Mapping Time Space - the basics
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Mapping Time Space - the basics

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Lecture on techniques and concepts of visualising time-space.

Lecture on techniques and concepts of visualising time-space.

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Mapping Time Space - the basics Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TIME-SPACE MAPPING THE BASICS Jeroen van Schaick – j.vanschaick@tudelft.nl – Room 8.12a Faculty of Architecture
  • 2. DID YOU EVER DRAW TIME? Faculty of Architecture
  • 3. TODAY • Some theoretical background • Time-space visualisation techniques: some principles • indicating time in visualisations • activity patterns • isochronic maps • tempographic maps • rhythm maps • Time-space maps: some classics Faculty of Architecture
  • 4. Visualisation in architecture, urban design and planning is never a goal in itself. Maps are information carriers, communication tools and research tools. (Visual) models are simplifications of reality and can be descriptive, explanatory, explorative, or predictive, regarding existing or probable situations. In architecture, urban design and planning (visual) models are also used to explore, plan and project future situations that may be realised through interventions Faculty of Architecture
  • 5. NORMALLY in architecture, urban design and spatial planning TIME is thought of - in large quantities (years, decades, centuries) - in terms of transformation - visualised in the form of historic analysis and future plans (as 4th dimension) TIME in terms of the USE of urban space is not the fourth dimension after 3-D space - Time as measure (clock & calendars = time made spatial) - Time as container - Time as system (natural time, social time, cultural time, religious time) In the context of architecture, urban design and spatial planning - Time as distance - Time as moment (e.g. snapshot of an urban situation, the time your work starts…) - Time as amount - Time as rhythm - Time as flow (movement) - Time as history/future (change&transformation!) Faculty of Architecture
  • 6. TIME is about processes: Cyclical, linear and on multiple scales Problems and challenges for time-space mapping: Freezing time in maps: a spatial model of time Scale errors: time scales do not relate directly to spatial scales Analogies between time and space are not straigthforward Simultaneously showing multiple processes in/as space Faculty of Architecture
  • 7. Drewe 2004 Faculty of Architecture
  • 8. ….so far the theory Faculty of Architecture
  • 9. ….now some techniques Faculty of Architecture
  • 10. ….basic techniques: general Faculty of Architecture
  • 11. TIME INDICATORS: 1. Symbols: labels, pictograms, scale and colors (legenda!) 2. Reference: clock time, timeline and/or intuitive time representation 3. Forms: Point-Line-Surface-Volume-Animation 4. Medium: map, map series, 3-D model, interactive media, multimedia/multiview, movie 5. Explicit model of the structure of time in relation to the structure of space: what do you want to show?! Faculty of Architecture
  • 12. TIME INDICATORS: 1. Symbols: labels, pictograms, scale and colors (legenda!) 2. Reference: clock time, timeline and/or intuitive time representation 3. Forms: Point-Line-Surface-Volume-Animation 4. Medium: map, map series, 3-D model, interactive media, multimedia/multiview, movie 5. Explicit model of the structure of time in relation to the structure of space: what do you want to show?! Beware for ambiguous meanings: e.g. arrow transformation movement Faculty of Architecture
  • 13. ….basic technique 1 Faculty of Architecture
  • 14. ACTIVITY PATTERNS 1. Activities of 1 person or 1 household 2. Topological (nodes and lines – activity pattern) 3. Elliptical (activity space) 4. 3-dimensional with time as third dimension A. Additional information in text, symbols or manipulation of lines and/or points B. Space as reference map or as integral part of the activity pattern? C. Potentially overlaps & accumulation of multiple individual activity patterns Faculty of Architecture
  • 15. POTENTIAL PERCEIVED REALIZED Faculty of Architecture
  • 16. Faculty of Architecture
  • 17. Vidakovic 1988; Klaasen 2003 Faculty of Architecture
  • 18. Lenntorp 1976 Faculty of Architecture
  • 19. Faculty of Architecture
  • 20. Parkes & Thrift 1978; after Dagens Nyheter 1976 Faculty of Architecture
  • 21. ….basic technique 2 Faculty of Architecture
