMIC LOSSES IN TERMS OF MONEY IN INDIAN LIVESTOCK IS NOT AVAILABLE (Gurucharan Singh et al., 2003, Singh et al., 2003, Das et al., 2004) (C) JEROME A
    4. 4.  CAUSES OF INFERTILITY o ACQUIRED /ENVIRONMENT OR CONGENITAL/HEREDITARY CAUSES (LAGERLOF,1954) o PHYSIOLOGICAL,ANATOMICAL,INFECTIOUS CAUSES (KODAGALI,1968) OTHER CAUSES NUTRITIONAL HORMONAL MANAGEMENTAL (C) JEROME A
    5. 5. A. CONGENITAL DISORDERS CONGENITAL CATTLE BUFFALO DISORDERS (%) (%)OVARIAN HYPOPLASIA 1.28- 1.50 < 1.0 (DAMODARAN, 1956) (NARASIMA, 1982) FREEMARTINISM 0.01-0.5 < 1.0 ( RAO, 1980; ( RAO, 1971; NAIDU ,2004) MURTHY, 1990 ) PAROVARIAN CYST 0.2-1.0 1.0 ( RAO, 1980; (RAMA RAO, 1965) RAJA, 1998; NAIDU, 2004)INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN HYPOPLASIA IS MORE THAN OTHER CONGENITAL DISORDERS (C) JEROME A
    6. 6. B. FUNCTIONAL CAUSES OF INFERTILITY CONDITION CATTLE BUFFALO CROSSBRED (%) (%) (%) I.FOLLICULAR 0.5-2.7 1.26- 3.4 8 -10.26 CYST (RAO,1990; (BHATTARCHARYA ( RAO ,1976; NAIDU, 1999; 1954; NAIDU,2004) KULKARNI, 2002; MALIK ,1960) II.LUTEAL CYST 1.45- 3.0 0.66- 12.50 9 -13.30 (SINGH. 1981; ( KAIKINI, 1974; ( SINHA ,1988; LUKTUKE,1967; DAMODARAN , KULKARNI , KULKARNI,2002) 1956: 2002) RAO ,1965; KUTTY, 2003)INCIDENCE OF COD IS MORE IN CROSSBREDS THAN IN CATTLE & BUFFALO (C) JEROME A
    7. 7. III.ANESTRUM CATTLE BUFFALO CROSSBRED (%) (%) (%) 7.72-60.0 20.0-67.0 13.13-40.2 BHATTACHARYA (GURUCHARAN ( RAO , 1981; 1954; SINGH, 2003; SINGH ,2001;(NARLADKAR ,1994; NARLADKAR, 1994; SHARMA ,2004; GURUCHARAN, PURBEY & BHARKAD, 2003) 2003; AGARWAL, 1982; PANDIT, 2004; LUKTUKE ,1978; BHARKAD, 2003) NAIDU, 2004; PUROHIT, 2005) INCIDENCE IS HIGH IN ALL THREE (C) JEROME A
    8. 8. ANESTRUM IN CATTLE: STATE WISE GUJARAT 45.97 KULKARNI, 2002 BIHAR 39 SINGH ,1981 PUNJAB 67.11 GURUCHARAN, 2003 KERALA 65 KUTTY, 2003MAHARASHTRA 45.97 KULKARNI ,2002 AP 49.70 RAO, 1993 ORISSA 15.97 DAS et al., 2004 MP 53.15 PANDIT ,2004 PUNJAB 11.90 NARINDER, 1986PREVALENT IN MOST OF THE STATES OF INDIA (C) JEROME A
    9. 9. ANESTRUM IN BUFFALO INCIDENCE (%) PLACE REFERENCES 9.09 TN SELVARAJU, 2005 30.76-50 AP NAIDU, 2004 RAO, 1982 45.97 GUJARAT KULKARNI, 2002 56 KARNATAKA HUSSAIN, 1984 53.15 MP PANDIT, 2004ANESTRUM IS MORE PREVALENT IN KARNATAKA, MP, AP,GUJARAT (C) JEROME A
    10. 10. C.PATHOLOGICAL CAUSESCONDITION CATTLE BUFFALO CROSSBRED (%) (%) (%)OOPHORITIS 0.59-0.6 0.48-3.92 0.22-1.26 ( RAO , 1972; (RANGASWAMIAH (RAO 1976; KUTTY, 2003) 1981; RAO 1982; RAO 1982; NAIDU 2004) MURTHY 1971; SINGH 2001) OVARIO 1.5-1.8 15.4-20.32 0.3-0.6 BURSALADHESIONS (NAIDU, 2004) (RANGASWAMIAH (RAO 1982; 1981; SHARMA KODAGALI 1983; 2004) SINGH 2001) BOTH CONDITION SEEN MORE IN BUFFALOES (C) JEROME A
    11. 11. CONDITION CATTLE /REFERENCE BUFFALO/ CROSSBRED/ (%) REFERENCE REFERENCE (%) (%)SALPINGITIS 0.5-1.18 0.28 -10.52 0.22- 1.3 ( BHAT, 1954 (RAO, 1982; (NAIDU AND RAO, BHANDARI ,1970 NAIDU, 1981; RAO 19 81; 2004) SINGH 1981; MALIK 1960; NAIDU 2004) KODAGALI 1993; KULKARNI, 2002) PYOMETRA 1.18-7.9 0.28-32.02 0.4-0.53 (BHAT ,1954; (NAIDU , (NAIDU & RAO, 1981; BHANDARI ,1965; 1981; KUTTY, 2003) RAO ,1971; KULKARNI 2002) MALIK,1980; KODAGALI,1983) SALPINGITIS & PYOMETRA HIGH IN BUFFALOES (C) JEROME A
    12. 12. CONDITION CATTLE BUFFALO CROSSBRED (%) (%) (%)CERVICITIS 2.1-10 0.28-10.52 2.23-5.5 ( NARASIMA ,1982; (BHATACHARYA ( KAIKINI ,1981; KAIKINI, 1981; 1954; RAO 2000; DEKA, 1980; RAO ,1971; SINGH, 2001) PANDEY, 1981; KODAGALI ,1983; SINGH ,2001) PATIL, 1984;VAGINITIS 0.59-28.4 SHARMA4.32 0.18- ,2004) 0.78- 0.8 (RAO ,1972; (RAO ,197;1 ( RAO, 1982; KAVANI, 1985; KUMAR ,1985; SHARMA, 2004) NAIR ,1975; KAVANI ,1985) NAIDU, 2004) CERVICITIS: HIGH IN CATTLE & BUFFALO VAGINITIS: JEROME A IN CATTLE (C) HIGH
    13. 13. ENDOMETRITIS - CATTLE ( STATE WISE) TN 7.10% SELVARAJU, 2005 GUJARAT 0.74% -8.06% KULKARNI ,2002 BIHAR 9.61% SINGH ,1999 KARNATAKA 29.00% HUSSAIN , 2000 AP 11.31-32.80% RAO, 1993MAHARASHTRA 0.74% KULKARNI, 2002 ORISSA 25.08% DAS et al., 2004 JAMMU 7.00% TIKU ,1981 BIHAR 9.60% SINGH, 1981 MP 3.7% PANDIT et al., 2004 MORE PREVALENT IN AP,ORISSA,KARNATAKA (C) JEROME A
    14. 14. BUFFALO ENDOMETRITIS STATEWISEIncidence Place Reference 9.09 TN SEVARAJU et al.,200530.76-56.36 AP NAIDU & RAO , 2004 67.11 PUNJAB GURUCHARAN SINGH et al.,2003 51.00 KARNATAKA HUSSAIN&MUN IRAJU,1984 60.83 MP PANDIT,2004 MORE PREVALENT IN BUFFALO REARING AREAS (C) JEROME A
    15. 15. ENDOMETRITIS CROSS BRED INCIDENCE REFERENCE 8 .76-30.77 KAIKINI et AL.,1981 RAO & KOTAYYA, 2000INCIDENCE LESS THAN BUFFALO BUT MORE THAN CATTLE (C) JEROME A
    16. 16. GESATATIONAL AND PARTURIENT DISORDERSDISORDER CATTLE % BUFFALO % CROSSBRED %PROLAPSEVAGINAL 0.59-2.40 1-10 0.62-0.84 (TAMBE 1974; (SHETH, 1970 (KAIKINI, 1981 PANDEY 1981; VERMA,1999 VERMA&MISHRA, VERMA 1984) KAIKINI, 1976) 19840UTERINE 0.84-1.70 2.5-19.50 6-0.84 (KAIKINI,1986 (KAIKINI, 1976 (VERMA & SHUKLA,2000) RAMAN, 1977 MISHRA,2000) VERMA, 2000).RFM 2.3-11 1.2-33.8 7-14.10 (TAMBE,1974 ( KAKINI, 1976 (SINHA,2000 SINHA,1987 CHOTAIN,1983 PANDEY,1981 PANDIT,1999 DEVARAJ,1982) KAIKINI,1986 RAO,2000) PANDIT,1999) (C) JEROME A PROLAPSE AND RFM :HIGH IN BUFFALOES