  • 22. ISOCHRONIC MAPS 1.Isolines: connecting points with the same ‘value’ (e.g. temperature, height, distance in minutes from a point) 2. Projected on a topographic or other geographical map 3. Displaying accessibility to and/or from a place in travel time (be aware of how these travel times are calculated and for what mode of transport!) 4. “Centre of the world” A. Overlaps of mulitple isochronic analyses can show best origin or destination to centre(s) B. Additional possibilities: showing accesibility of number of jobs, potential employees, amenities, etc. within one hour C. Can be used for user-base-analysis for public transport stops, etc. Faculty of Architecture
  • 23. Influence of urban structure and of transport modes: what can YOU do with multimodal transport chains…….? Offenhuber 2002 Faculty of Architecture
  • 24. Do not forget travel by foot and bike! Klaasen 2004 Faculty of Architecture
  • 25. …and what about INaccessibility? - For specific groups - For specific places - With a limited amount of money - What do you miss… e.g. the “food-vacuum” Faculty of Architecture
  • 26. Individual accessibility Place accessibility VS. Weber 2003 Boer 2003 Faculty of Architecture
  • 27. Faculty of Architecture
  • 28. ….so far ….next A. some theory C. techniques: B. techniques: tempographic maps (3) indicators rhythm maps (4) activity patterns (1) D. some classics isochronic maps (2) ...and some closing remarks Faculty of Architecture
  • 29. ….basic technique 3 Faculty of Architecture
  • 30. TEMPOGRAPHIC MAPS (cartograms) 1. Distortion of geographical distance as temporal distance (distortion of mesh, point position, infrastructure network, urban form, shape of a nation or relative distance experienced) 2. Distortion of temporal distance over time A. From a centre B. Multiple time scales (distance & transformation) C. Tentative, but often simplistic D. The flow of movement is lost in representation Faculty of Architecture
  • 31. Geography of Europe Effect of introduction of HighSpeed Train in no time-distortion Europe on Travel Times 1993-2020 Source: Wegener & Spiekermann 1994 Faculty of Architecture
  • 32. Ahmed, N. and H.J. Miller (2006 in press) Time-space transformations of geographic space for exploring, analyzing and visualizing transportation systems Faculty of Architecture
  • 33. KW Axhausen, C. Dolci, Ph. Fröhlich, M. Scherer, A. Carosio(2006) Constructing time-scaled maps: Switzerland 1950 to 2000 Faculty of Architecture
  • 34. KW Axhausen, C. Dolci, Ph. Fröhlich, M. Scherer, A. Carosio(2006) Constructing time-scaled maps: Switzerland 1950 to 2000 Faculty of Architecture
  • 35. RHYTHM MAPS (cartograms) 1. On/Off maps 2. Time envelopes 3. Influx/outflux 4. Population and intensity maps A. Static single maps B. Dynamic maps: animation of rhythms (also 3-D possibilities for intensities) C. Flow maps (commuting, congestion, Faculty of Architecture
  • 36. Faculty of Architecture
  • 37. Faculty of Architecture
  • 38. Source: l Piano dei Tempi e Degli Orari della Città di Pesaro 1997 Faculty of Architecture
  • 39. Faculty of Architecture
  • 40. The large difference in intensity of use of the same area at differing times of day (Doxiadis 1968: 325); courtesy Klaasen 2005 Faculty of Architecture
  • 41. ….summarizing • Some theoretical background • the goal of mapping time-space • the nature of time in architecture & urbanism • scale and other problems and challenges • Time-space visualisation techniques: some principles • indicating time in visualisations • activity patterns • isochronic maps • tempographic maps • rhythm maps Faculty of Architecture
  • 42. ….lastly some classics Faculty of Architecture
  • 43. (Minard 1861) Faculty of Architecture
  • 44. (Chombart De Lauwe 1957) Source: Else/Where Mapping; original in “Paris et l'agglomeration parisienne” (1952) Faculty of Architecture
  • 45. (Galton, 1881) Faculty of Architecture
  • 46. Cheysson1888 Faculty of Architecture
  • 47. (Harness, 1837) Faculty of Architecture
  • 48. Faculty of Architecture
  • 49. Some closing remarks on why time- space visualisations are generally developed Technological innovation in society that has an effect on time- space behaviour of people The complexity of reciprocal effects of changes in networks, places, relations and actors People are at the centre of why we design buildings and urban space Unequal distribution of inclusion, speed, prosperity over people and places Faculty of Architecture
  • 50. TIME-SPACE MAPPING THE BASICS Jeroen van Schaick – j.vanschaick@tudelft.nl – Room 8.12a Faculty of Architecture