    17. 17. UTERINE 0.7-2.8 7.5-13.5 0.1-3.4TORSION ( MANNARI , (SUBNIS1980; (RAO ,1982 1995; CHOTHANI1972 PATEL, 1983) SANE,1999; VERMA ,1982; PANDIT ,1990; JITSINGH, VERMA, 2000) 2000)ABORTION 1.3-4.72 7.5-10.5 3.9-9.63 (KAIKINI 1972; ( CHATTERJEE 1970; CHAUDARY (NAIR,2000 1986) NAIR ,1973; KAIKINI,1986 KAIKINI, 1981; PANDEY ET PANDEY ,2000) AL.,2000) TORSION: MORE SEEN IN BUFFALOES ABORTION:MORE SEEN IN BUFFALOES (C) JEROME A
    18. 18. DYSTOCIA 0.6-8.88 0.7-6.3 0.30- 9.06 (TAMBE, 1974; (KAIKINI ,1986 (SHUKLA,1978; KAIKINI , BHALARU,2000) PANDEY,1981) 1976; SHUKLA ,1978 NARASIMA, 1982; PANDEY , 1981; N RAO, 1982 VERMA ,1984) MORE SEEN IN CROSSBRED CATTLE (C) JEROME A
    19. 19. REPEAT BREEDING ( CATTLE ) TN 3.70% SELVARAJU, 2005 MP 2.70% PANDIT, 2004 ORISSA 0.61% DAS et al., 2004 MAHARASHTRA 25.05% KULKARNI ,2002 KERALA 35% KUTTY, 2003 PUNJAB 12.30-18.20% GURUCHARAN SINGH ,2003 SINGH ,2003 BIHAR 22.89% SINGH, 1981 GUJARAT 25.05% KUKARNAI ,2002 KARNATAKA 9% HUSSAIN ,1984 JHARKAND 16.82% DINESH, 2006INCIDENCE HIGH IN KERALA,MAHARASHTRA,PUNJAB,BIHAR,GUJARAT (C) JEROME A
    20. 20. CATTLE BREED WISEINCIDENCE BREED REFERENCES (%) 14-27 HARIANA KHAN,1967; SINGH ,1986; DINESH, 2006) 5-33 RED SINDHI AMBOODRIPAD, 1972 KULKARNI, 2002 16.5 THARPARKAR BHOSREKAR, 1973 AHMED ,2005 (C) JEROME A
    21. 21. REPEAT BREEDING BUFFALO BREED WISEINCIDENCE BREED REFERENCE (%) 7.37 JAFFARABADI KODAGALI,1968; DAS, 2004 10.76 MURAH BANSAL,1978; SINGH,1986 6.00 ND RAO,1980; RAO,2004 (C) JEROME A
    22. 22. REPEAT BREEDING BUFFALO :STATEWISE MP 0.61% PANDIT ,2004 DINESH, 2006 AP 29.80% NAIDU , 2004 PUNJAB 12.20% SINGH, 2003KARNATAKA 20% HUSSAIN ,,1984 DHABALE, 2004 TN 4.03% SELVARAJU, 2005 GUJARAT 25.05% DAS ,2004 JASPREET, 2005 HIGH IN AP,GUJARAT (C) JEROME A
    23. 23. REPEAT BREEDING CROSSBRED INCIDENCE REFERENCES 6.8-28.8 (RAO ,1976; NAIDU & RAO, 1981; PANDEY et al .,1981)INCIDENCE MORE IN CROSSBRED THAN CATTLE AND BUFFALO (C) JEROME A
    24. 24. INFECTIOUS INFERTILITY DISEASE INCIDENCE REFERENCE Brucellosis 4-10% Ramasastry(1999) Sandhu ,(2001) Rajesh, (2003) Jainanandh ,(2006) Vibriosis < 0.5% Raja, (1972)Trichomoniasis 11-28% PareeK, (1994) Bahera ,1987 Dubey ,1994 IBR 14-27% Rajesh, (2002) Sarumathi ,(2002) Tripathi ,(1998) BVD 43% of aborted Mukherjee, (2000) cases Pattnaik,(2000) Mycosis 5% of aborted Pal et al., (1985) (C) JEROME A cases Sirohi, 2000
    25. 25. LISTERIOSIS 3-25% DUTTA ,1978 BARBUDDHE ,2002LEPTOSPIROSIS 4-20% HUSSAIN ,1981 TRIPATHI, 2001 TB 0.5-2% MANDAL, 1999 VENEREAL: BRUCELLOSIS INCIDENCE IS HIGH OTHERS: LISTERIOSIS INCIDENCE IS HIGH VIRAL:IBR INCIDENCE IS HIGH (C) JEROME A
    26. 26. CONDITION CATTLE% CROSSBRED% BUFFALO%ANESTRUM 7.72- 13.13-40.20 20.0-67.0 60.0REPEAT 0.61- 6.8-28.8 O.61-29.8BREEDIMG 25.05ENDOMETRITIS 0.74- 8.76-30.77 9.07-67.11 32.80PYOMETRA 1.18-7.9 0.4-0.53 0.28-32.02COD 0.5-3 8.0-13.30 0.66-12.50CERVICITIS 2.1-10.0 2.23-5.5 0.28-10.52SALPINGITIS 0.5-1.18 0.22-1.3 0.28-10.52RFM 2.3-11.0 7.0-14.10 1-19.50DYSTOCIA 0.6-8.8 0.30-9.06 0.7-6.3ABORTION 1.3-4.72 3.9-9.63 7.5-10.5 (C) JEROME A
    27. 27. INCIDENCES ANESTRUM: HIGH INCATTLE,BUFFALO,CROSSBRED REPEAT BREEDING : HIGH IN CROSSBRED THAN CATTLE & BUFFALO ENDOMETRITIS: HIGH IN BUFFALOES COD:HIGH IN CROSSBRED THAN CATTLE & BUFFALO CERVICITIS:HIGH IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES PYOMETRA: HIGH IN BUFFALOES SALPINGITIS:HIGH IN BUFFALOES RFM : HIGH IN BUFFALOES DYSTOCIA: HIGH IN CROSSBRED ABORTION: HIGH IN BUFFALOES (C) JEROME A
    28. 28. AGROCLIMATIC PROFILE OF INDIA (C) JEROME A
    29. 29. VARIOUS COMPONENTS SOIL PLANT RESOURCES SEASONAL VARIATION (LIVESTOCK SECTOR OF INDIA, 1995) (C) JEROME A
    30. 30. AGROCLIMATE ZONES OF INDIAZONES OF INDIA  THE HIMALAYAN ZONE  THE CENTRAL ZONE  THE PENINSULAR ZONE  THE NORTH-WESTERN DRY ZONE  THE NORTH-EASTERN ZONE  THE SOUTHERN HILL ZONE (C) JEROME A
    31. 31. AGROCLIMATIC ZONES OF INDIA (C) JEROME A
    32. 32. CATTLE ENDOWEMENT IN VARIOUS ZONES OF INDIA HIGHEST DENSITY MID GANGETIC PLAIN,WEST COASTAL,SOUTHERNPLATEAU LOWEST DENSITY WESTERNHIMALAYA,UPPER GANGETIC PLAINS,WESTERNDRY,GUJARAT PLAINS,EASTCOAST PLAINS AND HILL REGION CROSSBREDS WESTERN COASTALREGION (C) JEROME A
    33. 33. BUFFALO ENDOWMENT IN VARIOUS ZONES OF INDIAHIGHEST DENSITY  GANGETIC PLAINS  EAST COASTAL REGIONLOWEST DENSITY  WESTERN DRY REGION  WESTERN COASTAL REGION (C) JEROME A
    34. 34. SOIL PROFILE (C) JEROME A
    35. 35. MINERALS AND SOIL BASAL METABOLISM,GROWTH, REPRODUCTIVITY CYCLICITY OF THE ANIMAL DEPENDS LARGELY ON MINERALS (NRC , 2000) EXISTENCE OF SOIL –PLANT –ANIMALINTERRELATIONSHIP FOR SOME TRACE MINERAL (YADAV AND KHIRWAR , 1999) LOW REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY - DEFICIENCY OFCOPPER,ZINC ,MOLYBDENUM IN MOST REGIONS OF INDIA (BARAUH 2000) (C) JEROME A
    36. 36.  MACRO MINERALS (GREATER THAN 100ppm) CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, MAGNESIUM, POTASSSIUM, SODIUM, CHLORINE ,SULFUR TRACE MINERALS (LESS THAN 100ppm ) COPPER,ZINC,COBALT,IODINE,IRON,MANGANESE,SELENI UM,CHROMIUM,MOLYBDENUM, CADMIUM,ARSENIC, LEAD. NEWER TRACE MINERALS NICKEL,BORON, LITHIUM, TIN,VANADIUM (MASTERS AND WHITE 1996) (C) JEROME A
    37. 37. MINERAL PROFILE OF SOME STATESSTATES ZINC CU FE MN (1-2 ppm) (3-4 ppm) (10-12 ppm) (3-8 ppm)MP 0.61 2.40 10.5 25.1TN 0.98 2.34 13.9 8.4GUJ ARAT 0.69 2.75 8.9 14.6BIHAR 0.98 2.52 14.7 4.2PUNJAB 2.06 1.10 13.3 4MAHARASHTRA 0.57 0.65 5.6 4.7HARYANA 2.0 2.3 18.5 11.7ORISSA 1.17 5.46 5 34.3UP 0.53 0.5 67.0 22.2 ALL INDIA CO-ORDINATED PROJECT OF TRACE MINERALS 2004 (C) JEROME A
    38. 38. FEED RESOURCES (C) JEROME A
    39. 39. IN TERMS OF CONCENTRATE GREEN FODDER GRAZING LAND (LIVESTOCK SECTOR OF INDIA ) (C) JEROME A
    40. 40. CONCENTRATE AVAILABILITY BETTER REGIONS TRANSGANGETIC PLAINS, UPPER GANGETIC PLAIN AVALABILITY 26-43% MODERATE REGIONS EAST COASTAL PLAINS ,WEST COASTAL PLAINS , CENTRAL PLATEAU AVAILABILITY 21-23% LOW AVAILABILITY REGION WESTERN HIMALAYA,WESTERN DRY REGION, WESTERN COASTAL REGION AVALABILTY 6-7.5% (C) JEROME A
    41. 41. GREEN FODDER BETTER REGIONS TRANSGANGETIC PLAINS , WESTERN COASTAL REGION AVAILABILITY HIGHEST IN TRANS GANGETIC PLAIN 61% REGION GOOD REGION EASTERN COASTAL REGION , UPPER GANGETIC PLAIN NEXT BEST EASTHIMALAYA ,EAST COAST AND WEST COAST WITH MODRATE FOREST COVER 38-43% WORST REGIONS WESTERN DRY REGION ,CENTRAL PLATEAU REGION LOW REGIONS BELOW 10% (C) JEROME A
    42. 42. GRAZING LAND HIGHEST IN WEST HIMALAYA AND EAST PLAINS AVAILABILITY 50% LOWEST IN TRANSGANGETIC PLAIN AVAILABILITY 10% IN OTHER STATES AVAILABILITY 2-5% (C) JEROME A
    43. 43. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PLANT RESOURCES  BETTER REGIONS: TRANSGANGETIC PLAIN,UPPER GANGETIC PLAIN, WESTERN PLATEAU REGION  MODERATE REGIONS: EASTCOASTALREGION,MI DDLE GANGETIC PLAIN ,LOWER GANGETIC PLAINS  WORST REGIONS : WESTERN DRY , GUJARAT PLAINS,LIVESTOCK SECTOR OF INDIA HIMALAYA REGION (C) JEROME A
    44. 44. SEASONAL VARIATION (C) JEROME A
    45. 45. SEASONAL VARIATION AFFECTING REPRODUCTION SEASONALITY IN CONCEPTION OF BUFFALOES DUE TOSEASONAL VARIATION - RAO AND RAO ,1968 ENVIRONMENT TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY AFFECTS SEXUALACTIVITY IN BUFFALOES - GOSWAMI AND NAIR, 1965 SEASONAL RHYTHMS OF ESTRUS WERE SEEN ASSOCIATED WITHGRADUAL INCREASE IN DAYLIGHT- TOMAR AND DESAI ,1965 POSITVE INFLUENCE OF PHOTOPERIODISM ON ANIMALS SEXUALBEHAVIOUR - RAO AND RAO, 1996 (C) JEROME A
    46. 46. SEASONAL VARIATIONVARIOUS COMPONENTS  SUMMER  WINTER  RAINFALL (C) JEROME A
    47. 47. SEASONAL VARIATION IN VARIOUS STATES STATES CLIMATE RAINFALL TEMPERATURE (mm) (c) AP SEMI ARID 896 21-44 ASSAM ARID 2000-3000 12-38 BIHAR SEMI ARID 1000 30-44 GUJARAT ARID 300-700 39-13 UP SEMI ARID 594-2000 15-42 PUNJAB SEMI ARID 500-1000 12 -45 HARYANA SEMIARID 700-1000 10-45 RAJASTHAN ARID 300-400 30-45MAHARASHRTA SEMI ARID 500-700 23-45 TN SEMI ARID 800-1000 30-40 KERALA ARID 1000-2000 24-31 NARP REPORT (C) JEROME A
    48. 48. CLIMATIC VARIATION IN VARIOUS PARTS OF INDIA SUMMER WESTERN NORTHERN SOUTHERN EASTERN (C) JEROME A
    49. 49. RAINFALLEASTERN SOUTHERN NORTHERN WESTERN (C) JEROME A
    50. 50. WINTERNORTHERN WESTERN EASTERN SOUTHERN (C) JEROME A
    51. 51. ADVERSE SEASONAL AFECTED AREAS  EXTREME COLD REGION  EXTREME DRY REGION  EXTREME RAINFALL REGION  REGION WITH EXTREME EXTREME SUMMER AND WINTER  REGION WITH EXTREME SUMMER AND MODERATE WINTER (C) JEROME A
    52. 52. PRIORITISING REGIONS BASED ON THREE FACTORS NORTHERN REGION 33 1] SOIL 1 2 2] SEASONAL VARIATION 3] PLANT AVAILABILITY EASTERN REGION 1] SEASONAL VARIATION 3 1 2] SOIL 2 3] PLANT AVALABILITY (C) JEROME A
    53. 53.  SOUTHERN REGION 1] SOIL 3 2] PLANT AVAILABILITY 1 2 3] SEASONAL VARIATION WESTERN REGION SOIL, PLANT AVAILABILITY, SEASONAL VARIATION (C) JEROME A
    54. 54. CONCLUSIONAGROCLIMATIC VARIATION PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THEINFERTILITY OF CATLE AND BUFFALO (C) JEROME A
    55. 55. REFERENCES1.AGARWAL (2005) 75(7):858-873 ,IJAS2.DOBSON (1986) 77:1-36, J.REPROD ANF FERTILITY3.KAIKINI (1992) 54:840-42 ,IJAS4.KULKARNI (2002) 79:1196-97, IVJ5.NAIR (1974 ) 5:82 ,KERALA JOURNAL OF VETERINARYSCIENCES6.RAO (1982)17:783 ,THERIOGENOLOGY7.SELVARAJU & VEERAPANDIAN(2005) 82:556, IVJ8.POTEKAR (1982) 52:951, IVJ9.PURBEY & AGARWAL (1982) 2:46,IJAR10.KODAGALI (1968) 38:286, IJVSc (C) JEROME A
    56. 56. THANK YOU (C) JEROME A

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